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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810975/adaptation-of-screening-brief-intervention-referral-to-treatment-to-active-duty-military-personnel-in-an-emergency-department-findings-from-a-formative-research-study
#1
Megan Holt, Mark Reed, Susan I Woodruff, Gerard DeMers, Michael Matteucci, Suzanne L Hurtado
BACKGROUND: The transient nature of military life coupled with environmental and psychosocial stressors increase the risk for alcohol misuse and abuse among active duty (AD) military service members and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate high rates of heavy drinking among AD personnel. Over the past decade, Department of Defense health care systems have observed increases in the utilization of substance use services among military personnel demobilizing from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810967/improving-awareness-of-behavioral-health-readiness
#2
Justin M Curley, Christopher H Warner
INTRODUCTION: Readiness for worldwide deployments as force structure decreases is of vital importance to our military. Advances in access and efforts to decrease stigma for behavioral health (BH) treatment has impacted unit readiness levels. However, concern exists that there are still a significant number of service members with behavioral health conditions who are unable to deploy. This article outlines the current state of behavioral health readiness in one U.S. Army Division and provides a programmatic review of a systems based initiative, the Behavioral Health Readiness Tool (BHRT), designed to enhance awareness of current levels...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#3
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809856/decreased-nox2-expression-in-the-brain-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-association-with-valproic-acid-prescription-and-substance-abuse
#4
T Seredenina, S Sorce, F R Herrmann, X-J Ma Mulone, O Plastre, A Aguzzi, V Jaquet, K-H Krause
Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the development of psychiatric diseases. Animal studies have implicated NADPH oxidases (NOX) as relevant sources of reactive oxygen species in the brain. We have analyzed the expression of NOX isoforms in post-mortem brain samples from patients with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and non-psychiatric subjects. Two collections from the Stanley Medical Research Institute were studied: the Array Collection (RNA, 35 individuals per group), and a neuropathology consortium collection (paraffin-embedded sections, 15 individuals per group)...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809585/patient-autonomy-and-doctor-s-concern-a-case-of-intravenous-drug-abuser
#5
Alok Atreya, Tanuj Kanchan, Rajeev K Shah
Intravenous substance abuse is often associated with physical and psychological harm, and often requires urgent medical attention. We report a case of a young male who presented with life-threatening complications of intravenous drug abuse, but refused to give details or agree to the proposed treatment, raising concerns for the team of doctors. A compos mentis patient has a right to decide what should be done to his body. Medical management or surgical interventions cannot be initiated without the patient's consent even if these are lifesaving procedures, or a procedure meant to benefit the patient...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807487/exploring-how-prison-based-drug-rehabilitation-programming-shapes-racial-disparities-in-substance-use-disorder-recovery
#6
Erin M Kerrison
Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative...
August 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806373/patient-aligned-care-team-engagement-to-connect-veterans-experiencing-homelessness-with-appropriate-health-care
#7
Adi V Gundlapalli, Andrew Redd, Daniel Bolton, Megan E Vanneman, Marjorie E Carter, Erin Johnson, Matthew H Samore, Jamison D Fargo, Thomas P O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Veterans experiencing homelessness frequently use emergency and urgent care (ED). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a Patient-aligned Care Team (PACT) model tailored to the unique needs of Veterans experiencing homelessness (H-PACT) on frequency and type of ED visits in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical facilities. RESEARCH DESIGN: During a 12-month period, ED visits for 3981 homeless Veterans enrolled in (1) H-PACT at 20 VHA medical centers (enrolled) were compared with those of (2) 24,363 homeless Veterans not enrolled in H-PACT at the same sites (nonenrolled), and (3) 23,542 homeless Veterans at 12 non-H-PACT sites (usual care) using a difference-in-differences approach...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806363/clinical-epidemiology-of-single-versus-multiple-substance-use-disorders-polysubstance-use-disorder
#8
Ish P Bhalla, Elina A Stefanovics, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: While research on substance abuse has largely focused on people who have a single substance use disorder (SUD), many people abuse multiple substances. Studies have yet to examine the distinctive characteristics of patients diagnosed with more than 1 SUD and how those with polysubstance use disorder (PSUD) differ from those with a single SUD. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data from fiscal year 2012 were used to compare veterans diagnosed 1 SUD to veterans diagnosed with 2-3, and >3 SUDs on demographic characteristics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, medical and psychiatric service utilization, and psychotropic medication fills...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805120/the-police-social-services-and-psychiatry-psp-cooperation-as-a-platform-for-dealing-with-concerns-of-radicalization
#9
D Sestoft, S M Hansen, A B Christensen
The police, social services, and psychiatry (PSP) is a structured cooperation between the police, social services, and the psychiatric system in Denmark. The aim of PSP is to ensure that relevant information is shared and supportive measures enhanced concerning citizens at risk, and it involves PSP representatives from each sector meeting frequently. PSP is implemented nationwide by law. In recent years, dealing with radicalization and the threat of terrorism have become key issues in society. The PSP cooperation already facilitates the identification of citizens at many kinds of risk (e...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803849/characteristics-of-ethanol-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats-molecular-mediators-and-cross-sensitization-between-ethanol-and-cocaine
#10
Shijie Xu, Ung Gu Kang
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can induce a progressive increase in locomotor activity, known as behavioral sensitization. However, little is known about behavioral sensitization to ethanol. We examined whether ethanol could induce behavioral sensitization and investigated several molecular changes accompanying sensitization. We also assessed whether "cross-sensitization" occurred between ethanol and cocaine, another abused drug. Ethanol-induced sensitization was examined in rats after ethanol treatment (0...
August 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803848/disengagement-in-immigrant-groups-receiving-services-for-a-first-episode-of-psychosis
#11
Anika Maraj, Franz Veru, Laura Morrison, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, Srividya Iyer, Jai Shah
OBJECTIVE: Although early intervention (EI) programs for psychosis invest in clients remaining engaged in treatment, disengagement remains a concern. It is not entirely clear whether immigrants are likelier to disengage. The rates and predictors of disengagement for immigrant vis-à-vis non-immigrant clients in a Canadian EI setting were analyzed. METHOD: 297 clients were included in a time-to-event analysis with Cox Proportional Hazards regression models. Immigrant status (first- or second-generation immigrant or non-immigrant), age, gender, education, substance abuse, family contact, social and material deprivation and medication non-adherence were tested as predictors of service disengagement...
August 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803030/neurofeedback-sham-neurofeedback-and-cognitive-behavioural-group-therapy-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-triple-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Michael Schönenberg, Eva Wiedemann, Alexander Schneidt, Jonathan Scheeff, Alexander Logemann, Philipp M Keune, Martin Hautzinger
BACKGROUND: Many studies suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback might be beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, numbers of well controlled studies are low and neurofeedback techniques are regarded as highly controversial. The present trial examined the efficacy (compared with sham neurofeedback) and efficiency (compared with meta-cognitive therapy) of a standard EEG neurofeedback protocol in adults with ADHD. METHODS: We did a concurrent, triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial using authorised deception in adults with ADHD from one centre (University of Tübingen) in Tübingen, Germany...
August 9, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#14
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800866/five-year-trends-of-critical-care-practice-and-outcomes
#15
Craig M Lilly, Sunil Swami, Xinggang Liu, Richard R Riker, Omar Badawi
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal analyses of large detailed adult critical care datasets provide insights into practice trends and generate useful outcome and process benchmarks. METHODS: Data representing 991,571 consecutive critical care visits to160 United States adult ICUs during 2009 to 2013 from the eICU Research Institute clinical practice database were used to quantitate patient characteristics, APACHE IV based acuity predictions, treatments, and outcomes. Analyses for changes over time were performed for patient characteristics, entry and discharge locations, primary admission diagnosis, treatments, adherence to consensus ICU best practices, length of stay (LOS), and inpatient mortality...
August 8, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800496/goal-commitment-predicts-treatment-outcome-for-adolescents-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Yifrah Kaminer, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, James R McKay, Rebecca H Burke, Kaitlin Flannery
OBJECTIVE: Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator and mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a reliable and valid 2-scale measure developed to assess the adolescent's commitment to either abstinence or harm reduction (HR) that includes consumption reduction as a stated treatment goal. The objective of this study was to examine the ASAGC's ability to predict alcohol use treatment outcome...
July 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797307/using-smartphones-to-decrease-substance-use-via-self-monitoring-and-recovery-support-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#17
Christy K Scott, Michael L Dennis, David H Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse, other substance use disorders, and risk behaviors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent three of the top 10 modifiable causes of mortality in the US. Despite evidence that continuing care is effective in sustaining recovery from substance use disorders and associated behaviors, patients rarely receive it. Smartphone applications (apps) have been effective in delivering continuing care to patients almost anywhere and anytime. This study tests the effectiveness of two components of such apps: ongoing self-monitoring through Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) and immediate recovery support through Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMIs)...
August 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#18
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791757/differential-stimulus-control-of-drug-seeking-multimodal-reinstatement
#19
Seth R Batten, Joshua S Beckmann
In animal models of substance-use disorder, individuals that repeatedly self-administer drugs of abuse have long-lasting neuronal adaptations that do not occur ostensibly in control animals only exposed to natural reinforcers (e.g. food). Because any treatment for substance-use disorder will be given to individuals with drug-taking histories, adequate dissociation of the specific neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying drug reinforcement, natural reinforcement and their associated cue effects requires an experimental model that exposes individuals to both reinforcer conditions, along with their associated stimuli...
August 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#20
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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