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hyperbilirubinemia physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707558/effect-of-unconjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-on-neonatal-autonomic-functions-evaluation-by-heart-rate-variability
#1
Rahmi Özdemir, Özgür Olukman, Cem Karadeniz, Kıymet Çelik, Nagehan Katipoğlu, Murat Muhtar Yılmazer, Şebnem Çalkavur, Timur Meşe, Sertaç Arslanoğlu
BACKGROUND: Serum bilirubin levels beyond the physiological limits, may lead to alterations in autonomic regulation in a newborn infant. Heart rate variability (HRV), is a noninvasive and quantitative marker of the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). To date, few studies have demonstrated the undesirable effects of severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (UHB) on autonomic functions, and only one study has used HRV as a marker of the autonomic activity. However, the relationship between altered cardiac autonomic functions and UHB by using the HRV derived from 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) recording has not been investigated previously...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587329/mosapride-combined-with-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-function-and-growth-in-premature-infants
#2
Ai-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Qun Sun, Li-Ming Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins (Medilac-Vita), and group C received routine treatment and Saccharomyces boulardii sachets (Bioflor)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441153/discharge-criteria-for-the-late-preterm-infant-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Jenny M Quinn, Marteen Sparks, Sheila M Gephart
BACKGROUND: Standardized late preterm infant (LPI) discharge criteria ensure best practice and help guide the neonatal provider to determine the appropriate level of care following birth. However, the location can vary from the well newborn setting to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to examine differences in LPI discharge criteria between the well newborn setting and the NICU by answering the clinical questions, "What are the recommended discharge criteria for the LPI and do they differ if admitted to the well newborn setting versus the NICU?" SEARCH STRATEGY: Databases searched include CINAHL, TRIP, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library...
April 24, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412296/impact-of-higher-order-heme-degradation-products-on-hepatic-function-and-hemodynamics
#4
Raphael A Seidel, Thierry Claudel, Franziska A Schleser, Navin K Ojha, Matthias Westerhausen, Sandor Nietzsche, Christoph Sponholz, Frans Cuperus, Sina M Coldewey, Stefan H Heinemann, Georg Pohnert, Michael Trauner, Michael Bauer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biliverdin and bilirubin were previously considered end products of heme catabolism; now, however, there is evidence for further degradation to diverse bioactive products. Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B arise upon oxidation with unknown implications for hepatocellular function and integrity. We studied the impact of Z-BOX A and B on hepatic functions and explored their alterations in health and cholestatic conditions. METHODS: Functional implications and mechanisms were investigated in rats, hepatocytic HepG2 and HepaRG cells, human immortalized hepatocytes, and isolated perfused livers...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389660/characteristics-of-the-heme-catabolic-pathway-in-mild-unconjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-and-their-associations-with-inflammation-and-disease-prevention
#5
Christine Mölzer, Marlies Wallner, Carina Kern, Anela Tosevska, René Zadnikar, Daniel Doberer, Rodrig Marculescu, Karl-Heinz Wagner
Heme catabolism exerts physiological functions that impact health through depressing inflammation. Upon reactive pathway progression, as in Gilbert's Syndrome (GS; UGT1A1*28 polymorphism), aggravated health effects have been determined. Based on lower inflammation and improved metabolic health reported for GS, inter-group differences in heme catabolism were explored. Therefore, a case-control study including 120 fasted, healthy, age- and gender matched subjects with/without GS, was conducted. Genetic expressions of HMOX-1 and BLVRA were measured...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372501/hyperlactatemia-predicts-citrate-intolerance-with-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#6
Jia-Neng Tan, Sabrina Wong Peixin Haroon, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Titus Lau, Tanusya M Murali, Jason Phua, Zong-Yao Tan, Nicholas Lee, Horng-Ruey Chua
PURPOSE: We aim to determine whether hyperlactatemia, which suggests multi-organ dysfunction and impaired organic substrate metabolism, may predict intolerance to regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective observational study in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury or end-stage renal disease and evaluated the association of peak serum lactate levels with citrate intolerance (CI) during the initial 72 hours of RCA-CVVH, defined by serum total-to-ionized calcium >2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326955/a-challenging-case-of-severe-infantile-cholestasis-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#7
Zahida Khan, Veena L Venkat, Kyle A Soltys, Donna B Stolz, Sarangarajan Ranganathan
Jaundice in the newborn period can be physiologic and is often due to benign causes. Jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia extending beyond the second week of life may be an early sign of several cholestatic or metabolic liver diseases, and it requires logical and timely analysis so that specific treatments can be initiated. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is the most common genetic cause of pediatric liver disease and transplantation, and it must be considered when evaluating cholestatic infants. Here, we present an unusual case of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with severe infantile cholestasis and rapid decompensation in the first 4 months of life, where in-depth but timely diagnosis was crucial for the appropriate intervention to take place...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205125/does-hyperbilirubinemia-contribute-to-adverse-patient-outcomes-following-pancreatoduodenectomy
#8
Scott Dolejs, Ben L Zarzaur, Nicholas J Zyromski, Henry A Pitt, Taylor S Riall, Bruce L Hall, Stephen W Behrman
BACKGROUND: Jaundice due to biliary obstruction leads to multiple physiologic derangements and a decline in performance status that may result in unfavorable intra- and postoperative outcomes following a Whipple procedure. While preoperative biliary decompression may improve synthetic function, this strategy has been reported to increase the incidence of infectious complications following surgery. We hypothesized that hyperbilirubinemia at the time of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) would be a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality postoperatively...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167773/intestinal-ncor1-a-regulator-of-epithelial-cell-maturation-controls-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#9
Shujuan Chen, Wenqi Lu, Mei-Fei Yueh, Eva Rettenmeier, Miao Liu, Johan Auwerx, Ruth T Yu, Ronald M Evans, Kepeng Wang, Michael Karin, Robert H Tukey
Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) and the onset of bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus result in part from delayed expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and the inability to metabolize bilirubin. Although there is a good understanding of the early events after birth that lead to the rapid increase in serum bilirubin, the events that control delayed expression of UGT1A1 during development remain a mystery. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice develop SNH spontaneously, which is linked to repression of both liver and intestinal UGT1A1...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102992/environmental-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-scoping-review-for-the-years-2003-2013
#10
REVIEW
M Ng, J G de Montigny, M Ofner, M T Do
INTRODUCTION: The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been rapidly rising in the past decade. The etiology of this disorder, however, is largely unknown, although the environmental relative to the genetic contribution is substantial. We conducted a scoping review to comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the environmental factors present from preconception to early life associated with ASD, and to identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ERIC for articles on potential risk factors or protective factors from the physical and social environments associated with ASD and its subclassifications published between 1 January, 2003, and 12 July, 2013...
January 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074467/systems-pharmacology-modeling-of-drug-induced-hyperbilirubinemia-differentiating-hepatotoxicity-and-inhibition-of-enzymes-transporters
#11
K Yang, C Battista, J L Woodhead, S H Stahl, J T Mettetal, P B Watkins, S Q Siler, B A Howell
Elevations in serum bilirubin during drug treatment may indicate global liver dysfunction and a high risk of liver failure. However, drugs also can increase serum bilirubin in the absence of hepatic injury by inhibiting specific enzymes/transporters. We constructed a mechanistic model of bilirubin disposition based on known functional polymorphisms in bilirubin metabolism/transport. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model-predicted drug exposure and enzyme/transporter inhibition constants determined in vitro, our model correctly predicted indinavir-mediated hyperbilirubinemia in humans and rats...
April 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892440/urinary-tract-infection-in-asymptomatic-newborns-with-prolonged-unconjugated-hyperbilirubunemia-a-hospital-based-observational-study-from-western-region-of-nepal
#12
T Malla, B Sathian, K Karmacharya Malla, S Adhikari
Background Urine culture is usually not a part of work-up for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; hence its prevalence remains unknown. Objective This study was done to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in asymptomatic newborns with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and to evaluate which other laboratory parameters are associated with UTIs. Method A prospective observational study where jaundiced newborns otherwise clinically well, were evaluated for UTI. The study was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from June 2012 -April 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746740/moderate-hyperbilirubinemia-alters-neonatal-cardiorespiratory-control-and-induces-inflammation-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius
#13
Marie-Laure Specq, Mélisande Bourgoin-Heck, Nathalie Samson, François Corbin, Christian Gestreau, Maxime Richer, Hazim Kadhim, Jean-Paul Praud
Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) occurs in 90% of preterm newborns. Moderate HB can induce acute neurological disorders while severe HB has been linked to a higher incidence of apneas of prematurity. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that even moderate HB disrupts cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of preterm lambs (born 14 days prior to term), namely control (n = 6) and HB (n = 5), were studied. At day 5 of life, moderate HB (150-250 μmol/L) was induced during 17 h in the HB group after which cardiorespiratory control as well as laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes were assessed during baseline recordings and during hypoxia...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617068/evaluation-of-serum-zinc-levels-in-hyperbilirubinemic-neonates-before-and-after-phototherapy
#14
Ziba Mosayebi, Maral Rahmani, Shahin Behjati Ardakani, Mahdi Sheikh, Mamak Shariat, Golnaz Rezaeizadeh
BACKGROUND: The existing therapeutic methods for neonatal jaundice are costly, time-consuming and potentially risky. Zinc salts can reduce phototherapy duration by precipitating unconjugated bilirubin in the intestine (bilirubin and zinc can form a complex in physiologic pH); however, zinc toxicity is an issue that must be considered since theoretically bilirubin reduction by phototherapy may increase serum zinc levels, making additional zinc supplementation the potential cause of zinc toxicity...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468221/bile-cast-nephropathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Jaymon Patel, Saqib Walayat, Nikhil Kalva, Sidney Palmer-Hill, Sonu Dhillon
Bile cast nephropathy is a condition of renal dysfunction in the setting of hyperbilirubinemia. There are very few cases of this condition reported in the last decade and a lack of established treatment guidelines. While the exact etiology remains unknown, bile cast nephropathy is presumed to be secondary to multiple concurrent insults to the kidney including direct toxicity from bile acids, obstructive physiology from bile casts, and systemic hypoperfusion from vasodilation. Therapy directed at bilirubin reduction may improve renal function, but will likely need dialysis or plasmapheresis as well...
July 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398328/hyperbilirubinemia-in-neonates-types-causes-clinical-examinations-preventive-measures-and-treatments-a-narrative-review-article
#16
REVIEW
Sana Ullah, Khaista Rahman, Mehdi Hedayati
BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855337/a-challenging-case-of-severe-infantile-cholestasis-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#17
Zahida Khan, Veena L Venkat, Kyle A Soltys, Donna B Stolz, Sarangarajan Ranganathan
Jaundice in the newborn period can be physiologic and is often due to benign causes. Jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia extending beyond the second week of life may be an early sign of several cholestatic or metabolic liver diseases, and it requires logical and timely analysis so that specific treatments can be initiated. A1AT deficiency is the most common genetic cause of pediatric liver disease and transplantation, and it must be considered when evaluating cholestatic infants. Here, we present an unusual case of A1AT deficiency with severe infantile cholestasis and rapid decompensation in the first 4 months of life, where in-depth but timely diagnosis was crucial for the appropriate intervention to take place...
February 8, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681075/hyperbilirubinemia-decreases-physiological-markers-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#18
K Bauerova, F Drafi, V Kuncirova, S Ponist, D Mihalova, P Babal, T Sykora
There is evidence that a higher serum level of bilirubin (BIL) may be a protective factor for autoimmune diseases. We examined the effect of BIL supplementation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) where oxidative stress, inflammation and inadequate immune response are present. Male Lewis rats were randomized into groups: CO - control, AIA - untreated adjuvant-induced arthritis, AIA-BIL - adjuvant-induced arthritis administrated BIL (200 mg/kg b.w. daily i.p. during 14 days). Change of hind paw volume in the AIA-BIL group in comparison to the AIA group was significantly decreased after BIL administration...
2015: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643826/a-prospective-study-on-exchange-transfusion-in-neonatal-unconjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-nepal
#19
T Malla, S Singh, P Poudyal, B Sathian, G Bk, K K Malla
BACKGROUND: An exchange transfusion involves replacing patient's blood with donor blood in order to remove abnormal blood components and circulating toxins while maintaining adequate circulating blood volume. OBJECTIVE: To observe the incidence, causes of jaundice requiring Exchange and any adverse event of exchange transfusion in newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. METHOD: Prospective study undertaken at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from March 2014 to April 2015...
April 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342858/role-of-extrahepatic-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-advances-in-understanding-breast-milk-induced-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#20
REVIEW
Ryoichi Fujiwara, Yoshihiro Maruo, Shujuan Chen, Robert H Tukey
Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ...
November 15, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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