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amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622539/features-of-amygdala-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-mri-volumetric-and-histopathological-study
#1
Yoko Nakayama, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Takefumi Higashijima, Hiroki Kitaura, Yukihiko Fujii, Akiyoshi Kakita, Masafumi Fukuda
OBJECTIVE: It is well-known that there is a correlation between the neuropathological grade of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and neuroradiological atrophy of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients. However, there is no strict definition or criterion regarding neuron loss and atrophy of the amygdala neighboring the hippocampus. We examined the relationship between HS and neuronal loss in the amygdala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen mTLE patients with neuropathological proof of HS were assigned to Group A, while seven mTLE patients without HS were assigned to Group B...
May 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#2
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462087/identification-of-brain-regions-predicting-epileptogenesis-by-serial-18-f-ge-180-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Vera Russmann, Matthias Brendel, Erik Mille, Angela Helm-Vicidomini, Roswitha Beck, Lisa Günther, Simon Lindner, Axel Rominger, Michael Keck, Josephine D Salvamoser, Nathalie L Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Excessive activation of inflammatory signaling pathways seems to be a hallmark of epileptogenesis. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo detection of brain inflammation with spatial information and opportunities for longitudinal follow-up scanning protocols. Here, we assessed whether molecular imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) can serve as a biomarker for the development of epilepsy. Therefore, brain uptake of [(18)F]GE-180, a highly selective radioligand of TSPO, was investigated in a longitudinal PET study in a chronic rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458103/changes-in-the-interictal-and-early-postictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-parameters-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#4
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions. METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs)...
April 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
June 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438504/agomelatine-protects-against-neuronal-damage-without-preventing-epileptogenesis-in-the-kainate-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Milena Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Rumyana Gesheva, Nikolai Lazarov
Recent studies about the novel antidepressant agomelatine, which is a mixed MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist possessing an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective action, suggest that it may have potential to contribute against epileptogenesis and epilepsy-induced memory impairment. In order to ascertain whether protection of some brain structures could suppress epileptogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of chronic post-status treatment with agomelatine on epileptogenesis, behavioral and neuronal damage induced by kainate acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427018/left-or-right-lateralizing-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-by-dynamic-amygdala-fmri
#7
Victoria Ives-Deliperi, James Thomas Butler, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: In this case series, the findings of 85 functional MRI studies employing a dynamic fearful face paradigm are reported. Previous findings have shown the paradigm to generate bilateral amygdala activations in healthy subjects and unilateral activations in patients with MTLE, in the contralateral hemisphere to seizure origin. Such findings suggest ipsilateral limbic pathology and offer collateral evidence in lateralizing MTLE. METHODS: The series includes 60 patients with TLE, 12 patients with extra-temporal lobe epilepsy, and 13 healthy controls...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#8
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#9
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378878/network-evolution-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-revealed-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Helen Wang, Yuegao Huang, Daniel Coman, Reshma Munbodh, Roni Dhaher, Hitten P Zaveri, Fahmeed Hyder, Tore Eid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to identify novel, time-indexed imaging biomarkers of epileptogenesis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS: We used high-resolution brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the translationally relevant methionine sulfoximine (MSO) brain infusion model of MTLE. MSO inhibits astroglial glutamine synthetase, which is deficient in the epileptogenic hippocampal formation of patients with MTLE. MSO-infused (epileptogenic) rats were compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-infused (nonepileptogenic) rats at early (3-4 days) and late (6-9 weeks) time points during epileptogenesis...
May 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370719/brain-structure-and-organization-five-decades-after-childhood-onset-epilepsy
#11
Camille Garcia-Ramos, Sam Bobholz, Kevin Dabbs, Bruce Hermann, Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Mira Karrasch, Vivek Prabhakaran, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
The purpose of this project was to characterize brain structure and organization in persons with active and remitted childhood onset epilepsy 50 years after diagnosis compared with healthy controls. Participants from a population-based investigation of uncomplicated childhood onset epilepsy were followed up 5 decades later. Forty-one participants had a history of childhood onset epilepsy (mean age of onset = 5.2 years, current chronological age = 56.0 years) and were compared with 48 population-based controls (mean age = 55...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352126/social-cognition-in-neuropsychiatric-populations-a-comparison-of-theory-of-mind-in-schizophrenia-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Bala, Małgorzata Wordecha, Michał Jarkiewicz, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Szczepocka, Aleksandra Piejka, Oliwia Zaborowska, Marta Szantroch, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel
Social cognition deficits are observed both in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). This may be due to dysfunction of the amygdala network, which is a common feature of both diseases. In this study, SCZ (n = 48) or MTLE (n = 31) and healthy controls (HC, n = 47) completed assessments of mentalising (Reading Mind in the Eyes Test, RMET) and basic cognitive processing, e.g., working memory, executive functions and psychomotor speed (Trail-Making Test B and Digit Symbol)...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#13
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284051/amygdala-enlargement-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-subtype-or-nonspecific-finding
#14
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Carrie R McDonald, Graeme D Jackson, David N Vaughan, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. METHODS: We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs)...
May 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167431/adeno-associated-viral-vector-mediated-preprosomatostatin-expression-suppresses-induced-seizures-in-kindled-rats
#16
Gowri Natarajan, Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Junli Zhou, Yang Zhao, Jessica A McElroy, Michael A King, Brandi K Ormerod, Paul R Carney
Somatostatin is expressed widely in the hippocampus and notably in hilar GABAergic neurons that are vulnerable to seizure neuropathology in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that sustained bilateral preprosomatostatin (preproSST) expression in the hippocampus prevents the development of generalized seizures in the amygdala kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we tested whether sustained preproSST expression is anticonvulsant in rats already kindled to high-grade seizures. Rats were kindled until they exhibited 3 consecutive Racine Grade 5 seizures before adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector driving either eGFP (AAV5-CBa-eGFP) or preproSST and eGFP (AAV5-CBa-preproSST-eGFP) expression was injected bilaterally into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region...
February 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#17
Ruslan Bogovyk, Oleksii Lunko, Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079889/deletion-of-the-bh3-only-protein-noxa-alters-electrographic-seizures-but-does-not-protect-against-hippocampal-damage-after-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#18
Naoki Ichikawa, Mariana Alves, Shona Pfeiffer, Elena Langa, Yasmina E Hernández-Santana, Hidenori Suzuki, Jochen Hm Prehn, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
Several members of the Bcl-2 gene family are dysregulated in human temporal lobe epilepsy and animal studies show that genetic deletion of some of these proteins influence electrographic seizure responses to chemoconvulsants and associated brain damage. The BH3-only proteins form a subgroup comprising direct activators of Bax-Bak that are potently proapoptotic and a number of weaker proapoptotic BH3-only proteins that act as sensitizers by neutralization of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Noxa was originally characterized as a weaker proapoptotic, 'sensitizer' BH3-only protein, although recent evidence suggests it too may be potently proapoptotic...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#19
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959333/a-single-high-dose-of-dexamethasone-affects-the-phosphorylation-state-of-glutamate-ampa-receptors-in-the-human-limbic-system
#20
M W Lopes, R B Leal, R Guarnieri, M L Schwarzbold, A Hoeller, A P Diaz, G L Boos, K Lin, M N Linhares, J C Nunes, J Quevedo, Z A Bortolotto, H J Markowitsch, S L Lightman, R Walz
Glucocorticoids (GC) released during stress response exert feedforward effects in the whole brain, but particularly in the limbic circuits that modulates cognition, emotion and behavior. GC are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication worldwide and pharmacological GC treatment has been paralleled by the high incidence of acute and chronic neuropsychiatric side effects, which reinforces the brain sensitivity for GC. Synapses can be bi-directionally modifiable via potentiation (long-term potentiation, LTP) or depotentiation (long-term depression, LTD) of synaptic transmission efficacy, and the phosphorylation state of Ser831 and Ser845 sites, in the GluA1 subunit of the glutamate AMPA receptors, are a critical event for these synaptic neuroplasticity events...
December 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
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