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amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888083/clinical-and-imaging-evaluation-of-the-transuncus-selective-amygdalo-hippocampectomy
#1
Enrico Ghizoni, Roger Matias, Stefan Lieber, Brunno Machado de Campos, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Pamela Castro Pereira, Augusto Amato, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Tátila Martins Lopes, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Various reports described the transuncus approach (TU) as a selective route to the amygdala and hippocampus, but this approach has not yet being submitted to a solid post operative imaging analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative imaging analysis and outcome in a series of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy (SHA) via TU. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy through TU...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829869/interaction-between-thalamus-and-hippocampus-in-termination-of-amygdala-kindled-seizures-in-mice
#2
Zhen Zhang, Jia-Jia Li, Qin-Chi Lu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang
The thalamus and hippocampus have been found both involved in the initiation, propagation, and termination of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the interaction of these regions during seizures is not clear. The present study is to explore whether some regular patterns exist in their interaction during the termination of seizures. Multichannel in vivo recording techniques were used to record the neural activities from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in mice. The mice were kindled by electrically stimulating basolateral amygdala neurons, and Racine's rank standard was employed to classify the stage of behavioral responses (stage 1~5)...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818364/might-the-olfactory-bulb-be-an-origin-of-olfactory-auras-in-focal-epilepsy
#3
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797809/timing-and-significance-of-pathological-features-in-c9orf72-expansion-associated-frontotemporal-dementia
#4
Sarat C Vatsavayai, Soo Jin Yoon, Raquel C Gardner, Tania F Gendron, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Andrew Trujillo, Mochtar Pribadi, Joanna J Phillips, Stephanie E Gaus, John D Hixson, Paul A Garcia, Gil D Rabinovici, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Leonard Petrucelli, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
SEE SCABER AND TALBOT DOI101093/AWW264 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: A GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 leads to frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diverse pathological features have been identified, and their disease relevance remains much debated. Here, we describe two illuminating patients with frontotemporal dementia due to the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old female with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia accompanied by focal degeneration in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and medial pulvinar thalamus...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769717/progressive-neuronal-activation-accompanies-epileptogenesis-caused-by-hippocampal-glutamine-synthetase-inhibition
#5
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650712/mbd3-expression-and-dna-binding-patterns-are-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Joanna Bednarczyk, Konrad J Dębski, Anna M Bot, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The aim of the present study was to examine involvement of MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3), a protein involved in reading DNA methylation patterns, in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. We used a well-characterized rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy that is triggered by status epilepticus, evoked by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Stimulated and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 14 days after stimulation. We found that MBD3 transcript was present in neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in both control and epileptic animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635630/white-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-amygdala-enlargement-comparison-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-healthy-subjects
#7
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579577/preparation-antiepileptic-activity-and-cardiovascular-safety-of-dihydropyrazoles-as-brain-penetrant-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers
#8
Lubos Remen, Olivier Bezençon, Lloyd Simons, Rick Gaston, Dennis Downing, John Gatfield, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, Johannes Mosbacher, Thomas Pfeifer, Corinna Grisostomi, Markus Rey, Eric A Ertel, Richard Moon
A series of dihydropyrazole derivatives was developed as potent, selective, and brain-penetrating T-type calcium channel blockers. An optimized derivative, compound 6c, was advanced to in vivo studies, where it demonstrated efficacy in the WAG/Rij rat model of generalized nonconvulsive, absence-like epilepsy. Compound 6c was not efficacious in the basolateral amygdala kindling rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and it led to prolongation of the PR interval in ECG recordings in rodents.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552380/the-predictive-value-of-fdg-pet-with-3d-ssp-for-surgical-outcomes-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Takuma Higo, Hidenori Sugano, Madoka Nakajima, Kostadin Karagiozov, Yasushi Iimura, Masaru Suzuki, Kiyoshi Sato, Hajime Arai
PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of (18)F-2-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with statistical analysis for the foci detection and predictive utility for postsurgical seizure outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). METHOD: We evaluated 40 patients who were diagnosed mTLE and underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in our institute. Preoperative interictal FDG-PET with statistical analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) was detected with several clinical data including seizure semiology, MRI, scalp electroencephalography, surgical procedure with SAH or ATL and postsurgical outcome...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499121/transcortical-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-technique-through-the-middle-temporal-gyrus-revisited-an-anatomical-study-laboratory-investigation
#10
Baran Bozkurt, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Ali Karadag, Bekir Tugcu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Serdar Kaya, Kaan Yagmurlu, Andrew Grande
The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458343/dystrophin-distribution-and-expression-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445726/rapid-amygdala-kindling-causes-motor-seizure-and-comorbidity-of-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats
#12
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418040/suspected-new-onset-autoimmune-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-amygdala-enlargement
#13
Michael P Malter, Guido Widman, Norbert Galldiks, Winfried Stoecker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E Elger, Jan Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE-AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new-onset TLE-AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new-onset (<5 years) TLE-AE, negative serum antibody (ab) test results, and with available follow-up data for at least 12 months...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404844/chemogenetic-silencing-of-the-midline-and-intralaminar-thalamus-blocks-amygdala-kindled-seizures
#14
Evan Wicker, Patrick A Forcelli
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of medically-intractable epilepsy. While seizures in TLE originate in structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal cortex, they propagate through a crucial relay: the midline/intralaminar thalamus. Prior studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of midline thalamus attenuates limbic seizures. Here, we examined a recently developed technology, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), as a means of chemogenetic silencing to attenuate limbic seizures...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374869/resting-state-functional-mri-distinguishes-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-subtypes
#15
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Xiuyuan Wang, Daniel Hahn, Daeil Yoo, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether presurgical resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information for distinguishing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) from TLE without MTS (TLE-noMTS). METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex-/age-matched controls consented to a research imaging protocol. MTS status was confirmed by histologic evaluation of surgical tissue (TLE-MTS = 16; TLE-noMTS = 18). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs) in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state fMRI signal, a marker of local metabolic demand at rest, was averaged at five regions of interest (ROIs; hippocampus, amygdala, frontal, occipital, and temporal lobe), along with corresponding volume and cortical thickness estimates...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313873/effects-of-swimming-exercise-on-limbic-and-motor-cortex-neurogenesis-in-the-kainate-lesion-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Vasavi R Gorantla, Amulya Sirigiri, Yulia A Volkova, Richard M Millis
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disease and antiseizure medication is often inadequate for preventing apoptotic cell death. Aerobic swimming exercise (EX) augments neurogenesis in rats when initiated immediately in the postictal period. This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic exercise also augments neurogenesis over the long term. Male Wistar rats (age of 4 months) were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an EX intervention consisting of a 30 d period of daily swimming for 15 min, in one experiment immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) and in a second experiment after a 60 d period of normal activity (delayed exposure)...
2016: Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255267/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-aggression-an-evidence-based-review
#17
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251615/transient-p2x7-receptor-antagonism-produces-lasting-reductions-in-spontaneous-seizures-and-gliosis-in-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Marina Arribas-Blázquez, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Luis A Olivos-Oré, Antonio R Artalejo, Mariana Alves, Michael Letavic, M Teresa Miras-Portugal, Ronan M Conroy, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Anindya Bhattacharya, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
UNLABELLED: Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of temporal lobe epilepsy, but the underlying cell and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The P2X7 receptor is an ionotropic receptor predominantly expressed on the surface of microglia, although neuronal expression has also been reported. The receptor is activated by the release of ATP from intracellular sources that occurs during neurodegeneration, leading to microglial activation and inflammasome-mediated interleukin 1β release that contributes to neuroinflammation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250053/cardiac-asystole-triggered-by-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-amygdala-enlargement
#19
Junko Arakawa, Tomoo Nagai, Hiroshi Takasaki, Hidenori Sugano, Akira Hamabe, Mai Tahara, Hitoshi Mori, Yoshiyuki Takase, Youdou Gatate, Naohiko Togashi, Shunichi Takiguchi, Kazuhiro Nakaya, Norio Ishigami, Hirotsugu Tabata, Kouji Fukushima, Shuichi Katsushika
A 25-year-old previously healthy man was hospitalized for syncope. While standing, he suddenly lost consciousness, followed by a generalized tonic clonic seizure. An electrocardiogram demonstrated asystole. No cardiac abnormalities were detected on the echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, or a coronary angiogram. An electrophysiological study showed normal sinus node and atrioventricular node function. An electroencephalogram revealed small spike waves in the fronto-temporal region...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231493/amygdala-volumetry-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-normal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Paramdeep Singh, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Kavita Saggar, Gagandeep Singh, Simmi Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy may relate to abnormalities in various brain structures, including the amygdala. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) without MRI abnormalities (MTLE-NMRI) represent a challenge for diagnosis of the underlying abnormality and for presurgical evaluation. To date, however, only few studies have used quantitative structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based techniques to examine amygdalar pathology in these patients...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
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