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Vascular Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353272/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-offers-new-insights-into-choriocapillaris-perfusion
#1
Jost L Lauermann, Nicole Eter, Florian Alten
The choriocapillaris (CC) represents a fundamentally important vascular layer that is subject to physiologic changes with increasing age and that is also associated with a wide range of chorioretinal diseases. So far, information on blood flow in this specific layer has remained limited. With the advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), new perspectives and possibilities of CC imaging have begun to evolve. This article shall review the opportunities and challenges of applying OCTA technology to the CC layer and summarize the current clinical efforts in OCTA CC imaging exemplarily in dry age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy...
January 19, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353232/albuminuria-increases-the-risks-for-both-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia-in-community-dwelling-japanese-elderly-the-hisayama-study
#2
Keita Takae, Jun Hata, Tomoyuki Ohara, Daigo Yoshida, Mao Shibata, Naoko Mukai, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Hiro Kishimoto, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence has emerged to reveal an association of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with dementia, but the findings are inconsistent. In addition, there are limited studies addressing the association between albuminuria and Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1562 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥60 years without dementia were followed up for 10 years. The outcomes were incidence of all-cause dementia and its subtypes, namely, AD and vascular dementia (VaD)...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353142/mirna-185-regulates-the-vegfa-signaling-pathway-in-dairy-cows-with-retained-fetal-membranes
#3
REVIEW
C Y Zheng, X Zou, H J Lin, B C Zhao, M L Zhang, C H Luo, S X Fu
Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) of cows is an important reproductive disturbance, and is related to miRNAs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, regulated by miRNA-185, can activate arachidonic acid (ARA) release via the VEGFA signaling pathway, which influences RFM. The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenic mechanism of RFM by investigating the regulatory relationship between miRNA-185 and the VEGFA signaling pathway. Serum samples of healthy Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) and RFM cows (n = 12), with a similar age, parity, weight, and milk yield, were collected to detect VEGFA and ARA concentrations at 6, 12, and 24 h after calving...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352759/regional-myocardial-function-abnormalities-are-associated-with-macro-and-microcirculation-dysfunction-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-resolve-study
#4
Philippe Obert, Guillaume Walther, Frédéric Dutheil, Bruno Lesourd, Robert Chapier, Daniel Courteix, Agnes Vinet
Abnormalities in myocardial and vascular function have been reported in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but whether these alterations are related remains poorly documented. Our aim was accordingly to investigate interrelationships between macro- and microcirculatory vasoreactivity and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in MetS patients. Eighty-eight MetS individuals and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) was measured using Vector Velocity Imaging...
January 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352694/age-age-at-diagnosis-and-diabetes-duration-are-all-associated-with-vascular-complications-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Natalie Nanayakkara, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Adelle Gadowski, Stephane Heritier, Jeff R Flack, Natalie Wischer, Jencia Wong, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasingly diagnosed in younger patients. The trajectory of complications in patients diagnosed at a younger or older age is not well understood. We examine the associations between age, age at diagnosis and diabetes duration and vascular complications in patients with T2DM. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of pre-specified demographic and clinical data, from 3419 adults with T2DM participating in the Australian National Diabetes Audit (2015)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352588/pulmonary-reinterventions-after-complete-unifocalization-and-repair-in-infants-and-young-children-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-major-aortopulmonary-collaterals
#6
Holly Bauser-Heaton, Alejandro Borquez, Ritu Asija, Lisa Wise-Faberowski, Yulin Zhang, Laura Downey, Stanton B Perry, Andrew Koth, Lynn F Peng, Claudia A Algaze, Frank L Hanley, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Our institutional approach to tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) emphasizes unifocalization and augmentation of the reconstructed pulmonary arterial (PA) circulation and complete intracardiac repair in infancy, usually in a single procedure. This approach yields a high rate of complete repair with excellent survival and low right ventricular (RV) pressure. However, little is known about remodeling of the unifocalized and reconstructed pulmonary circulation or about reinterventions on the reconstructed PAs or the RV outflow tract conduit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352195/association-between-modified-cha2ds2-vasc-score-with-ankle-brachial-index%C3%A2-%C3%A2-0-9
#7
Po-Chao Hsu, Wen-Hsien Lee, Hsiang-Chun Lee, Wei-Chung Tsai, Chun-Yuan Chu, Ying-Chih Chen, Chee-Siong Lee, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Wen-Chol Voon, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Ho-Ming Su
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a reliable diagnostic examination for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We previously reported CHADS2 score was significantly correlated with PAOD. However, the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and ABI < 0.9 is not evaluated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CHA2DS2-VASc score has a strong association with PAOD. We enrolled 1482 patients in this study. PAOD was defined as ABI < 0.9 in either leg. Vascular disease in CHA2DS2-VASc score was modified as vascular disease except PAOD...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352075/o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-o-glcnac-modification-a-new-pathway-to-decode-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
REVIEW
Zafer Gurel, Nader Sheibani
The incidence of diabetes continues to rise among all ages and ethnic groups worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that affects the retinal neurovasculature causing serious vision problems, including blindness. Its pathogenesis and severity is directly linked to the chronic exposure to high glucose conditions. No treatments are currently available to stop the development and progression of DR. To develop new and effective therapeutic approaches, it is critical to better understand how hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of DR at the cellular and molecular levels...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351959/diagnosis-and-significance-of-pulmonary-microvascular-disease-in-diabetes
#9
Timothy J Roberts, Andrew T Burns, Richard J MacIsaac, Andrew I MacIsaac, David L Prior, André La Gerche
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pulmonary microvascular disease is detectable in subjects with diabetes and associated with diminished exercise capacity using a novel echocardiographic marker quantifying the pulmonary transit of agitated contrast bubbles (PTAC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants (40 with diabetes and 20 control subjects) performed cardiopulmonary (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) and semisupine bicycle echocardiography exercise tests within a 1-week period...
January 19, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351872/low-cortical-iron-and-high-entorhinal-cortex-volume-promote-cognitive-functioning-in-the-oldest-old
#10
Jiri M G van Bergen, Xu Li, Frances C Quevenco, Anton F Gietl, Valerie Treyer, Sandra E Leh, Rafael Meyer, Alfred Buck, Philipp A Kaufmann, Roger M Nitsch, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Paul G Unschuld
The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351482/suppression-of-gut-dysbiosis-reverses-western-diet-induced-vascular-dysfunction
#11
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Dillon K Jarrell, Shuofei Hou, Kayl E Ecton, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dysfunction represents a critical pre-clinical step in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined the role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity-related vascular dysfunction. Approach and Results. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) (n=12) or western diet (WD) (n=24) for 5m, after which time, WD mice were randomized to receive either un-supplemented drinking water or water containing a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (WD+Abx) (n=12/group) for 2m...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351469/inhibition-of-mtor-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#12
Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Angela B Olson, Naomi L Sayre, Stacy A Hussong, Zoltan I Ungvari, James D Lechleiter, Veronica Galvan
An intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic blood-derived factors into the brain parenchyma. The BBB is damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which contributes significantly to the progression of AD pathologies and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB breakdown in AD remain elusive and no interventions are available for treatment or prevention. We and others recently established that inhibition of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway with rapamycin yields significant neuroprotective effects, improving cerebrovascular and cognitive function in mouse models of AD...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351464/vitamin-d-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-function
#13
Nasim Jamali, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to pathogenesis of many diseases including cardiovascular, cancer, and various eye diseases. In recent years, important roles for vitamin D in regulation of immune function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and aging have been demonstrated. Thus, vitamin D and its analogs have been evaluated for treatment of various types of cancer and chronic diseases. We previously showed that the active form of vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. This activity is consistent with the important role proposed for vitamin D and its analogs in the mitigation of tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351321/methylglyoxal-produces-more-changes-in-biochemical-and-biophysical-properties-of-human-igg-under-high-glucose-compared-to-normal-glucose-level
#14
Mohd Adnan Khan, Zarina Arif, Mohd Asad Khan, Moinuddin, Khursheed Alam
Hyperglycaemia triggers increased production of methylglyoxal which can cause gross modification in proteins' structure vis-a-vis function though advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The AGEs may initiate vascular and nonvascular pathologies. In this study, we have examined the biochemical and biophysical changes in human IgG under normal and high glucose after introducing methylglyoxal into the assay mixture. This non-enzymatic reaction mainly engaged lysine residues as indicated by TNBS results. The UV results showed hyperchromicity in modified-IgG samples while fluorescence data supported AGEs formation during the course of reaction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351227/differential-association-of-cx37-and-cx40-genetic-variants-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-and-without-underlying-structural-heart-disease
#15
Sebastian Carballo, Anna Pfenniger, David Carballo, Nicolas Garin, Richard W James, François Mach, Dipen Shah, Brenda R Kwak
Atrial fibrillation (AF) appears in the presence or absence of structural heart disease. The majority of foci causing AF are located near the ostia of pulmonary veins (PVs), where cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells interdigitate. Connexins (Cx) form gap junction channels and participate in action potential propagation. Genetic variants in genes encoding Cx40 and Cx37 affect their expression or function and may contribute to PV arrhythmogenicity. DNA was obtained from 196 patients with drug-resistant, symptomatic AF with and without structural heart disease, who were referred for percutaneous catheter ablation...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350999/sex-differences-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#16
Austin Boese, Lin Chang, Ke-Jie Yin, Y Eugene Chen, Jean-Pyo Lee, Milton H Hamblin
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disorder with a high case fatality rate in the instance of rupture. AAA is a multifactorial disease and the etiology is still not fully understood. AAA is more likely to occur in men, but women have a greater risk of rupture and worse prognosis. Women are reportedly protected against AAA possibly by premenopausal levels of estrogen and are, on average, diagnosed at older ages than men. Here, we review the current body of research on AAA pathophysiology in humans, animal models, and cultured cells, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex steroid hormone signaling...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350449/lipoidal-corneal-degeneration-in-aged-falcons
#17
Bret A Moore, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Kathleen L Adamson, Richard R Dubielzig, Thomas Kern, Ben J Gonzales, Peregrine Wolff, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To present a case series of idiopathic lipoidal corneal degeneration in falcons. ANIMALS STUDIED: Five falcons including three peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), one prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), and one red-naped shaheen (Falco peregrinus babylonicus) were observed to develop slowly progressive corneal opacification that began at the temporal limbus and extended centripetally across the cornea over a period of years. Four of the birds were over 20 years old...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350390/dual-antiplatelet-therapy-is-safe-and-efficient-after-left-atrial-appendage-closure
#18
Jakub Maksym, Tomasz Mazurek, Janusz Kochman, Marek Grygier, Agnieszka Kapłon-Cieślicka, Michał Marchel, Piotr Lodziński, Radosław Piątkowski, Radosław Wilimski, Paweł Czub, Anna Fojt, Natalia Karolczak, Piotr Hendzel, Grzegorz Opolski
BACKGROUND: Despite of PROTECT AF trial results many patients undergoing left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) have unconditional contraindications to warfarin. AIM: We sought to investigate whether double antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is safe in patients after LAAC. METHODS: 44 (22 males, mean age 74±7.8) consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) underwent LAAC procedure using Watchman device followed by DAPT (75 mg Aspirin and 75 mg Clopidogrel)...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350093/thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances-relate-to-arterial-stiffness-and-blood-pressure-in-6-to-8-year-old-boys-stratified-by-maternal-risk
#19
Ashleigh Craig, Catharina M C Mels, Ruan Kruger
Early cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset can be inflicted by familial cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to compare phenotypic characteristics and explore associations between oxidative stress and vascular function in boys stratified by maternal cardiovascular and lifestyle risk. We included 40 Black and 41 White boys (ages 6-8 years), along with the biological mother of each child. The study population was divided into two groups (nonmaternal risk vs. maternal risk) according to maternal risk predetermined by their selfreported cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors...
January 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349977/-therapeutic-effects-of-internal-drainage-by-expanding-arthroscopic-gastrocnemius-semimembranosus-bursa-and-cyst-wall-resection-for-the-treatment-of-41-patients-with-popliteal-cysts
#20
Li-Chuang Wu, Hai-Bo Zhou, Chao Zhang, Lei Chen, Cai-Long Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical curative effects of internal drainage by expanding arthroscopic gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa(GSB) and cyst wall resection for the treatment of popliteal cysts. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients from May 2011 to December 2015. Arthroscopic treatment for 41 patients with popliteal fossa cysts, 18 males and 23 females, aged from 34 to 67 years old, averaged 42.6 years old. All the patients had preoperative magnetic resonance imagings to confirm the diagnosis and identify the valvular opening(Gastrocnemius-Semimembranosus bursa, GSB), as well as the associated intra-articular pathology...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
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