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Critical Incident Response

Juri Bergmann, Miryam Müller, Niklas Baumann, Manuel Reichert, Carola Heneweer, Julia Bolik, Karsten Lücke, Sabine Gruber, Antonella Carambia, Susanne Boretius, Ivo Leuschner, Thomas Becker, Björn Rabe, Johannes Herkel, F Thomas Wunderlich, Hans-Willi Mitrücker, Stefan Rose-John, Dirk Schmidt-Arras
: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent tumors worldwide with rising incidence. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a critical mediator of HCC development. It can signal through two distinct pathways, the IL-6 classic and the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway. While IL-6 classic signaling is important for innate and acquired immunity, IL-6 trans-signaling has been linked to accelerated liver regeneration and several chronic inflammatory pathologies. However, its implication in liver tumorigenesis has not been addressed yet...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Nicole R Bush, Richard D Lane, Katie A McLaughlin
Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Stephanie M Morris, Maria T Acosta, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Susan Huson, Eric Legius, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne, Ellen Plasschaert, Thomas W Frazier, Lauren A Weiss, Yi Zhang, David H Gutmann, John N Constantino
Importance: Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
I-Shiang Tzeng, Su-Hsun Liu, Kuan-Fu Chen, Chin-Chieh Wu, Jih-Chang Chen
To reduce patient boarding time at the emergency department (ED) and to improve the overall quality of the emergent care system in Taiwan, the Minister of Health and Welfare of Taiwan (MOHW) piloted the Grading Responsible Hospitals for Acute Care (GRHAC) audit program in 2007-2009.The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the GRHAC audit program on the identification and management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-associated ED visits by describing and comparing the incidence of AMI-associated ED visits before (2003-2007), during (2007-2009), and after (2009-2012) the initial audit program implementation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Constanze Ciavarella, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Merler, Ciro Cattuto, Marco Ajelli
BACKGROUND: Nearly every year Influenza affects most countries worldwide and the risk of a new pandemic is always present. Therefore, influenza is a major concern for public health. School-age individuals are often the most affected group, suggesting that the inclusion in preparedness plans of school closure policies may represent an option for influenza mitigation. However, their applicability remains uncertain and their implementation should carefully be weighed on the basis of cost-benefit considerations...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yuhei Kawano
The relationship between salt and hypertension is well established, and salt restriction is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. However, people living in northeast Asia have consumed large amount of salt, and the prevalence of hypertension and the incidence of stroke have been high in that area. Mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension may be complex, but volume expansion in the presence of impaired natriuretic capacity of the kidney and action on the central nervous system and neurohormoral pathways seem to be important...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Cassiana Mazon Fraga, Cristiane Damiani Tomasi, Danusa de Castro Damasio, Francieli Vuolo, Cristiane Ritter, Felipe Dal-Pizzol
BACKGROUND: The aim was to test the primary hypothesis that in patients suffering from shock, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus deferoxamine (DFX) decreases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a general intensive care unit in an academic hospital. Patients were included if they had new-onset hypotension, defined as mean arterial blood pressure <60 mmHg or requirement for vasopressor medication...
October 17, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Saloumeh Kadkhodayan Fischer, Melissa Cheu, Kun Peng, John Lowe, James Araujo, Elaine Murray, Dana McClintock, John Matthews, Patricia Siguenza, An Song
Host cell proteins are manufacturing process-related impurities that may co-purify with the product despite extensive efforts to optimize the purification process. The risks associated with these impurities can vary and may be patient and/or therapeutic dependent. Therefore, it is critical to monitor and control the levels of these impurities in products and their potential impact on safety and efficacy. Lebrikizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds specifically to soluble interleukin 13...
October 13, 2016: AAPS Journal
Babita Aneja, Mohammad Irfan, Charu Kapil, Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri, Ronan Maguire, Kevin Kavanagh, M Moshahid A Rizvi, Nikhat Manzoor, Amir Azam, Mohammad Abid
The increasing incidence of human candidiasis and the tendency of Candida species to become resistant to existing chemotherapies are well-recognized health problems. The present study demonstrates the successful synthesis of novel triazole-amino acid hybrids with potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against Candida species. Particularly, compounds 68 and 70 showed potent in vitro activity against fluconazole (FLC) resistant as well as sensitive clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Time kill curve analysis of lead inhibitors 68 and 70 showed their fungistatic nature...
October 13, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Greer Dawson, Robin Gilmour, Sean Tobin, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: In New South Wales (NSW), influenza surveillance is informed by a number of discrete data sources, including laboratories, emergency departments, death registrations and community surveillance programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NSW influenza surveillance system using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Importance of study: Having a strong influenza surveillance system is important for both seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Karen K Y Koo, Karen Choong, Deborah J Cook, Margaret Herridge, Anastasia Newman, Vincent Lo, Gordon Guyatt, Fran Priestap, Eileen Campbell, Karen E A Burns, FranÇois Lamontagne, Maureen O Meade
BACKGROUND: The promotion of early mobilization following critical illness is tempered by national reports of patient and institutional barriers to this approach. We carried out a survey to assess current knowledge, perceptions and practices of Canadian physicians and physiotherapists with respect to acquired weakness and early mobilization in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered postal survey among critical care physicians and physiotherapists in all 46 academic ICUs in Canada in 2011-2012...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Vanessa K Bowden, Shayne Loft, Monica Tatasciore, Troy A W Visser
Speed enforcement reduces incidences of speeding, thus reducing traffic accidents. Accordingly, it has been argued that stricter speed enforcement thresholds could further improve road safety. Effective speed monitoring however requires driver attention and effort, and human information-processing capacity is limited. Emphasizing speed monitoring may therefore reduce resource availability for other aspects of safe vehicle operation. We investigated whether lowering enforcement thresholds in a simulator setting would introduce further competition for limited cognitive and visual resources...
October 4, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 77% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Carolyn E Wilshire, Tony Ward
In some patients with chronic physical complaints, detailed examination fails to reveal a well-recognized underlying disease process. In this situation, the physician may suspect a psychological cause. In this review, we critically evaluated the evidence for this causal claim, focusing on complaints presenting as neurological disorders. There were four main conclusions. First, patients with these complaints frequently exhibit psychopathology but not consistently more often than patients with a comparable "organic" diagnosis, so a causal role cannot be inferred...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Stephen W Bickler, Eliel Lizardo, David M Cauvi, Antonio De Maio
Urbanization in Africa is associated with an increased incidence of non-communicable diseases, yet the cause and the mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, we propose a role for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in the biological changes that occur with urbanization and suggest a critical area of convergence in GPCR signaling might provide a molecular signature for exposure to environmental factors. As a first step in investing this hypothesis, we examined the expression of the G protein α, β and γ subunit, G protein related kinase, and β-arrestin genes in a rural and urban population living in Morocco (NCBI GSE8847)...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Theodora C Van Tilborg, Frank J M Broekmans, Madeleine Dólleman, Marinus J C Eijkemans, Ben Willem Mol, Joop S E Laven, Helen L Torrance
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examines whether individualised gonadotropin dosing in in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) leads to better outcomes with respect to safety, costs and live birth rates compared to standard dosing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic databases searched were PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. The primary outcome was live birth rate. The secondary outcomes included pregnancy rate, costs and safety. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers...
September 30, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Michael Coulter, Jingxuan Liu, Mark Marzouk
There is only one previously reported incident in the English literature of sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and there are only 8 cases of primary parotid leiomyosarcoma. In our case, a 79-year-old female patient presented to our care with left preauricular pain, swelling, and facial weakness. After CT imaging, she underwent left total parotidectomy. A spindle cell lesion was identified intraoperatively and the facial nerve was sacrificed. Subsequent analysis of the lesion yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Jean-Michel Correas, Dany Anglicheau, Dominique Joly, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Hélénon
In recent years, several novel ultrasound (US)-based techniques have emerged for kidney diagnostic imaging, including tissue stiffness assessment with elastography, Ultrasensitive Doppler techniques, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to assess renal microvascularization. Renal elastography has become available with the development of noninvasive quantitative techniques, following the rapidly growing field of liver fibrosis diagnosis. With the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, noninvasive diagnosis of renal fibrosis can be of critical value...
September 21, 2016: Kidney International
Maria Hummel, Jose Perez, Rudolf Hagen, Götz Gelbrich, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Cordula Matthies
OBJECTIVE: The auditory brainstem response (ABR) may be a predictor of postoperative cochlear nerve function. In this study, the course of intraoperative ABR monitoring was analyzed to find predictive markers for the postoperative hearing function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2012, 46 patients with vestibular schwannoma surgery were investigated by intraoperative ABR monitoring. The type of ABR development was described. Type A: improved or stable ABR, Type B: fluctuating or deteriorated ABR and Type C: slow or sudden ABR loss...
September 16, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yuhei Kawano
The relationship between salt and hypertension is well established, and salt restriction is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. However, people living in northeast Asia have consumed large amount of salt, and the prevalence of hypertension and the incidence of stroke have been high in that area. Mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension may be complex, but volume expansion in the presence of impaired natriuretic capacity of the kidney and action on the central nervous system and neurohormoral pathways seem to be important...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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