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amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy

Joanna Bednarczyk, Konrad J Dębski, Anna M Bot, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The aim of the present study was to examine involvement of MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3), a protein involved in reading DNA methylation patterns, in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. We used a well-characterized rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy that is triggered by status epilepticus, evoked by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Stimulated and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 14 days after stimulation. We found that MBD3 transcript was present in neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in both control and epileptic animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Lubos Remen, Olivier Bezençon, Lloyd Simons, Rick Gaston, Dennis Downing, John Gatfield, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, Johannes Mosbacher, Thomas Pfeifer, Corinna Grisostomi, Markus Rey, Eric A Ertel, Richard Moon
A series of dihydropyrazole derivatives was developed as potent, selective, and brain-penetrating T-type calcium channel blockers. An optimized derivative, compound 6c, was advanced to in vivo studies, where it demonstrated efficacy in the WAG/Rij rat model of generalized nonconvulsive, absence-like epilepsy. Compound 6c was not efficacious in the basolateral amygdala kindling rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and it led to prolongation of the PR interval in ECG recordings in rodents.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Takuma Higo, Hidenori Sugano, Madoka Nakajima, Kostadin Karagiozov, Yasushi Iimura, Masaru Suzuki, Kiyoshi Sato, Hajime Arai
PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of (18)F-2-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with statistical analysis for the foci detection and predictive utility for postsurgical seizure outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). METHOD: We evaluated 40 patients who were diagnosed mTLE and underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in our institute. Preoperative interictal FDG-PET with statistical analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) was detected with several clinical data including seizure semiology, MRI, scalp electroencephalography, surgical procedure with SAH or ATL and postsurgical outcome...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Baran Bozkurt, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Ali Karadag, Bekir Tugcu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Serdar Kaya, Kaan Yagmurlu, Andrew Grande
The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Michael P Malter, Guido Widman, Norbert Galldiks, Winfried Stoecker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E Elger, Jan Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE-AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new-onset TLE-AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new-onset (<5 years) TLE-AE, negative serum antibody (ab) test results, and with available follow-up data for at least 12 months...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Evan Wicker, Patrick A Forcelli
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of medically-intractable epilepsy. While seizures in TLE originate in structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal cortex, they propagate through a crucial relay: the midline/intralaminar thalamus. Prior studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of midline thalamus attenuates limbic seizures. Here, we examined a recently developed technology, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), as a means of chemogenetic silencing to attenuate limbic seizures...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Xiuyuan Wang, Daniel Hahn, Daeil Yoo, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether presurgical resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information for distinguishing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) from TLE without MTS (TLE-noMTS). METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex-/age-matched controls consented to a research imaging protocol. MTS status was confirmed by histologic evaluation of surgical tissue (TLE-MTS = 16; TLE-noMTS = 18). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs) in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state fMRI signal, a marker of local metabolic demand at rest, was averaged at five regions of interest (ROIs; hippocampus, amygdala, frontal, occipital, and temporal lobe), along with corresponding volume and cortical thickness estimates...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Vasavi R Gorantla, Amulya Sirigiri, Yulia A Volkova, Richard M Millis
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disease and antiseizure medication is often inadequate for preventing apoptotic cell death. Aerobic swimming exercise (EX) augments neurogenesis in rats when initiated immediately in the postictal period. This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic exercise also augments neurogenesis over the long term. Male Wistar rats (age of 4 months) were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an EX intervention consisting of a 30 d period of daily swimming for 15 min, in one experiment immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) and in a second experiment after a 60 d period of normal activity (delayed exposure)...
2016: Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Marina Arribas-Blázquez, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Luis A Olivos-Oré, Antonio R Artalejo, Mariana Alves, Michael Letavic, M Teresa Miras-Portugal, Ronan M Conroy, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Anindya Bhattacharya, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
UNLABELLED: Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of temporal lobe epilepsy, but the underlying cell and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The P2X7 receptor is an ionotropic receptor predominantly expressed on the surface of microglia, although neuronal expression has also been reported. The receptor is activated by the release of ATP from intracellular sources that occurs during neurodegeneration, leading to microglial activation and inflammasome-mediated interleukin 1β release that contributes to neuroinflammation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Junko Arakawa, Tomoo Nagai, Hiroshi Takasaki, Hidenori Sugano, Akira Hamabe, Mai Tahara, Hitoshi Mori, Yoshiyuki Takase, Youdou Gatate, Naohiko Togashi, Shunichi Takiguchi, Kazuhiro Nakaya, Norio Ishigami, Hirotsugu Tabata, Kouji Fukushima, Shuichi Katsushika
A 25-year-old previously healthy man was hospitalized for syncope. While standing, he suddenly lost consciousness, followed by a generalized tonic clonic seizure. An electrocardiogram demonstrated asystole. No cardiac abnormalities were detected on the echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, or a coronary angiogram. An electrophysiological study showed normal sinus node and atrioventricular node function. An electroencephalogram revealed small spike waves in the fronto-temporal region...
2016: Internal Medicine
Paramdeep Singh, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Kavita Saggar, Gagandeep Singh, Simmi Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy may relate to abnormalities in various brain structures, including the amygdala. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) without MRI abnormalities (MTLE-NMRI) represent a challenge for diagnosis of the underlying abnormality and for presurgical evaluation. To date, however, only few studies have used quantitative structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based techniques to examine amygdalar pathology in these patients...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Sreekanth Puttachary, Shaunik Sharma, Saurabh Verma, Yang Yang, Marson Putra, Achala Thippeswamy, Diou Luo, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Status epilepticus (SE) initiates epileptogenesis to transform normal brain to epileptic state which is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Prior to SRS, progressive changes occur in the brain soon after SE, for example, loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuronal hyper-excitability (epileptiform spiking), neuroinflammation [reactive gliosis, high levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)], neurodegeneration and synaptic re-organization. Our hypothesis was that modification of early epileptogenic events will alter the course of disease development and its progression...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Richard A Prayson
Hyaline protoplasmic astrocytopathy is a rare histopathologic finding in which there is an accumulation of filamin A within protoplasmic astrocytes. The condition has been reported in association with Aicardi syndrome and in patients with epilepsy. This case reports findings of hyaline protoplasmic astrocytopathy in a 4-year-old female who presented with febrile-onset, medically-intractable epilepsy. She underwent resection of the left lateral temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala. In addition to characteristic eosinophilic, astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, the lateral temporal lobe showed changes consistent with ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) type Ic focal cortical dysplasia/Palmini et al...
May 18, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
S M Jessica Beh, Mark J Cook, Wendyl J D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the seizure characteristics and treatment outcomes in patient groups with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) identified with isolated amygdala enlargement (AE) on magnetic resonance imaging studies. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies using the keywords 'amygdala enlargement', 'epilepsy', and 'seizures' in April 2015. Human studies, written in English, that investigated cohorts of patients with TLE and AE were included...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Umair J Chaudhary, Maria Centeno, Rachel C Thornton, Roman Rodionov, Serge Vulliemoz, Andrew W McEvoy, Beate Diehl, Matthew C Walker, John S Duncan, David W Carmichael, Louis Lemieux
Accurately characterising the brain networks involved in seizure activity may have important implications for our understanding of epilepsy. Intracranial EEG-fMRI can be used to capture focal epileptic events in humans with exquisite electrophysiological sensitivity and allows for identification of brain structures involved in this phenomenon over the entire brain. We investigated ictal BOLD networks using the simultaneous intracranial EEG-fMRI (icEEG-fMRI) in a 30 year-old male undergoing invasive presurgical evaluation with bilateral depth electrode implantations in amygdalae and hippocampi for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
B von Rhein, J Wagner, G Widman, M P Malter, C E Elger, C Helmstaedter
OBJECTIVES: Whether and when to immunologically treat epilepsy patients with suggested autoantibody (AB)-negative limbic encephalitis (LE) is clinically challenging. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcome and eventual outcome predictors of immunotherapy in a group of AB-negative patients with recent-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of LE, subjective cognitive decline, and/or psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, uncontrolled study monitored 28 TLE patients with suggested AB-negative LE along with methylprednisolone immunotherapy...
March 4, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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