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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022103/antidiabetic-plant-derived-nutraceuticals-a-critical-review
#1
REVIEW
Jayapal Naveen, Vallikannan Baskaran
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018354/n-acetylcysteine-counteracts-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration-and-insulin-resistance-elicited-by-advanced-glycated-albumin-in-healthy-rats
#2
Karolline S da Silva, Paula R Pinto, Nelly T Fabre, Diego J Gomes, Karina Thieme, Ligia S Okuda, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa G Freitas, Maria H M Shimizu, Walcy R Teodoro, Suely K N Marie, Tom Woods, Margaret A Brimble, Russell Pickford, Kerry-Anne Rye, Maristela Okamoto, Sergio Catanozi, Maria L Correa-Giannela, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Advanced glycation endproducts elicit inflammation. However, their role in adipocyte macrophage infiltration and in the development of insulin resistance, especially in the absence of the deleterious biochemical pathways that coexist in diabetes mellitus, remains unknown. We investigated the effect of chronic administration of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) in healthy rats, associated or not with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment, on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue transcriptome and macrophage infiltration and polarization...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993322/comparative-study-of-expression-and-activity-of-glucose-transporters-between-stem-cell-derived-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-hcmec-d3-cells
#3
Abraham J Al-Ahmad
Glucose constitutes a major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 are associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modeling such a disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993280/antidiabetic-activities-of-entagenic-acid-in-type-2-diabetic-db-db-mice-and-l6-myotubes-via-ampk-glut4-pathway
#4
Hui Xiong, Shengnan Zhang, Zhongqiu Zhao, Ping Zhao, Lvyi Chen, Zhinan Mei
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr., a traditional Chinese folk medicine, has been used in treating diabetes and other inflammatory disorders. Our previous study revealed that the triterpene saponins in E.Phaseoloides possessed an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Entagenic acid, the principal aglycon, isolated from the seed kernels of E. phaseoloides, has been proposed to possess a significant role in the antidiabetic effect, however, its actual effect and pertinent mechanisms are still unknown...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973736/interleukin-18-rs187238-and-glucose-transporter-4-rs5435-polymorphisms-in-euro-brazilians-with-type-1-diabetes
#5
Y Al-Lahham, A K B Mendes, E M Souza, D Alberton, F G M Rego, G Valdameri, G Picheth
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component that has been associated with several genetic loci. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, which is involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis of various diseases including T1D. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is known to be an insulin-responsive glucose transporter and has been associated with various diseases, including diabetes mellitus. We investigated the association of the polymorphisms rs187238 (IL-18) and rs5435 (GLUT4) in a case-control study in Euro-Brazilians with T1D (N = 136) and healthy subjects (N = 144)...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973666/exposure-of-pregnant-mice-to-triclosan-causes-insulin-resistance-via-thyroxine-reduction
#6
Xu Hua, Xin-Yuan Cao, Xiao-Li Wang, Peng Sun, Ling Chen
Exposure to triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, during pregnancy is associated with hypothyroxinemia and decreases in placental glucose transporter expression and activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of TCS on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in gestational mice (G-mice) and nongestational female mice (Ng-mice) as a control. Herein, we show that the exposure of G-mice to TCS (8 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to GD17 significantly increased their levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, and insulin content in pancreatic β-cells with reduced HOMA-β index and increased HOMA-IR index...
August 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972183/the-actin-related-p41arc-subunit-contributes-to-p21-activated-kinase-1-pak1-mediated-glucose-uptake-into-skeletal-muscle-cells
#7
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Jing Zhang, Arianne Aslamy, Vishal A Salunkhe, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf, Debbie C Thurmond
Defects in translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 are associated with peripheral insulin resistance, pre-clinical diabetes, and progression to type 2 diabetes. GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells requires filamentous (F)-actin remodeling. Insulin signaling in muscle requires p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1), whose downstream signaling triggers actin remodeling that promotes GLUT4 vesicle translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells. Actin remodeling is a cyclic process, and while PAK1 is known to initiate changes to the cortical actin-binding protein cofilin to stimulate the depolymerizing arm of the cycle, how PAK1 might trigger the polymerizing arm of the cycle remains unresolved...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971334/preventive-effect-of-oleate-on-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-and-its-mechanism-of-action
#8
Hakam Alkhateeb, Esam Qnais
Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a feature associated with exposure to an excess of saturated fatty acids such as palmitate. Oleic acid has been shown to blunt palmitate-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. However, there is no literature available regarding the effect of oleic acid on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in intact muscle. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of oleic acid on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in rat soleus muscle and its underlying mechanisms. For these purposes, oleic acid (1 mM) was administered for 12 h in the absence or presence of palmitate (2 mM)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970778/anti-diabetic-activity-of-stigmasterol-from-soybean-oil-by-targeting-the-glut4-glucose-transporter
#9
Jialin Wang, Mi Huang, Jie Yang, Xinhua Ma, Sijian Zheng, Shihao Deng, Yun Huang, Xinzhou Yang, Ping Zhao
The present study investigated the anti-diabetic activity and potential mechanism of stigmasterol (SMR), which is a kind of phytosterols derived from the edible soybean oil in vitro and in vivo. SMR displayed a mild GLUT4 translocation activity by 1.44-fold in L6 cells. L6 cells were treated with different concentration of SMR, showing significant effects on the enhancing glucose uptake. SMR administrated orally to the KK-Ay mice significantly alleviated their insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance with reducing fasting blood-glucose levels and blood lipid indexes such as triglyceride and cholesterol...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962893/the-increase-in-fiber-size-in-male-rat-gastrocnemius-after-chronic-central-leptin-infusion-is-related-to-activation-of-insulin-signaling
#10
Emma Burgos-Ramos, Sandra Canelles, Amaia Rodríguez, Laura M Frago, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Julie A Chowen, Gema Frühbeck, Jesús Argente, Vicente Barrios
Insulin potentiates leptin effects on muscle accrual and glucose homeostasis. However, the relationship between leptin's central effects on peripheral insulin sensitivity and the associated structural changes remain unclear. We hypothesized that central leptin infusion modifies muscle size through activation of insulin signaling. Muscle insulin signaling, enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fiber area were analyzed in the gastrocnemius of chronic central infused (L), pair-fed (PF) and control rats...
September 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954386/anti-diabetic-effects-of-inonotus-obliquus-polysaccharides-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-potential-mechanism-via-pi3k-akt-signal-pathway
#11
Jia Wang, Cong Wang, Shuqin Li, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Yuxiang Pan, Haixia Chen
Polysaccharides are the main components of mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) with antihyperglycemic activities. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and the potential mechanism of I. obliquus polysaccharides (IOPS) in high fat diet and STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Results showed that oral administration of IOPS (900mg/kg) could significantly restore the body and fat mass weight, reduce fasting blood glucose levels, improve glucose tolerance ability, increase hepatic glycogen level and ameliorate insulin resistance compared to those of the control diabetic mice (P<0...
September 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947927/glycosides-from-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-possess-insulin-mimetic-and-antioxidant-activities-in-rat-cardiac-fibroblasts
#12
Cecilia Prata, Laura Zambonin, Benedetta Rizzo, Tullia Maraldi, Cristina Angeloni, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Diana Fiorentini, Silvana Hrelia
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946872/suppression-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-lipid-accumulation-by-stearidonic-acid-sda-in-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Yueru Li, Yinghui Rong, Lisui Bao, Ben Nie, Guang Ren, Chen Zheng, Rajesh Amin, Robert D Arnold, Ramesh B Jeganathan, Kevin W Huggins
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids found in cold-water fish and fish oil has been reported to protect against obesity. A potential mechanism may be through reduction in adipocyte differentiation. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based ω-3 fatty acid, has been targeted as a potential surrogate for fish-based fatty acids; however, its role in adipocyte differentiation is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of SDA on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells...
September 25, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946182/insulin-growth-factor-inhibitor-as-a-potential-new-anti-schistosoma-drug-an-in-vivo-experimental-study
#14
Abeer A Elhenawy, Rehab H Ashour, Nairmen Nabih, Naglaa M Shalaby, Amr A El-Karef, Hala S Abou-El-Wafa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tyrphostin "AG1024" is an insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor that displayed an effect on the viability of larval and mature schistosomes in vitro. We sought to investigate the possible in vivo role of AG1024 as a potential new anti-Schistosoma drug against immature and adult stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its effect on the degree of hepatic fibrosis and insulin pathway. METHODS: The study included a control non-infected group and 5 groups of S...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945024/-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-interventional-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Wei Wu, Jing-Jing Yang, Yi-Gang Wan, Yue Tu, Ge Shi, Wen-Bei Han, Bu-Hui Liu, Jian Yao
The kidney is the target organ of insulin with abundant insulin receptors. Thereinto,the renal intrinsic cells including glomerular podocytes,endothelial cells,mesangial cells,renal tubular epitheliums and collecting duct epithelial cells are all highly sensitive to insulin as the effector cells. Furthermore,the structural and functional abnormalities of these cells are closely related to insulin and its receptors activity. It is reported that the chronic kidney disease(CKD)patients have systemic or renal insulin resistance(IR)...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943428/insulin-modulates-hippocampally-mediated-spatial-working-memory-via-glucose-transporter-4
#16
J Pearson-Leary, V Jahagirdar, J Sage, E C McNay
The insulin-regulated glucose transporter, GluT4, is a key molecule in peripheral insulin signaling. Although GluT4 is abundantly expressed in neurons of specific brain regions such as the hippocampus, the functional role of neuronal GluT4 is unclear. Here, we used pharmacological inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose uptake to determine whether GluT4 mediates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the hippocampus. Consistent with previous reports, we found that glucose utilization increased in the dorsal hippocampus of male rats during spontaneous alternation (SA), a hippocampally-mediated spatial working memory task...
September 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943275/mifepristone-enhances-insulin-stimulated-akt-phosphorylation-and-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#17
Izela Bernal-Sore, Mario Navarro-Marquez, César Osorio-Fuentealba, Francisco Díaz-Castro, Andrea Del Campo, Camila Donoso-Barraza, Omar Porras, Sergio Lavandero, Rodrigo Troncoso
Mifepristone is the only FDA-approved drug for glycaemia control in patients with Cushing's syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mifepristone also has beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes and patients with antipsychotic treatment-induced obesity. However, the mechanisms through which Mifepristone produces its beneficial effects are not completely elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of mifepristone on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on a model of L6 rat-derived skeletal muscle cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942514/intrauterine-hyperglycemia-induced-inflammatory-signalling-via-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-cardiac-muscle-of-the-infants-of-diabetic-mother-rats
#18
Ritsuko Kawaharada, Haruna Masuda, Zhenyi Chen, Eric Blough, Tomoko Kohama, Akio Nakamura
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes is associated with increased risk to the health of the mother and her offspring. In particular, the infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) exhibit elevated levels of preterm birth, macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and cardiomyopathy. We have previously reported that IDMs showed abnormalities in cardiac Akt-related insulin signalling, and that these deficiencies in Akt-related signalling were attenuated by supplementing the maternal diet with fish-oil. Herein, we investigated whether the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) found in fish oil can be used to attenuate diabetes associated impairments in cardiomyocyte signalling...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938482/microrna-221-3p-regulates-angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-expression-in-adipocytes
#19
Raghavendra Mysore, Francisco J Ortega, Jèssica Latorre, Maria Ahonen, Hanna Savolainen-Peltonen, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Martin Wabitsch, Vesa M Olkkonen, José M Fernández-Real, P A Nidhina Haridas
Context: Angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) has been identified as a key regulator of lipid metabolism. Design: We addressed the correlation between ANGPTL8 mRNA with hallmark insulin-regulated and lipogenic genes in human adipose tissue. The regulation of ANGPTL8 expression in adipocytes was studied after inflammatory challenge, and the role of microRNA-221-3p therein was investigated. Results: ANGPTL8 gene expression in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue was highly correlated with SLC2A4/GLUT4 and ADIPOQ/Adiponectin...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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