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Combat casualty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194278/burns-and-frostbite-in-the-red-army-during-world-war-ii
#1
Vladimir Sokolov, Alexey Biryukov, Igor Chmyrev, Mikhail Tarasenko, Pavel Kabanov
The start of World War II (WWII) led to the deployment of combat troops in several continents. Destruction and many casualties among both the military and civilians became an inevitable consequence. A large amount of people injured were in need of life-saving treatment and a speedy return to duty. Intensive studies of the specific issues of diagnosis and treatment of thermal injury were conducted in the Soviet Union before the war. The first special units for patients with burn injuries were created, and the first specialists received their first clinical experience...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179694/functional-and-anatomical-outcome-in-closed-globe-combat-ocular-injuries
#2
Qamar Ul Islam, Mazhar Ishaq, Amer Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with ocular injuries from January 2010 to June 2014. Record of each patient was evaluated and demography, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity, associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166898/identification-of-the-emplacement-of-improvised-explosive-devices-by-experienced-mission-payload-operators
#3
Nathan J McNeese, Nancy J Cooke, Russell Branaghan, Ashley Knobloch, Amanda Taylor
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have become one of the deadliest threats to military personnel, resulting in over 50% of American combat casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. Identification of IED emplacement is conducted by mission payload operators (MPOs). Yet, experienced MPOs are limited in number, making MPO training a critical intervention. In this article, we implement a Cognitive Engineering Based on Expert Skill methodology to better understand how experienced MPOs identify the emplacement of IEDs for the purposes of improving training...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140436/en-route-intraosseous-access-performed-in-the-combat-setting
#4
Shelia Savell, Alejandra G Mora, Crystal A Perez, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Maj Joseph K Maddry
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare vascular access practices used by en route care providers during medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Medical records of US military personnel injured in combat and transported by MEDEVAC teams were queried. PATIENTS: The subjects were transported by military en route care providers, in the combat theater during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) between January 2011 and March 2014...
October 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102530/surgeon-preparedness-for-mass-casualty-events-adapting-essential-military-surgical-lessons-for-the-home-front
#5
Kyle N Remick, Stacy Shackelford, John S Oh, Jason M Seery, Daniel Grabo, John Chovanes, Kirby R Gross, Shawn C Nessen, Nigel Rm Tai, Rory F Rickard, Eric Elster, C W Schwab
Military surgeons have gained familiarity and experience with mass casualty events (MCEs) as a matter of routine over the course of the last two conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Over the same period of time, civilian surgeons have increasingly faced complex MCEs on the home front. Our objective is to summarize and adapt these combat surgery lessons to enhance civilian surgeon preparedness for complex MCEs on the home front. The authors describe the unique lessons learned from combat surgery over the course of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and adapt these lessons to enhance civilian surgical readiness for a MCE on the home front...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096062/combat-casualty-care-improvement-a-quality-process
#6
EDITORIAL
Jean-Pierre Tourtier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062529/a-mixed-reality-simulator-concept-for-future-medical-emergency-response-team-training
#7
Robert J Stone, R Guest, P Mahoney, D Lamb, C Gibson
The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029474/hypertension-after-injury-among-burned-combat-veterans-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Ian J Stewart, Jonathan A Sosnov, Brian D Snow, Augen Batou, Jeffrey T Howard, Jud C Janak, Mary Bollinger, Kevin K Chung
BACKGROUND: The long-term health effects of burn are poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the relationship between burn and the subsequent development of hypertension. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our burn center from 2003 to 2010. Data collected included demographic variables, burn size, injury severity score, presence of inhalation injury, serum creatinine, need for renal replacement therapy, as well as days spent in the hospital, in the intensive care unit and on mechanical ventilation...
October 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993357/amputation-not-a-failure-for-severe-lower-extremity-combat-injury
#9
Thijs T C F van Dongen, Eelco P Huizinga, Loes G M de Kruijff, Arie C van der Krans, Jochem M Hoogendoorn, Luke P H Leenen, Rigo Hoencamp
INTRODUCTION: The use of improvised explosive devices is a frequent method of insurgents to inflict harm on deployed military personnel. Consequently, lower extremity injuries make up the majority of combat related trauma. The wounding pattern of an explosion is not often encountered in a civilian population and can lead to substantial disability. It is therefore important to study the impact of these lower extremity injuries and their treatment (limb salvage versus amputation) on functional outcome and quality of life...
February 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959967/transfusion-80%C3%A2-c-frozen-blood-products-are-safe-and-effective-in-military-casualty-care
#10
Femke Noorman, Thijs T C F van Dongen, Marie-Christine J Plat, John F Badloe, John R Hess, Rigo Hoencamp
INTRODUCTION: The Netherlands Armed Forces use -80°C frozen red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and platelets combined with regular liquid stored RBCs, for the treatment of (military) casualties in Medical Treatment Facilities abroad. Our objective was to assess and compare the use of -80°C frozen blood products in combination with the different transfusion protocols and their effect on the outcome of trauma casualties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemovigilance and combat casualties data from Afghanistan 2006-2010 for 272 (military) trauma casualties with or without massive transfusions (MT: ≥6 RBC/24hr, N = 82 and non-MT: 1-5 RBC/24hr, N = 190) were analyzed retrospectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938877/coagulopathy-and-transfusion-requirements-in-war-related-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-centre-study-in-a-french-role-3-medical-treatment-facility-in-afghanistan
#11
J Bordes, C Joubert, P Esnault, A Montcriol, C Nguyen, E Meaudre, R Dulou, A Dagain
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period...
November 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890137/the-identification-of-combat-survivability-tasks-associated-with-naval-vessel-damage-in-maritime-environments
#12
Kane J Middleton, Amelia J Carr
Effective Navy personnel have the physical ability to perform combat survivability tasks commensurate with their unique physical requirements due to the distinctive characteristics of naval platforms. The aim of this investigation was to identify the physically demanding whole-of-ship tasks that are performed by Navy personnel while at sea. A mixed method design was used to identify tasks, inclusive of focus groups and field observations. From a series of ten focus groups, nine tasks were deemed to be physically demanding whole-of-ship tasks...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865269/the-immunopathogenesis-of-staphylococcal-skin-infections-a-review
#13
REVIEW
P B Hill, A Imai
Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius are the major causes of bacterial skin disease in humans and dogs. These organisms can exist as commensals on the skin, but they can also cause severe or even devastating infections. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to deal with pathogenic microorganisms and has strategies to combat bacteria of this type. What emerges is a delicate "peace" between the opposing sides, but this balance can be disrupted leading to a full blown "war". In the ferocious battle that ensues, both sides attempt to get the upper hand, using strategies that are comparable to those used by modern day armies...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855132/extremity-war-injuries-xi-maintaining-force-readiness-during-an-era-of-military-transition
#14
Col Jeffrey N Davila, Andrew H Schmidt
The symposium Extremity War Injuries XI focused on issues related to the transitions in medical care that are occurring as the focus of the war on terror changes. Titled "Maintaining Force Readiness During an Era of Military Transition," this year's symposium highlighted the results of Department of Defense-funded research in musculoskeletal injury, the evolution of combat casualty care, and the readiness of the fighting force. The issues highlighted related to the force readiness of both troops and their medical support as well as the maintenance of the combat care expertise that has been developed during the last decade of conflict...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816610/forward-psychiatry%C3%A2-%C3%A2-early-intervention-for-mental-health-problems-among-uk-armed-forces-in-afghanistan
#15
N Jones, N T Fear, S Wessely, G Thandi, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: This observational study examined return to duty (RTD) rates following receipt of early mental health interventions delivered by deployed mental health practitioners. METHOD: In-depth clinical interviews were conducted among 975 UK military personnel referred for mental health assessment whilst deployed in Afghanistan. Socio-demographic, military, operational, clinical and therapy outcomes were recorded in an electronic health record database. Rates and predictors of EVAC were the main outcomes examined using adjusted binary logistic regression analyses...
November 3, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798535/urinary-biomarkers-are-associated-with-severity-and-mechanism-of-injury
#16
Jud C Janak, Ian J Stewart, Jonathan A Sosnov, Jeffrey T Howard, Edward D Siew, Mallory M Chan, Nancy Wickersham, T Alp Ikizler, Kevin K Chung
Combat-related blast trauma results in massive tissue injury and tends to involve multiple systems. Further, an acute measure of injury severity based on underlying biological mechanisms may be important for the triage and treatment of these types of patients. We hypothesized that urinary biomarkers (UBs) would reflect severity of injury and that they would be elevated for blast injuries compared to gunshot wounds (GSW) in a cohort of combat casualties. We also postulated that UBs would be higher in patients with burns compared to patients with non-burn trauma in a civilian cohort...
October 26, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787435/assessment-of-key-plasma-metabolites-in-combat-casualties
#17
Elizabeth R Lusczek, Sydne L Muratore, Michael A Dubick, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that hemorrhagic shock and injury cause significant early changes in metabolism. Recently, global changes in metabolism have been described using metabolomics in animal models and civilian trauma. We evaluated metabolic changes associated with combat injury to identify early biomarkers and aid in triage. METHODS: Plasma obtained at emergency department presentation and intervals thereafter from patients injured during combat operations in Iraq (n = 78) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 40)...
February 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779578/does-small-volume-resuscitation-with-crystalloids-or-colloids-influence-hemostasis-and-survival-of-rabbits-subjected-to-lethal-uncontrolled-hemorrhage
#18
Bijan Shams Kheirabadi, Nahir Miranda, Irasema B Terrazas, Mary D Gonzales, Rose C Grimm, Michael A Dubick
BACKGROUND: Prehospital, small-volume resuscitation of combat casualties with a synthetic colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch [HES] 670/0.75) has been recommended when blood or blood components are unavailable. We studied hemostatic effects of a newer synthetic colloid (6% HES, 130/0.4) compared with either a natural colloid (albumin) or to crystalloids in an uncontrolled hemorrhage model. METHODS: Spontaneously breathing New Zealand white rabbits (3.4 ± 0.1 kg) were anesthetized, instrumented, and subjected to a splenic injury with uncontrolled bleeding...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768663/incidence-risk-factors-and-mortality-associated-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-combat-casualty-care
#19
Pauline K Park, Jeremy W Cannon, Wen Ye, Lorne H Blackbourne, John B Holcomb, William Beninati, Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: The overall incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in civilian trauma settings have decreased over the past four decades; however, the epidemiology and impact of ARDS on modern combat casualty care are unknown. We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, resource utilization, and mortality associated with ARDS in current combat casualty care. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated US combat casualties within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (formerly the Joint Theater Trauma Registry) during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom (October 2001 to August 2008) for ARDS development, resource utilization, and mortality...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753568/compatibility-of-hydroxyethyl-starch-and-tranexamic-acid-for-battlefield-co-administration
#20
Nicholas M Studer, Ahmad H Yassin, Donald E Keen
INTRODUCTION: The current Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines recommend tranexamic acid (TXA) administration for casualties in whom massive blood transfusion is anticipated. However, despite Hextend being the recommended resuscitation fluid, the guidelines recommend against using TXA with Hextend. This appears to be due to a concern about pharmaceutical compatibility, despite the absence of a direct study of compatibility in the literature. METHODS: Two solutions of Hextend and TXA were examined for compatibility...
October 2016: Military Medicine
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