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Stress induced hyperglycemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430981/central-nervous-system-glp-1-receptors-regulate-islet-hormone-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#1
Lene Jessen, Eric P Smith, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, David D'Alessio
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system plays an important role in blood glucose regulation, in great part through coordinate control of insulin and glucagon secretion. These effects are generally attributed to GLP-1 produced in peripheral sites, principally the intestine. GLP-1 is also produced in hindbrain neurons that signal through GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) expressed in brain regions involved in metabolic regulation. GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) induces satiety, visceral illness, and stress responses...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422962/docosahexaenoic-acid-blocks-progression-of-western-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-obese-ldlr-mice
#2
Kelli A Lytle, Carmen P Wong, Donald B Jump
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422431/effect-of-empagliflozin-on-tacrolimus-induced-pancreas-islet-dysfunction-and-renal-injury
#3
J Jin, L Jin, K Luo, S W Lim, B H Chung, C W Yang
An inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) is recommended in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) but its use is still undetermined in Tacrolimus (TAC)-induced DM. We evaluated the effect of empagliflozin (Em) on TAC-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction and renal injury in experimental model of TAC-induced DM and in vitro. TAC induced a two-fold increase in SGLT-2 expression, while Em decreased SGLT-2 expression and further increased urinary glucose excretion compared to the TAC group. Em reduced hyperglycemia and increased plasma insulin level, pancreatic islet size and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) compared to the TAC group...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419828/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-flower-buds-of-lonicera-japonica-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#4
Dongying Wang, Xiangmei Zhao, Yulan Liu
Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are classic features for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, one fraction of the crude polysaccharides extracted from Lonicera japonica flower buds (LJP) were investigated for its hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities by means of streptozotocin (STZ)-inducd diabetic rats. Interestingly, after orally administrated with 800mg/kg body weight (B.W.) LJP for 42 days, the food and water intake and the levels of sugar and insulin in blood for the diatebic rats were drastically decreased, while the contents of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen and the concentrations of hepatic pyruvate kinase and hexokinase were obviously increased (p<0...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419827/antihyperglycemic-antioxidant-activities-of-tucum%C3%A3-oil-astrocaryum-vulgare-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-and-identification-of-fatty-acid-profile-by-gas-chromatograph-new-natural-source-to-treat-hyperglycemia
#5
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Luciana F Cossetin, Michele R Sagrillo, Kátia Nascimento, Aleksandro S da Silva, Alencar K Machado, Ivana B M da Cruz, Lenita M Stefani, Bruna Klein, Roger Wagner, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the oral administration of tucumã oil (Astrocaryum vulgare) on glucose and insulin levels, oxidative status, and pancreatic genotoxic parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): control/water; control/tucumã oil; diabetic/water; diabetic/tucumã oil treated for 14 days with 5.0 mL kg(-1) via oral gavage. Gas chromatograph characterization demonstrated that oleic/elaidic fatty acid is the most abundant component present in this oil, followed by palmitic and stearic fatty acids...
April 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408372/effects-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-on-microvascular-and-macrovascular-function-in-a-healthy-population
#6
Jordan Loader, Cindy Meziat, Rani Watts, Christian Lorenzen, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Simon Stewart, Cyril Reboul, Gregory Meyer, Guillaume Walther
OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular function during acute hyperglycemia induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and its effect on underlying mechanisms of the nitric oxide pathway. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, single-blind, crossover trial, 12 healthy male participants consumed 600 mL (20 oz.) of water or a commercial SSB across 2 visits. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions were assessed in the microcirculation using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with iontophoresis and in the macrocirculation using brachial artery ultrasound with flow- and nitrate-mediated dilation...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403934/a-synthetic-nitraria-alkaloid-isonitramine-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-and-attenuates-postprandial-hyperglycemia
#7
So Jung Kwon, Su Jung Hwang, Yeonghun Jung, Hyeung-Geun Park, Mi-Hyun Kim, Yohan Park, Hyo-Jong Lee
OBJECTIVE: The extracts of Nitraria genus are composed of Nitraria alkaloids and have been used traditionally as a hypoglycemic medicine. However, the efficacy and precise mechanism of Nitraria alkaloids remain largely unknown. METHODS: Previously, we reported the total synthesis of (+)-isonitramine, one of Nitraria alkaloids. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of isonitramine in diabetes mellitus and its underlying molecular mechanism in carbohydrate catabolism in vitro and in vivo...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402540/the-hepatic-protection-effects-of-hepassocin-in-hyperglycemic-crisis
#8
Horng-Yih Ou, Hung-Tsung Wu, Ching-Han Lin, Ye-Fong Du, Che-Yuan Hu, Hao-Chang Hung, Pansee Wu, Hung-Yuan Li, Shu-Huei Wang, Chih-Jen Chang
CONTEXT: High glucose generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributes to glucotoxicity in hepatocytes, and hyperglycemia causes structural and functional damage to the liver. However, only a mild hepatic dysfunction was observed in subjects with hyperglycemic crisis, implying a factor exists to exert a hepatic protective effect. Hepassocin is a hepatokine that modulates the proliferation and metabolism of hepatocytes, and also exerts protective activity in liver injury. However, its role in hyperglycemic crisis-induced hepatic dysfunction remains unknown...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400286/increased-oxidative-stress-and-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-parameters-in-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-gestational-arterial-hypertension
#9
Mina Toljic, Amira Egic, Jelena Munjas, Natasa Karadzov Orlic, Zagorka Milovanovic, Aleksandra Radenkovic, Jovana Vuceljic, Ivana Joksic
We investigated whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational arterial hypertension (GH) are associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. Study included 3 groups of pregnant women (GDM, GH and control). DNA damage biomarkers (micronuclei MNi, nucleoplasmic bridges NPBs and nuclear buds NBUDs) were assessed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Oxidative stress levels were evaluated by analyzing malondialdehyde equivalents (TBARS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)...
April 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397090/tributyltin-in-male-mice-disrupts-glucose-homeostasis-as-well-as-recovery-after-exposure-mechanism-analysis
#10
Bingshui Li, Jiaojiao Guo, Zhihui Xi, Jing Xu, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin can induce diabetes and insulin resistance. However, the development of diabetes caused by organotins and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, male KM mice were orally administered with TBT (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg) once every 3 days for 45 days. Their body weights increased and reached a significant difference compared to the control, and the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly elevated. The fasting levels of serum insulin and adiponectin increased, while glucagon levels decreased in the animals treated with TBT...
April 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387565/the-therapeutic-potential-of-piceatannol-a-natural-stilbene-in-metabolic-diseases-a-review
#11
Jonathan Kershaw, Kee-Hong Kim
Metabolic disease comprises a set of risk factors highly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is a consequence of central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, obesity increases the risk of the development of metabolic disease due to ectopic fat deposition, low-grade inflammation, and systemic energy disorders caused by dysregulated adipose tissue function. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic stilbene found in various fruits and vegetables and has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386307/sulforaphane-protects-against-high-cholesterol-induced-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-impairments-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-and-preserves-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-function
#12
Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Kah Ni Tan, Martin Gotteland, Karin Borges
Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate Nrf2-inducer, against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction, through molecular and cellular mechanisms involving mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sulforaphane prevented cholesterol-induced alterations in the coupling efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, improving ATP turnover and spare capacity, and averted the impairment of the electron flow at complexes I, II, and IV...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374834/glycation-of-paraoxonase-1-by-high-glucose-instigates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-induce-endothelial-dysfunction-in-vivo
#13
Wei Yu, Xiaoli Liu, Liru Feng, Hui Yang, Weiye Yu, Tiejian Feng, Shuangxi Wang, Jun Wang, Ning Liu
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) modulates low-density lipoprotein and cell membrane oxidation through the action of paraoxonase-1 (PON1). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to a wide range of human pathologies including diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Previous studies have reported that PON1 is glycated in diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how PON1 glycation contributes to endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. ER stress markers were monitored by western blot...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373658/nod2-and-nod2-regulated-microbiota-protect-balb-c-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#14
Ivan Rodriguez-Nunez, Tiffany Caluag, Kori Kirby, Charles N Rudick, Roman Dziarski, Dipika Gupta
Genetics plays a central role in susceptibility to obesity and metabolic diseases. BALB/c mice are known to be resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, however the genetic cause remains unknown. We report that deletion of the innate immunity antibacterial gene Nod2 abolishes this resistance, as Nod2 (-/-) BALB/c mice developed HFD-dependent obesity and hallmark features of metabolic syndrome. Nod2 (-/-) HFD mice developed hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, increased adiposity, and steatosis, with large lipid droplets in their hepatocytes...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363842/potential-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Impairments in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during diabetes mellitus, leading to its dysfunction, have been known since a decade. Hyperglycemia induces several pathological alterations which upregulate this system, accounting for overexpression of its downstream signaling molecules, amongst which angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone hold prime pathological notoriety. Although it is well known that elevated plasma levels of Ang II play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of type-II diabetic mellitus, by inducing and aggravating insulin resistance, it is not quite much known that it equally elevates the possibility/risk of development of diabetic complications...
May 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359892/bamboo-leaf-extract-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-through-activating-the-akt-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#16
Changjiang Ying, Yizhen Mao, Lei Chen, Shanshan Wang, Hongwei Ling, Wei Li, Xiaoyan Zhou
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe diabetic complication and it is becoming become a worldwide epidemic, accounting for approximately one-third of all case of end-stage renal disease. However, the underlying mechanism and strategy to alleviate renal injury remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the protective effect of bamboo leaf extract on the DN, and investigated the underlying mechanism by which bamboo leaf extract ameliorating DN. Diabetic rats were induced by 4 weeks high sugar and high fat diet, and then injected a single dose of STZ (35mg/kg) into abdominal cavity...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356096/%C3%AE-cell-protection-and-antidiabetic-activities-of-crassocephalum-crepidioides-asteraceae-benth-s-moore-extract-against-alloxan-induced-oxidative-stress-via-regulation-of-apoptosis-and-reactive-oxygen-species-ros
#17
Entaz Bahar, Kazi-Marjahan Akter, Geum-Hwa Lee, Hwa-Young Lee, Harun-Or Rashid, Min-Kyung Choi, Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Mir Mohammad Monir Hossain, Joushan Ara, Kishor Mazumder, Obayed Raihan, Han-Jung Chae, Hyonok Yoon
BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. METHOD: The in-vitro study was conducted by the pancreatic β-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique which includes two methods, namely starch-iodine method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method...
March 29, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356033/a-glycation-angle-to-look-into-the-diabetic-vasculopathy-cause-and-cure
#18
Saheem Ahmad, Zeba Siddiqui, Shahnawaz Rehman, Mohd Yasir Khan, Hamda Khan, Sheeba Khanum, Sultan Alouffi, Mohd Saeed
The process of advanced glycation, which is accelerated in diabetes as a result of chronic hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress, has been suggested to play a vital role in the diabetic complications. Extensive intracellular and extracellular generation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been linked to increased risk for microvascular and macrovascular injuries in diabetes. AGEs result from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, potentially altering their function...
March 27, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353042/beneficial-effects-of-phyllanthus-amarus-against-high-fructose-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-oxidative-stress-in-male-wistar-rats
#19
Mallaiah Putakala, Sudhakara Gujjala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Saralakumari Desireddy
Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days...
March 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350848/reduction-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-underlies-anticataract-effect-of-topically-applied-tocotrienol-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Nurul Alimah Abdul Nasir, Renu Agarwal, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Sushil Vasudevan, Minaketan Tripathy, Igor Iezhitsa, Aqil Mohammad Daher, Mohd Ikraam Ibrahim, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
2017: PloS One
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