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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821441/in-situ-detection-of-the-activation-of-rac1-and-rala-small-gtpases-in-mouse-adipocytes-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy-following-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-insulin-stimulation
#1
Nobuyuki Takenaka, Yuma Nihata, Sho Ueda, Takaya Satoh
Rac1 has been implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by mechanisms involving plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Although the uptake of glucose is also stimulated by insulin in adipose tissue, the role for Rac1 in adipocyte insulin signaling remains controversial. As a step to reveal the role for Rac1 in adipocytes, we aimed to establish immunofluorescent microscopy to detect the intracellular distribution of activated Rac1. The epitope-tagged Rac1-binding domain of a Rac1-specific target was utilized as a probe that specifically recognizes the activated form of Rac1...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811650/diet-induced-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-dysregulation-in-offspring-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#2
J H Park, Y Yoo, M Cho, J Lim, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exposure to metabolic stress has been suggested to influence the susceptibility to metabolic disorders in offspring according to epidemiological and animal studies. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated impacts of diet-induced paternal obesity on metabolic phenotypes in offspring and its underlying molecular mechanism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male founder mice (F0), fed with control diet (CD) or high fat diet (HFD), were mated with CD-fed females...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#3
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811274/hypoxia-in-combination-with-muscle-contraction-improves-insulin-action-and-glucose-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle-via-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway
#4
Sven W Görgens, Tim Benninghoff, Kristin Eckardt, Christian Springer, Alexandra Chadt, Anita Melior, Jakob Wefers, Andrea Cramer, Jørgen Jensen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Hadi Al-Hasani, Jürgen Eckel
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and develops long before the onset of the disease. It is well accepted that physical activity improves glycemic control but the knowledge on underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects remains incomplete. Exercise is accompanied by a decrease in intramuscular oxygen levels resulting in induction of HIF-1α. HIF-1α is a master regulator of gene expression and might play an important role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism...
August 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811203/bpn-a-marine-derived-ptp1b-inhibitor-activates-insulin-signaling-and-improves-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotubes
#5
Qi Xu, Jiao Luo, Ning Wu, Renshuai Zhang, Dayong Shi
Insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a major negative regulator of insulin signaling cascade and has attracted intensive investigation in recent T2DM therapy study. BPN, a marine-derived bromophenol compound, was isolated from the red alga Rhodomela confervoides. This study investigated the effects of BPN on the insulin signaling pathway in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting PTP1B...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808062/ablating-tbc1d1-impairs-contraction-induced-sarcolemmal-glucose-transporter-type-4-redistribution-but-not-insulin-mediated-responses-in-rats
#6
Jamie Whitfield, Sabina Paglialunga, Brennan K Smith, Paula M Miotto, Genevieve Simnett, Holly L Robson, Swati S Jain, Eric A F Herbst, Eric M Desjardins, David J Dyck, Lawrence L Spriet, Gregory R Steinberg, Graham P Holloway
TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), a Rab GTPase-activating protein and paralogue of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), has been implicated in both insulin- and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICAR)-mediated glucose transporter type (GLUT4) translocation. However, the role of TBC1D1 in contracting muscle remains ambiguous. We therefore explored the metabolic consequence of ablating TBC1D1 in both resting and contracting skeletal muscles, utilizing a rat TBC1D1-KO model...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#7
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795720/restoring-calcium-homeostasis-in-diabetic-cardiomyocytes-an-investigation-through-mathematical-modelling
#8
Phonindra Nath Das, Ajay Kumar, Nandadulal Bairagi, Samrat Chatterjee
Calcium homeostasis is a key factor in the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes is governed by ATP which depends on insulin dependent glucose concentration, via the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) transporter. It would therefore be interesting to see how calcium dynamics changes in a cardiomyocyte under diabetic conditions. We proposed and analysed a four dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE) model to capture the interdependency of calcium dynamics on glucose uptake and ATP generation...
August 10, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795110/supportive-data-on-the-regulation-of-glut4-activity-by-3-o-methyl-d-glucose
#9
Ofer Shamni, Guy Cohen, Arie Gruzman, Hilal Zaid, Amira Klip, Erol Cerasi, Shlomo Sasson
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Regulation of GLUT4 activity in myotubes by 3-O-methyl-D-glucose" (Shamni et al., 2017) [1]. These data show that the experimental procedures used to analyze the effects of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (MeGlc) on the rate of hexose transport into myotubes were valid and controlled. The stimulatory effect of MeGlc was limited to glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and was independent of ambient glucose and protein synthesis. Cornish-Bowden kinetic analysis of uptake data revealed that MeGlc attenuated indinavir-induced inhibition of hexose transport in a competitive manner...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794109/comparative-study-on-glucose-transporters-expression-and-activity-between-stem-cell-derived-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-hcmec-d3-cells
#10
Abraham J Al-Alahmad
Glucose constitutes the major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 is associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modelling such disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across the human BBB using brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793909/-6-gingerol-from-zingiber-officinale-potentiates-glp-1-mediated-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-pathway-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-increases-rab8-rab10-regulated-membrane-presentation-of-glut4-transporters-in-skeletal-muscle-to-improve-hyperglycemia-in
#11
Mehdi Bin Samad, Md Nurul Absar Bin Mohsin, Bodiul Alam Razu, Mohammad Tashnim Hossain, Sinayat Mahzabeen, Naziat Unnoor, Ishrat Aklima Muna, Farjana Akhter, Ashraf Ul Kabir, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: [6]-Gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, was previously reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrine signaling is involved in insulin secretion and is perturbed in db/db Type-2 diabetic mice. [6]-Gingerol was reported to restore the disrupted endocrine signaling in rodents. In this current study on Lepr(db/db) diabetic mice, we investigated the involvement of endocrine pathway in the insulin secretagogue activity of [6]-Gingerol and the mechanism(s) through which [6]-Gingerol ameliorates hyperglycemia...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770320/fgf21-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-an-obese-diabetes-prone-mouse-model-independent-of-body-fat-changes
#12
Thomas Laeger, Christian Baumeier, Ilka Wilhelmi, Josefine Würfel, Anne Kamitz, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, as FGF21 levels are elevated in obese and diabetic conditions we aimed to test if exogenous FGF21 is sufficient to prevent diabetes and beta cell loss in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice, a model for polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male NZO mice were treated with a specific dietary regimen that leads to the onset of diabetes within 1 week...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759757/navel-orange-peel-hydroethanolic-extract-naringin-and-naringenin-have-anti-diabetic-potentials-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Osama M Ahmed, Mohamed A Hassan, Sanaa M Abdel-Twab, Manal N Abdel Azeem
The therapy of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) stays a challenging issue. During the last decade, there has been an interest in the expansion of anti-diabetic drugs especially those of natural sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the anti-hyperglycemic and the anti-hyperlipidemic effects as well as the anti-oxidant activities of navel orange hydroethanolic extract and its constituting flavonoids naringin and naringenin on nicotineamide (NA)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. To induce T2DM, 16h-fasted rats were intraperitoneally injected with STZ at dose of 50mg/kg body weight (b...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759754/potential-of-the-chlorogenic-acid-as-multitarget-agent-insulin-secretagogue-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-agonist
#14
Maetzin Becerra Sanchez, Elizabeth Miranda-Perez, Juan Carlos Gomez Verjan, Maria de Los Angeles Fortis Barrera, Julia Perez-Ramos, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
The chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural product isolated from Cecropia obtusifolia, which possesses several pharmacological properties, such as: anti-carcinogenic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic. In relation to its effects on the hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, few is known about the mechanisms in which this compound may be acting, therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if CGA acts as an insulin secretagogue increasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in RINm5F cells; or as an insulin sensitizer and lipid-lowering agent stimulating the expression of PPARγ and PPARα, respectively, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759152/anthocyanins-from-purple-corn-ameliorated-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-activation-of-insulin-signaling-and-enhanced-glut4-translocation
#15
Diego Luna-Vital, Matthew Weiss, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
SCOPE: The aim was to compare the effect of an anthocyanin-rich extract from purple corn pericarp (PCW) and pure anthocyanins on adipogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on basal and inflammatory conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with or without PCW. Differentiated adipocytes were treated either individually or in combination with tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and PCW, or pure C3G, Pg3G, P3G...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751307/esglut4-and-chhbp-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-the-crustacean-eriocheir-sinensis
#16
Ran Li, Jin-Ze Tian, Mo-Ran Wang, Li-Na Zhu, Jin-Sheng Sun
Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751004/polyphenols-activate-energy-sensing-network-in-insulin-resistant-models
#17
Radika Mutlur Krishnamoorthy, Anuradha Carani Venkatraman
Unhealthy diet deficient in fruits and vegetables but rich in calories is considered to be one factor responsible for the increased prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The consumption of fast foods and soft drinks increases fructose consumption per se and this is of major concern since prolonged fructose intake induces insulin resistance and thereby T2D. The energy homeostasis is regulated by a network consisting of "fuel gauze" called AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the NAD(+) dependent type III deacetylase (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) which is disrupted in T2D...
July 24, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750406/a-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-induces-cardiac-and-renal-abnormalities-in-glut4-male-mice
#18
Michael Kruse, Ariana Fiallo, Jianling Tao, Katalin Susztak, Kerstin Amann, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU) and/or lactation (L) period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. METHODS: Female wild type (WT) mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C) prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension) and throughout IU/L...
July 27, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745497/activity-of-isoliensinine-in-improving-the-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-via-activation-of-amp-activated-kinase-and-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#19
Xinzhou Yang, Mi Huang, Jie Yang, Jialin Wang, Sijian Zheng, Xinhua Ma, Jinyan Cai, Shihao Deng, Guangwen Shu, Guangzhong Yang
This study was designed to explore the effects and mechanism of isoliensinine (isolie) from embryos of Nelumbo nucifera on type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro study showed that isolie increased the GLUT4 translocation by 2.5 folds in L6 cells. Furthermore, after 4 weeks treatment, the in vivo biochemical study indices revealed that isolie had a positive effect on decreasing serum insulin level (42.2 ± 5.10 vs 55.7 ± 6.33 mU/L, P < 0.05), and reducing fast blood glucose (9...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740282/effects-of-marine-collagen-peptides-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#20
CuiFeng Zhu, Wei Zhang, Bo Mu, Fan Zhang, NanNan Lai, JianXin Zhou, AiMin Xu, JianGuo Liu, Yong Li
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance using a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty T2DM obese Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive varying doses of MCPs or a vehicle control for 4 weeks. Blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation were measured. The expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in livers of T2DM rats was also measured...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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