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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910983/investigation-and-intervention-of-autophagy-to-guide-cancer-treatment-with-nanogels
#1
Xudong Zhang, Xin Liang, Jianjun Gu, Danfeng Chang, Jinxie Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Wei Tao, Xiaowei Zeng, Gan Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Lin Mei, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells use autophagy to resist poor survival environmental conditions such as low PH, poor nutrients as well as chemical therapy. Nanogels have been used as efficient chemical drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, the effect of nanogels on autophagy is still unknown. Here, we used Rab proteins as the marker of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis and LC3 as the marker of autophagy to investigate the intracellular trafficking network of Rhodamine B (Rho)-labeled nanogels. The nanogels were internalized by the cells through multiple protein dependent endocytosis and micropinocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910773/giant-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-giganteus-agaricomycetes-enhances-adipocyte-differentiation-and-glucose-uptake-via-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-glucose-transporters-1-and-4-in-3t3-l1-cells
#2
Puvaneswari Paravamsivam, Chua Kek Heng, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Ravishankar Ram M, Umah Rani Kuppusamy
The edible mushroom Pleurotus giganteus was tested for its effect on adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. The basidiocarps of P. giganteus were soaked in methanol to obtain a crude methanol extract and then fractionated to obtain an ethyl acetate extract. In this study, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay, lipid accumulation using an Oil Red O assay, and glucose uptake using a fluorescence glucose uptake assay. Gene expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with TaqMan primer...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#3
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902927/antidiabetic-activity-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharides-f31-down-regulated-hepatic-glucose-regulatory-enzymes-in-diabetic-mice
#4
Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yizhen Xie, Wen Cai, Jianbin Tan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lin Zhi) has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese folk for centuries. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) had hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Our aim was to identify the main bioactives in GLPs and corresponding mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four polysaccharide-enriched fraction were isolated from GLPs and the antidiabetic activities were evaluated by type 2 diabetic mice...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898058/ccl5-rantes-contributes-to-hypothalamic-insulin-signaling-for-systemic-insulin-responsiveness-through-ccr5
#5
Szu-Yi Chou, Reni Ajoy, Chun Austin Changou, Ya-Ting Hsieh, Yang-Kao Wang, Barry Hoffer
Many neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by metabolic disorders. CCL5/RANTES, and its receptor CCR5 are known to contribute to neuronal function as well as to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and metabolic changes after HIV infection. Herein, we found that the lack of CCR5 or CCL5 in mice impaired regulation of energy metabolism in hypothalamus. Immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation revealed the specific expression of CCR5, associated with insulin receptors, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895108/the-effect-of-dietary-fish-oil-on-weight-gain-and-insulin-sensitivity-is-dependent-on-apoe-genotype-in-humanized-targeted-replacement-mice
#6
Kenna E Slim, David Vauzour, Noemi Tejera, Peter J Voshol, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Marie Minihane
We investigated the independent and interactive impact of the common APOE genotype and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the development of obesity and associated cardiometabolic dysfunction in a murine model. Human APOE3 and APOE4 targeted replacement mice were fed either a high-fat control diet (HFD) or a HFD supplemented with 3% n-3 PUFA from fish oil (HFD + FO) for 8 wk. We established the impact of intervention on food intake, bodyweight, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass; plasma, lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), liver enzymes, and adipokines; glucose and insulin during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test; and Glut4 and ApoE expression in VAT...
November 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890887/royal-jelly-improves-hyperglycemia-in-obese-diabetic-kk-ay-mice
#7
Mei Yoshida, Kaori Hayashi, Risa Watadani, Yoshiyasu Okano, Keiya Tanimura, Jun Kotoh, Daiki Sasaki, Kozo Matsumoto, Akihiko Maeda
The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888450/effects-of-chromium-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-on-glucose-transporter-4-relevant-mrna-and-proteins-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt2-kinase-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-of-skeletal-muscles-in-finishing-pigs
#8
Lujie Liu, Bin Wang, Yudan He, Wenjing Tao, Zixun Liu, Minqi Wang
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Cr-CNP) on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), relevant messenger RNA (mRNA), and proteins involved in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt2-kinase, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) of skeletal muscles in finishing pigs. A total of 120 crossbred barrows (BW 65.00 ± 1.26 kg) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, with three pens per treatment and 10 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0, 100, 200, or 400 μg/kg of Cr from Cr-CNP for 35 days...
November 25, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888215/super-resolution-microscopy-reveals-the-reorganization-of-glut4-on-plasma-membrane-regulated-by-insulin-resistance
#9
Lan Gao, Junling Chen, Jing Gao, Hongda Wang, Wenyong Xiong
GLUT4 is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of the plasma membrane (PM) fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulated the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation of insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the PM toward a more dispersed configuration...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884413/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-down-regulation-mediates-the-inhibitory-effect-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-on-the-differentiation-of-murine-3t3-f442a-preadipocytes
#10
Sheida Torabi, Hoda Yeganehjoo, Chwan-Li Shen, Huanbiao Mo
Tocotrienols accelerate the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of mevalonate; the latter is essential for preadipocyte differentiation. Tocotrienols also down-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that mevalonate deprivation and PPARγ down-regulation mediate d-δ-tocotrienol-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of d-δ-tocotrienol on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation and the involvement of PPARγ and mevalonate...
November 3, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#11
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877138/a-ketogenic-diet-in-rodents-elicits-improved-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-training-compared-to-an-isocaloric-western-diet
#12
Hayden W Hyatt, Wesley C Kephart, A Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C Brooks Mobley, Ryan P Lowery, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis
Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847435/evaluation-of-fish-oil-rich-in-mufas-for-anti-diabetic-and-anti-inflammation-potential-in-experimental-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Waranya Keapai, Sopida Apichai, Doungporn Amornlerdpison, Narissara Lailerd
The advantages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of MUFAs remain unclear. This study examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect and explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of fish oil- rich in MUFAs that had been acquired from hybrid catfish (Pangasius larnaudii×Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) among experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats that were fed with fish oil (500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels without increasing the plasma insulin levels...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842906/metformin-preconditioned-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-a-better-option-for-the-reversal-of-diabetes-upon-transplantation
#14
Nitya Shree, Ramesh R Bhonde
Metformin is used worldwide as an insulin sensitizer. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in the reducing hyperglycemia. We examined whether preconditioning of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) with metformin could have a better therapeutic value for the reversal of type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of metformin, ASCs and metformin preconditioned ASCs (MetASCs) in high fat diet induced C57BL/6 mice by injecting the cells intramuscularly only once where as metformin was given at a concentration of 300mg per kg body weight orally daily...
November 11, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836974/wzb117-inhibits-glut1-mediated-sugar-transport-by-binding-reversibly-at-the-exofacial-sugar-binding-site
#15
Ogooluwa A Ojelabi, Kenneth P Lloyd, Andrew H Simon, Julie K De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers
WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter GLUT1 and examines the transporter isoform-specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 microM but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836638/maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-alters-rat-offspring-hepatic-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-signaling-protein-abundance
#16
Kristina D Galyon, Farnoosh Farshidi, Guang Han, Michael G Ross, Mina Desai, Juanita K Jellyman
BACKGROUND: The obesogenic and diabetogenic effects of the environmental toxin bisphenol A during critical windows of development are well recognized. Liver and skeletal muscle play a central role in the control of glucose production, utilization, and storage. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that maternal bisphenol A exposure disrupts insulin signaling in rat offspring liver and skeletal muscle. We determined the protein expression of hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor beta, its downstream target insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporters (glucose transporter 2, glucose transporter 4), and hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucokinase...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829545/a-novel-formula-sang-tong-jian-improves-glycometabolism-and-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-activating-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-type-2-diabetic-kkay-mice
#17
Meiyu Kuai, Yu Li, Xin Sun, Zhi Ma, Chao Lin, Yi Jing, Ying Lu, Qi Chen, Xiang Wu, Xueyun Kong, Huimin Bian
AIMS: Sang-Tong-Jian (STJ), a novel formula composed of flavonoids and alkaloids derived from mulberry leaf, has been found to reduce blood glucose levels in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in our previous studies. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Insulin resistance is the main characteristic of T2DM, which may be due to impairment of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of STJ on glycometabolism and insulin resistance in KKAy mice...
November 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826658/a-tbc1d1-ser231ala-knockin-mutation-partially-impairs-aicar-but-not-exercise-induced-muscle-glucose-uptake-in-mice
#18
Qiaoli Chen, Bingxian Xie, Sangsang Zhu, Ping Rong, Yang Sheng, Serge Ducommun, Liang Chen, Chao Quan, Min Li, Kei Sakamoto, Carol MacKintosh, Shuai Chen, Hong Yu Wang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: TBC1D1 (tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16 domain family member 1) is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (RabGAP) that has been implicated in regulating GLUT4 trafficking. TBC1D1 can be phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on Ser(231), which consequently interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Given the key role for AMPK in regulating insulin-independent muscle glucose uptake, we hypothesised that TBC1D1-Ser(231) phosphorylation and/or 14-3-3 binding may mediate AMPK-governed glucose homeostasis...
November 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825800/dhl-hiszn-a-novel-antioxidant-enhances-adipogenic-differentiation-and-antioxidative-response-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#19
Chien-Chih Chen, Li-Wen Hsu, Toshiaki Nakano, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Kuang-Den Chen, Chia-Yun Lai, Shigeru Goto, Chao-Long Chen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into specific mesenchymal cell lineages including adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Dysfunctional adipose tissue, rather than an excess of adipose tissue, has been proposed as a key factor in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The insulin-sensitizing effects of antidiabetic drugs are mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here, we investigated the effects of sodium zinc histidine dithiooctanamide (DHL-HisZn), a strong antioxidant, on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818481/effect-of-allopurinol-on-myocardial-energy-metabolism-in-chronic-heart-failure-rats-after-myocardial-infarct
#20
Zhenzhen Wang, Juan Ding, Xiang Luo, Siliang Zhang, Gang Yang, Que Zhu, Dichuan Liu
To determine the effect of the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor allopurinol on myocardial energy metabolism in a chronic heart failure rat model after myocardial infarct.An AMI model was established in 6-week-old rats via the ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: an ALLO group, an AMI group, and a Sham group. Heart failure was successfully diagnosed via echocardiography and blood tests. Xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA), PGC-1α, CPT-1, and GLUT4 were monitored in the myocardium...
November 4, 2016: International Heart Journal
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