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Stress induced hyperglycemia

Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Charles Lekhya Priya, K V Bhaskara Rao
BACKGROUND: α-glucosidase inhibitors controls postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by lowering sharp rise in blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrate rich meal in type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. Acalypha indica commonly known as Indian copper leaf is used in traditional medicinal system to treat various diseases. In our previous in-vitro investigation, methanolic extract of A. indica stems (AIS) proved to be an effective a-glucosidase inhibitor, antioxidant, and well tolerated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Chaudhari Archana Somabhai, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Nareshkumar
AIMS: To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh) gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK) gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months...
2016: PloS One
Marie-Julie Nokin, Florence Durieux, Paul Peixoto, Barbara Chiavarina, Olivier Peulen, Arnaud Blomme, Andrei Turtoi, Brunella Costanza, Nicolas Smargiasso, Dominique Baiwir, Jean L Scheijen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Justine Leenders, Pascal De Tullio, Elettra Bianchi, Marc Thiry, Koji Uchida, David A Spiegel, James R Cochrane, Craig A Hutton, Edwin De Pauw, Philippe Delvenne, Dominique Belpomme, Vincent Castronovo, Akeila Bellahcène
Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably induces methylglyoxal (MG) formation in cancer cells. MG mediates the glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have recently demonstrated that MG-induced AGEs are a common feature of breast cancer. Little is known regarding the impact of MG-mediated carbonyl stress on tumor progression. Breast tumors with MG stress presented with high nuclear YAP, a key transcriptional co-activator regulating tumor growth and invasion...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Liming Yu, Chongxi Fan, Zhi Li, Jian Zhang, Xiaodong Xue, Yinli Xu, Guolong Zhao, Yang Yang, Huishan Wang
Stress hyperglycemia is commonly observed in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. It not only worsens cardiovascular prognosis but also attenuates the efficacies of various cardioprotective agents. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in acute hyperglycemic state with a focus on Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and intracellular thioredoxin (Trx) system. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R surgery and high glucose (HG, 500 g/L) infusion (4 ml/kg/h) to induce temporary hyperglycemia...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Jae Yeon Lee, Adithan Aravinthan, Young Shik Park, Kyo Yeol Hwang, Su-Il Seong, Kwontack Hwang
Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Soheila Asadi, Mohammad Nabi Moradi, Nejat Khyripour, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Marzieh Mahmoodi
Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose level. Trace element homeostasis causes disturbances in diabetes due to hyperglycemia. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant enzyme, contains zinc and copper ions as its cofactors. Defects in SOD level and activity have been observed in diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV) has displayed hypoglycemic effects and is proven to improve oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of RSV on blood glucose level, serum copper and zinc levels, SOD, and a number of other oxidative markers in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Vishal R Mali, Guodong Pan, Mandar Deshpande, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Jiang Xu, Xiao-Ping Yang, Suresh S Palaniyandi
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial isozyme of the heart involved in the metabolism of toxic aldehydes produced from oxidative stress. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-mediated decrease in ALDH2 activity may impair mitochondrial respiration and ultimately result in cardiac damage. A single dose (65 mg/kg; i.p.) streptozotocin injection to rats resulted in hyperglycemia with blood glucose levels of 443 ± 9 mg/dl versus 121 ± 7 mg/dl in control animals, p<0.0001, N = 7-11. After 6 months of diabetes mellitus (DM) induction, the rats were sacrificed after recording the functionality of their hearts...
2016: PloS One
Neha Atale, Sharad Saxena, J Grace Nirmala, R T Narendhirakannan, Sujata Mohanty, Vibha Rani
There exists a complex and multifactorial relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is an important factor imposing damage (glucose toxicity) on cardiac cell leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. There are substantial clinical evidences on the adverse effects of conventional therapies in the prevention/treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Currently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have emerged as a safe, efficient, and inexpensive alternative for therapeutic uses. The present study discloses the silver nanoparticle biosynthesizing capability and cardioprotective potential of Syzygium cumini seeds already reported to have antidiabetic properties...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wating Su, Yuan Zhang, Qiongxia Zhang, Jinjin Xu, Liying Zhan, Qiqi Zhu, Qingquan Lian, Huimin Liu, Zhong-Yuan Xia, Zhengyuan Xia, Shaoqing Lei
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are prone to develop cardiac hypertrophy and more susceptible to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which are concomitant with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and impaired endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)/NO signaling. Caveolae are critical in the transduction of eNOS/NO signaling in cardiovascular system. Caveolin (Cav)-3, the cardiomyocytes-specific caveolae structural protein, is decreased in the diabetic heart in which production of reactive oxygen species are increased...
October 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Hisa Hui Ling Tseng, Chi Teng Vong, Yiu Wa Kwan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Maggie Pui Man Hoi
Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia increased the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Although high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and aberrant Ca(2+) channels activity causes an increase in transmembrane Ca(2+) influx, however the relative contribution of Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is not well studied. Here, we identified that HG (30 mM glucose for 48 h) induced the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation, and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in human monocytic cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Therese S Salameh, Gul N Shah, Tulin O Price, Melvin R Hayden, William A Banks
All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunctions and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Raquel Del Pino-García, María D Rivero-Pérez, María L González-SanJosé, Pablo Castilla-Camina, Kevin D Croft, Pilar Muñiz
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency. This is usually accompanied by a pro-oxidative environment, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, thus leading to several micro- and macro-vascular complications. This study investigated the potential benefits of a seasoning obtained from seedless red wine pomace (RWPS) in protecting against oxidative damage and preserving endothelial function in Type 1 DM, and the underlying mechanisms involved at the level of gene expression...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Diego Soares Carvalho, Marilia Melo Diniz, André Abour Haidar, Maria de Fátima Cavanal, Eduardo da Silva Alves, Angelo Rafael Carpinelli, Frida Zaladek Gil, Aparecida Emiko Hirata
Maternal hyperglycemia can result in defects in glucose metabolism and pancreatic β-cell function in offspring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on pancreatic islets, muscle and adipose tissue of the offspring, with or without oral l-Arginine supplementation. The induction of diabetes was performed using streptozotocin (60mg/kg). Animals were studied at 3 months of age and treatment (sucrose or l-Arginine) was administered from weaning. We observed that l-Arg improved insulin sensitivity in the offspring of diabetic mothers (DA), reflected by higher insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt in muscle and adipose tissue...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiu Hong Yang, Yu Pan, Xiao Li Zhan, Bao Long Zhang, Li Li Guo, Hui Min Jin
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), extracted from green tea, has been shown to have antioxidative activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on the kidney function in db/db mice and also tried to investigate the underlying mechanism of the renoprotective effects of EGCG in both animals and cells. EGCG treatment could decrease the level of urinary protein, 8-iso-PGF2a, and Ang II. Moreover, EGCG could also change the level of several parameters associated with oxidative stress. In addition, the protein expression levels of AT-1R, p22-phox, p47-phox, p-ERK1/2, p-p38 MAPK, TGF-β1, and α-SMA in diabetic db/db mice were upregulated, and all of these symptoms were downregulated with the treatment of EGCG at 50 and 100 mg/kg/d...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
G Daş, A Vernunft, S Görs, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, K-P Brüssow, C C Metges
Physiological research with swine often includes sedation or general anesthesia (GA), which may influence the basal physiological responses of experimental animals and may have the potential to confound or interfere with the effects of experimental factors of interest. Using 6 adult female pigs, we investigated whether selected plasma metabolites and hormones are influenced by GA induced with ketamine (K) and 2 neuroleptic sedatives, namely azaperone (A) and xylazine (X). Fasted pigs rotationally received either no drug, a single intravenous administration of A or X, or A or X combined with ketamine (AK or XK, respectively), and plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), glucagon, insulin, and cortisol were determined for a 5-h period following administration...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Ala Abdelali, Maie Al-Bader, Narayana Kilarkaje
Diabetes induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alters several intracellular signaling pathways in organ systems. This study investigated modulatory effects of Trans-Resveratrol on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signaling in rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day, ip) to Streptozotocin-induced T1DM adult male Wistar rats from day 22-42 resulted in recovery of induced oxidative stress, abnormal spermatogenesis and inhibited DNA synthesis, and led to mitigation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the testis and spermatozoa, and DNA double-strand breaks in the testis...
September 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Julieta Diaz-Juarez, Jorge Suarez, Federico Cividini, Brian T Scott, Tanja Diemer, Anzhi Dai, Wolfgang H Dillmann
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with metabolic changes including decreased glucose oxidation (Gox) and increased fatty acid oxidation (FAox), which result in cardiac energetic deficiency. Diabetic hyperglycemia is a pathophysiological mechanism that triggers multiple maladaptive phenomena. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is the channel responsible for Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria and free mitochondrial calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) regulates mitochondrial metabolism. Experiments with cardiac myocytes (CM) exposed to simulated hyperglycemia revealed both reduced [Ca(2+)]m and MCU protein levels...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Zhongbo Liu, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Rhonda D Kineman, Bruce N Cronstein, Radhika Muzumdar, Zhenwei Gong, Haim Werner, Shoshana Yakar
In humans low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. In mice, congenital liver-specific ablation of the GH receptor (GHR) results in reductions in circulating IGF-1 and hepatic steatosis, associated with systemic insulin-resistance. Due to the intricate relationship between GH and IGF-1, the relative contribution of each hormone to the development of hepatic steatosis is unclear. Our goal was to dissect the mechanisms by which hepatic GH resistance leads to steatosis and overall insulin resistance, independent of IGF-1...
September 27, 2016: Diabetes
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