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amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167431/adeno-associated-viral-vector-mediated-preprosomatostatin-expression-suppresses-induced-seizures-in-kindled-rats
#2
Gowri Natarajan, Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Junli Zhou, Yang Zhao, Jessica A McElroy, Michael A King, Brandi K Ormerod, Paul R Carney
Somatostatin is expressed widely in the hippocampus and notably in hilar GABAergic neurons that are vulnerable to seizure neuropathology in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that sustained bilateral preprosomatostatin (preproSST) expression in the hippocampus prevents the development of generalized seizures in the amygdala kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we tested whether sustained preproSST expression is anticonvulsant in rats already kindled to high-grade seizures. Rats were kindled until they exhibited 3 consecutive Racine Grade 5 seizures before adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector driving either eGFP (AAV5-CBa-eGFP) or preproSST and eGFP (AAV5-CBa-preproSST-eGFP) expression was injected bilaterally into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region...
January 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#3
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079889/deletion-of-the-bh3-only-protein-noxa-alters-electrographic-seizures-but-does-not-protect-against-hippocampal-damage-after-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#4
Naoki Ichikawa, Mariana Alves, Shona Pfeiffer, Elena Langa, Yasmina E Hernández-Santana, Hidenori Suzuki, Jochen Hm Prehn, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
Several members of the Bcl-2 gene family are dysregulated in human temporal lobe epilepsy and animal studies show that genetic deletion of some of these proteins influence electrographic seizure responses to chemoconvulsants and associated brain damage. The BH3-only proteins form a subgroup comprising direct activators of Bax-Bak that are potently proapoptotic and a number of weaker proapoptotic BH3-only proteins that act as sensitizers by neutralization of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Noxa was originally characterized as a weaker proapoptotic, 'sensitizer' BH3-only protein, although recent evidence suggests it too may be potently proapoptotic...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#5
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959333/a-single-high-dose-of-dexamethasone-affects-the-phosphorylation-state-of-glutamate-ampa-receptors-in-the-human-limbic-system
#6
M W Lopes, R B Leal, R Guarnieri, M L Schwarzbold, A Hoeller, A P Diaz, G L Boos, K Lin, M N Linhares, J C Nunes, J Quevedo, Z A Bortolotto, H J Markowitsch, S L Lightman, R Walz
Glucocorticoids (GC) released during stress response exert feedforward effects in the whole brain, but particularly in the limbic circuits that modulates cognition, emotion and behavior. GC are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication worldwide and pharmacological GC treatment has been paralleled by the high incidence of acute and chronic neuropsychiatric side effects, which reinforces the brain sensitivity for GC. Synapses can be bi-directionally modifiable via potentiation (long-term potentiation, LTP) or depotentiation (long-term depression, LTD) of synaptic transmission efficacy, and the phosphorylation state of Ser831 and Ser845 sites, in the GluA1 subunit of the glutamate AMPA receptors, are a critical event for these synaptic neuroplasticity events...
December 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942449/resting-state-functional-network-disruptions-in-a-kainic-acid-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Ravnoor Singh Gill, Seyed M Mirsattari, L Stan Leung
We studied the graph topological properties of brain networks derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a kainic acid induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats. Functional connectivity was determined by temporal correlation of the resting-state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals between two brain regions during 1.5% and 2% isoflurane, and analyzed as networks in epileptic and control rats. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a significant increase in functional connectivity between brain areas in epileptic than control rats, and the connected brain areas could be categorized as a limbic network and a default mode network (DMN)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888083/clinical-and-imaging-evaluation-of-the-transuncus-selective-amygdalo-hippocampectomy
#8
Enrico Ghizoni, Roger Matias, Stefan Lieber, Brunno Machado de Campos, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Pamela Castro Pereira, Augusto Amato, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Tátila Martins Lopes, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Various reports described the transuncus approach (TU) as a selective route to the amygdala and hippocampus, but this approach has not yet being submitted to a solid post operative imaging analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative imaging analysis and outcome in a series of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy (SHA) via TU. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy through TU...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829869/interaction-between-thalamus-and-hippocampus-in-termination-of-amygdala-kindled-seizures-in-mice
#9
Zhen Zhang, Jia-Jia Li, Qin-Chi Lu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang
The thalamus and hippocampus have been found both involved in the initiation, propagation, and termination of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the interaction of these regions during seizures is not clear. The present study is to explore whether some regular patterns exist in their interaction during the termination of seizures. Multichannel in vivo recording techniques were used to record the neural activities from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in mice. The mice were kindled by electrically stimulating basolateral amygdala neurons, and Racine's rank standard was employed to classify the stage of behavioral responses (stage 1~5)...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818364/might-the-olfactory-bulb-be-an-origin-of-olfactory-auras-in-focal-epilepsy
#10
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797809/timing-and-significance-of-pathological-features-in-c9orf72-expansion-associated-frontotemporal-dementia
#11
Sarat C Vatsavayai, Soo Jin Yoon, Raquel C Gardner, Tania F Gendron, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Andrew Trujillo, Mochtar Pribadi, Joanna J Phillips, Stephanie E Gaus, John D Hixson, Paul A Garcia, Gil D Rabinovici, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Leonard Petrucelli, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
SEE SCABER AND TALBOT DOI101093/AWW264 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: A GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 leads to frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diverse pathological features have been identified, and their disease relevance remains much debated. Here, we describe two illuminating patients with frontotemporal dementia due to the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old female with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia accompanied by focal degeneration in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and medial pulvinar thalamus...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769717/progressive-neuronal-activation-accompanies-epileptogenesis-caused-by-hippocampal-glutamine-synthetase-inhibition
#12
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
February 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650712/mbd3-expression-and-dna-binding-patterns-are-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Joanna Bednarczyk, Konrad J Dębski, Anna M Bot, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The aim of the present study was to examine involvement of MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3), a protein involved in reading DNA methylation patterns, in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. We used a well-characterized rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy that is triggered by status epilepticus, evoked by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Stimulated and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 14 days after stimulation. We found that MBD3 transcript was present in neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in both control and epileptic animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635630/white-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-amygdala-enlargement-comparison-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-healthy-subjects
#14
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579577/preparation-antiepileptic-activity-and-cardiovascular-safety-of-dihydropyrazoles-as-brain-penetrant-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers
#15
Lubos Remen, Olivier Bezençon, Lloyd Simons, Rick Gaston, Dennis Downing, John Gatfield, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, Johannes Mosbacher, Thomas Pfeifer, Corinna Grisostomi, Markus Rey, Eric A Ertel, Richard Moon
A series of dihydropyrazole derivatives was developed as potent, selective, and brain-penetrating T-type calcium channel blockers. An optimized derivative, compound 6c, was advanced to in vivo studies, where it demonstrated efficacy in the WAG/Rij rat model of generalized nonconvulsive, absence-like epilepsy. Compound 6c was not efficacious in the basolateral amygdala kindling rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and it led to prolongation of the PR interval in ECG recordings in rodents.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552380/the-predictive-value-of-fdg-pet-with-3d-ssp-for-surgical-outcomes-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Takuma Higo, Hidenori Sugano, Madoka Nakajima, Kostadin Karagiozov, Yasushi Iimura, Masaru Suzuki, Kiyoshi Sato, Hajime Arai
PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of (18)F-2-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with statistical analysis for the foci detection and predictive utility for postsurgical seizure outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). METHOD: We evaluated 40 patients who were diagnosed mTLE and underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in our institute. Preoperative interictal FDG-PET with statistical analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) was detected with several clinical data including seizure semiology, MRI, scalp electroencephalography, surgical procedure with SAH or ATL and postsurgical outcome...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499121/transcortical-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-technique-through-the-middle-temporal-gyrus-revisited-an-anatomical-study-laboratory-investigation
#17
Baran Bozkurt, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Ali Karadag, Bekir Tugcu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Serdar Kaya, Kaan Yagmurlu, Andrew Grande
The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458343/dystrophin-distribution-and-expression-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445726/rapid-amygdala-kindling-causes-motor-seizure-and-comorbidity-of-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats
#19
Shang-Der Chen, Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418040/suspected-new-onset-autoimmune-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-amygdala-enlargement
#20
Michael P Malter, Guido Widman, Norbert Galldiks, Winfried Stoecker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E Elger, Jan Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE-AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new-onset TLE-AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new-onset (<5 years) TLE-AE, negative serum antibody (ab) test results, and with available follow-up data for at least 12 months...
September 2016: Epilepsia
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