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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648676/regulation-of-glut4-activity-in-myotubes-by-3-o-methyl-d-glucose
#1
Ofer Shamni, Guy Cohen, Arie Gruzman, Hilal Zaid, Amira Klip, Erol Cerasi, Shlomo Sasson
The rate of glucose influx to skeletal muscles is determined primarily by the number of functional units of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the myotube plasma membrane. The abundance of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane is tightly regulated by insulin or contractile activity, which employ distinct pathways to translocate GLUT4-rich vesicles from intracellular compartments. Various studies have indicated that GLUT4 intrinsic activity is also regulated by conformational changes and/or interactions with membrane components and intracellular proteins in the vicinity of the plasma membrane...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#2
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642704/quercetin-a-lead-compound-against-type-2-diabetes-ameliorates-glucose-uptake-via-ampk-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle-cell-line
#3
R Dhanya, A D Arya, P Nisha, P Jayamurthy
Herein we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of the citrus flavonoid, quercetin in skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes). Taking advantage of protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that the effect of quercetin on 2-NBDG uptake in L6 myotubes was not through insulin signaling pathway, but through adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) pathway and its downstream target p38 MAPK. An increase in the cellular AMP to ATP ratio on pretreatment may account for AMPK activation which was coupled with a transient change in mitochondrial membrane potential...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631582/effect-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-on-glycogen-replenishment-in-exercised-human-skeletal-muscle
#4
Tsen-Wei Tsai, Chia-Chen Chang, Su-Fen Liao, Yi-Hung Liao, Chien-Wen Hou, Jung-Piao Tsao, I-Shiung Cheng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#5
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride, total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621262/a-peptide-antagonist-of-prep1-p160-interaction-improves-ceramide-induced-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#6
Ilaria Cimmino, Virginia Lorenzo, Francesca Fiory, Nunzianna Doti, Serena Ricci, Serena Cabaro, Antonietta Liotti, Luigi Vitagliano, Michele Longo, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Menotti Ruvo, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor belonging to the TALE protein family. Its overexpression affects glucose metabolism in several tissues. In particular, in skeletal muscle tissue the interaction of Prep1 with its cofactor p160 impairs GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake.In this study, we show that ceramides (C2cer), a class of lipids antagonizing insulin signalling, increase the levels of Prep1 and p160 in a dose and time-dependent fashion in L6 cells and induce their association by 80%. We find that C2cer exposure inhibits insulin receptor, IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation and reduces insulin-stimulated glycogen content and glucose uptake by 1...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607575/spatholobus-suberectus-exhibits-antidiabetic-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-activation-of-akt-ampk-pathway
#7
Peijun Zhao, Md Badrul Alam, Seok-Hyun Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Seul Lee, Hongyan An, Hee-Jeong Choi, Hyeong-U Son, Chul-Hong Park, Hyo-Hyun Kim, Sang-Han Lee
Glucose deposition in peripheral tissue is an important parameter for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus (Ss) on glucose disposal in skeletal muscle cells and additionally explore its in vivo antidiabetic potential. Treatment of ethanolic extract of S. suberectus (EeSs) significantly enhanced the glucose uptake, mediated through the enhanced expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle via the stimulation of AKT and AMPK pathways in C2C12 cells...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607454/insulin-sparing-and-fungible-effects-of-e4orf1-combined-with-an-adipocyte-targeting-sequence-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
I-S Yoon, S Park, R-H Kim, H L Ko, J-H Nam
Obesity impairs glycemic control and causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adenovirus 36 (Ad36) infection can increase the uptake of excess glucose from blood into adipocytes by increasing GLUT4 translocation through the Ras-Akt signaling pathway, which bypasses PI3K-Akt-mediated insulin receptor signaling. E4orf1, a viral gene expressed early during Ad36 infection, is responsible for this insulin-sparing effect and may be an alternative target for improving insulin resistance. To deliver the gene to adipocytes only, we connected the adipocyte-targeting sequence (ATS) to the 5' end of E4orf1 (ATS-E4orf1)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606474/regulation-of-intracellular-trafficking-and-secretion-of-adiponectin-by-myosin-ii
#9
Deepa Bedi, John C Dennis, Edward E Morrison, Tim D Braden, Robert L Judd
Adiponectin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin action, energy homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. The intracellular localization and trafficking of GLUT4 and leptin in adipocytes has been well studied, but little is known regarding the intracellular trafficking of adiponectin. Recent studies have demonstrated that constitutive adiponectin secretion is dependent on PIP2 levels and the integrity of cortical F-actin. Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that is associated with membrane vesicles and participates in vesicular trafficking in mammalian cells...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602209/update-on-glut4-vesicle-traffic-a-cornerstone-of-insulin-action
#10
REVIEW
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Martin Pavarotti, Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Glucose transport is rate limiting for dietary glucose utilization by muscle and fat. The glucose transporter GLUT4 is dynamically sorted and retained intracellularly and redistributes to the plasma membrane (PM) by insulin-regulated vesicular traffic, or 'GLUT4 translocation'. Here we emphasize recent findings in GLUT4 translocation research. The application of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has increased our understanding of insulin-regulated events beneath the PM, such as vesicle tethering and membrane fusion...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591573/phosphorylation-of-txnip-by-akt-mediates-acute-influx-of-glucose-in-response-to-insulin
#11
Althea N Waldhart, Holly Dykstra, Anderson S Peck, Elissa A Boguslawski, Zachary B Madaj, Jennifer Wen, Kelsey Veldkamp, Matthew Hollowell, Bin Zheng, Lewis C Cantley, Timothy E McGraw, Ning Wu
Growth factors, such as insulin, can induce both acute and long-term glucose uptake into cells. Apart from the rapid, insulin-induced fusion of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 storage vesicles with the cell surface that occurs in muscle and adipose tissues, the mechanism behind acute induction has been unclear in other systems. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) has been shown to be a negative regulator of cellular glucose uptake. TXNIP is transcriptionally induced by glucose and reduces glucose influx by promoting GLUT1 endocytosis...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589878/distinct-akt-phosphorylation-states-are-required-for-insulin-regulated-glut4-and-glut1-mediated-glucose-uptake
#12
Muheeb Beg, Nazish Abdullah, Fathima Shazna Thowfeik, Nasser K Altorki, Timothy E McGraw
Insulin, downstream of Akt activation, promotes glucose uptake into fat and muscle cells to lower postprandial blood glucose, an enforced change in cellular metabolism to maintain glucose homeostasis. This effect is mediated by the Glut4 glucose transporter. Growth factors also enhance glucose uptake to fuel an anabolic metabolism required for tissue growth and repair. This activity is predominantly mediated by the Glut1. Akt is activated by phosphorylation of its kinase and hydrophobic motif (HM) domains. We show that insulin-stimulated Glut4-mediated glucose uptake requires PDPK1 phosphorylation of the kinase domain but not mTORC2 phosphorylation of the HM domain...
June 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584576/pear-pomace-ethanol-extract-improves-insulin-resistance-through-enhancement-of-insulin-signaling-pathway-without-lipid-accumulation
#13
Mi-Kyoung You, Hwa-Jin Kim, Jin Rhyu, Hyeon-A Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The anti-diabetic activity of pear through inhibition of α-glucosidase has been demonstrated. However, little has been reported about the effect of pear on insulin signaling pathway in obesity. The aims of this study are to establish pear pomace 50% ethanol extract (PPE)-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity and characterize its action mechanism in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Lipid accumulation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion and glucose uptake were measure in 3T3-L1 cells...
June 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578257/melatonin-supplementation-plus-exercise-behavior-ameliorate-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-fatigue-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Han-Sol Kwon, Myung-Jin Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Min-Ho Oak, Do-Hyung Kim
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin and exercise on insulin resistance (IR), hypertension and fatigue syndrome in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups namely normal control (NC), T2DM control group (DC), diabetes plus exercise (DE), diabetes plus oral melatonin supplement (DM) and diabetes plus melatonin and exercise (DME) groups. Melatonin was administered orally 5mg/kg twice daily and 40min swimming/day 5days/week were regimented after diabetes induction...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571740/phytol-increases-adipocyte-number-and-glucose-tolerance-through-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-mice-fed-high-fat-and-high-fructose-diet
#15
Jianbing Wang, Xiaoquan Hu, Wei Ai, Fenglin Zhang, Kelin Yang, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Gang Shu, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
It has been shown that adipose tissue hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number or adipogenesis) has beneficial effects on metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytol could modulate hyperplasia/adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis, and to explore the underlying mechanisms in mice fed high-fat and high fructose diet (HFFD). Our results demonstrated that phytol administration decreased body weight gain and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) weight. However, phytol significantly increased the adipocyte number in iWAT, with the smaller average adipocyte diameter...
August 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559971/astragalus-polysaccharides-attenuates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-via-suppression-of-mir-721-and-activation-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-pi3k-akt-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Bin Ke, Xiao Ke, Xuesi Wan, Yubin Yang, Yingjuan Huang, Jian Qin, Chengheng Hu, Lin Shi
Insulin resistance is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of how Astragalus Polysaccharides (APS) improves insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A cell culture model of insulin resistance was established in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treating them with TNF-α, high glucose and insulin. Glucose uptake levels were detected in each group. To determine the mechanism by which APS improves insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-721, and Western blots were used to detect the expression or activity of PPAR-γ, PAKT, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559210/cinnamaldehyde-in-diabetes-a-review-of-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-safety
#17
REVIEW
Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Chenyue Liu, Lili Wang, Rufeng Ma, Beibei Chen, Lin Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
Cinnamaldehyde, one of the active components derived from Cinnamon, has been used as a natural flavorant and fragrance agent in kitchen and industry. Emerging studies have been performed over the past decades to evaluate its beneficial role in management of diabetes and its complications. This review highlights recent advances of cinnamaldehyde in its glucolipid lowering effects, its pharmacokinetics, and its safety by consulting the Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, National Science and Technology Library, Wanfang Data, and the Web of Science Databases...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556933/heterotypic-endosomal-fusion-as-an-initial-trigger-for-insulin-induced-glut4-translocation-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Makoto Kanzaki
Skeletal muscle is the major systemic glucose disposal site. Both insulin and exercise facilitate translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 via distinct signalling pathways, and exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. However, trafficking mechanisms controlling GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood due to technical limitations. Herein, employing various imaging techniques on isolated skeletal myofibers, we show that one of the initial triggers of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation is heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from very small static GLUT4-containing vesicles with a subset of transferrin receptor-containing endosomes...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554304/ginsenoside-rb1-exerts-antidiabetic-action-on-c2c12-muscle-cells-by-leptin-receptor-signaling-pathway
#19
Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Maryam Hosseini
CONTEXT: Ginsenoside Rb1 improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in muscle cells via different signaling pathways; however, it is not clear that it has any effect on leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on leptin receptors expression and main signaling pathways of leptin (STAT3, PI3 kinase and ERK kinase) in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were incubated with various concentrations of Rb1 (0...
August 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550165/the-clasp2-protein-interaction-network-in-adipocytes-links-clip2-to-agap3-clasp2-to-g2l1-mark2-and-soga1-and-identifies-soga1-as-a-microtubule-associated-protein
#20
Rikke Kruse, James Krantz, Natalie Barker, Richard Coletta, Ruslan Rafikov, Moulun Luo, Kurt Hoejlund, Lawrence J Mandarino, Paul R Langlais
CLASP2 is a microtubule-associated protein that undergoes insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and co-localization with reorganized actin and GLUT4 at the plasma membrane. To gain insight to the role of CLASP2 in this system, we developed and successfully executed a streamlined interactome approach and built a CLASP2 protein network in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using two different commercially available antibodies for CLASP2 and an antibody for epitope-tagged, overexpressed CLASP2, we performed multiple affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments in combination with label-free quantitative proteomics and analyzed the data with the bioinformatics tool Significance Analysis of Interactome (SAINT)...
May 26, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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