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amygdala and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#1
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210066/the-interictal-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-network
#2
Suganya Karunakaran, Matthew J Rollo, Kamin Kim, Jessica A Johnson, Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Behnaam Aazhang, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: Identification of patient-specific epileptogenic networks is critical to designing successful treatment strategies. Multiple noninvasive methods have been used to characterize epileptogenic networks. However, these methods lack the spatiotemporal resolution to allow precise localization of epileptiform activity. We used intracranial recordings, at much higher spatiotemporal resolution, across a cohort of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) to delineate features common to their epileptogenic networks...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205291/interactive-effects-of-seizure-frequency-and-lateralization-on-intratemporal-effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Hwa-Kyung Chung, A-Reum Jung, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) show brain connectivity changes in association with cognitive impairment. Seizure frequency and lateralization are 2 important clinical factors that characterize epileptic seizures. In this study, we sought to examine an interactive effect of the 2 seizure factors on intratemporal effective connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in patients with TLE. METHODS: For rsfMRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, we applied stochastic dynamical causal modeling to infer effective connectivity between 3 medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions, including the hippocampus (Hipp), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and amygdala (Amyg), ipsilateral to the seizure focus...
December 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186594/resection-of-temporal-neocortex-during-multiple-hippocampal-transections-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-not-affect-seizure-or-memory-outcome
#4
Fady Girgis, Madeline E Greil, Philip S Fastenau, Jennifer Sweet, Hans Lüders, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Multiple hippocampal transection (MHT) is a surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with improved postoperative neuropsychological outcomes compared with lobectomy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resection of the amygdala and anterior temporal neocortex during MHT affects postoperative seizure/memory outcome. METHODS: Seventeen patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging and stereo-electroencephalogram-proven drug-resistant dominant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were treated with MHT...
December 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175724/a-right-amygdalohippocampectomy-a-diagnostic-challenge
#5
Frank Jonker, Cees Jonker, Laura Bronzwaer, Erik Scherder
OBJECTIVE: Amygdalohippocampectomy (AHE) is the resective surgery for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To date no study has investigated a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in right AHE outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with right AHE participated in this study. The control group are patients with cognitive complaints with no history of epilepsy or neurological impairment and no structural abnormalities on the MRI/CT. We expected no difference in verbal memory compared to the controls...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175574/surgical-management-and-long-term-seizure-outcome-after-surgery-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#6
Peng-Fan Yang, Jia-Sheng Pei, Yan-Zeng Jia, Qiao Lin, Hui Xiao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhong-Hui Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Operative strategies for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM)-associated temporal lobe epilepsy and timing of surgical intervention have continued under debate. This study aimed to establish an algorithm to evaluate efficacy of surgical intervention strategies, which maximizes positive surgical outcomes and minimizes post-surgical neurological deficits. METHODS: 47 subjects having undergone operation for CCM-associated temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed...
November 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#7
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#8
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100172/earlier-seizure-onset-and-longer-epilepsy-duration-correlate-with-the-degree-of-temporal-hypometabolism-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-sclerosis
#9
Carlos Leiva-Salinas, Mark Quigg, W Jeffrey Elias, James T Patrie, Lucia Flors, Nathan B Fountain, Patrice K Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship of glucose metabolism and volume of the temporal lobes with age at epilepsy onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We evaluated the pre-surgical 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 patients with epilepsy and MRI findings of MTS, who were seizure-free for at least 2-years after temporal lobectomy...
December 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097251/fear-conditioned-alterations-of-motor-cortex-excitability-the-role-of-amygdala
#10
Selim Gökdemir, Ayşegül Gündüz, Çiğdem Özkara, Meral E Kızıltan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that fear-conditioning may increase motor cortical excitability in preparation for response to fear. We tested our hypothesis in healthy subjects and in the second step, to determine the role of amygdala in alterations of motor cortex excitability, we included a group of patients who previously underwent unilateral amygdalo-hippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the first step, we included 16 healthy volunteers...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093637/structural-and-functional-alterations-at-pre-epileptic-stage-are-closely-associated-with-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-model
#11
Hani Kim, Yunsook Choi, Hye-Young Joung, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yohan Joo, Jin-Hwan Oh, Hoo Jae Hann, Zang-Hee Cho, Hyang Woon Lee
Pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model is an established animal model that mimics medial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroimaging abnormalities in various stages of epileptogenesis and to correlate them with seizure severity in pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to continuous video and electroencephalographic monitoring after inducing status epilepticus (SE) and seizure severity was estimated by frequency and total durations of class 3 to 5 spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by modified Racine's classification...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040828/neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-energetics-of-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#12
Camila Moreira Osório, Alexandra Latini, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Helena Dresch Vascouto, Aline Pertile Remor, Mark William Lopes, Marcelo Neves Linhares, Juliana Ben, Roberta de Paula Martins, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Hans Joachim Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Kátia Lin, Roger Walz
Interictal hypometabolism is commonly measured by 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in the temporal lobe of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE-HS). Left temporal lobe interictal FDG-PET hypometabolism has been associated with verbal memory impairment, while right temporal lobe FDG-PET hypometabolism is associated with nonverbal memory impairment. The biochemical mechanisms involved in these findings remain unknown. In comparison to healthy controls (n=21), surgically treated patients with MTLE-HS (n=32, left side=17) had significant lower scores in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT retention and delayed), Logical Memory II (LMII), Boston Naming test (BNT), Letter Fluency and Category Fluency...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039074/the-usefulness-of-stereo-electroencephalography-seeg-in-the-surgical-management-of-focal-epilepsy-associated-with-hidden-temporal-pole-encephalocele-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Jeff Mullin, Connor Wathen, Juan Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Lara Jehi, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
The authors report a case of 18-year-old woman with partial complex seizures compatible with temporal epilepsy by semiology. Due to medical refractoriness, she was referred to pre-surgical evaluation. Initially, MRI showed no significant structural abnormality and superficial scalp EEG demonstrated epileptiform activity in the frontotemporal areas. Due to the lack of clear MRI abnormalities and the potential involvement of dominant mesial temporal structures by seizure semiology and non-invasive data, extra-operative invasive evaluation using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) methodology was indicated...
October 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931250/minimally-invasive-transpalpebral-endoscopic-assisted-amygdalohippocampectomy
#14
Mauricio Mandel, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Suzana Abramovicz Mandel, Rafael Tutihashi, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Although anterior temporal lobectomy may be a definitive surgical treatment for epileptic patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, it often results in verbal, visual, and cognitive dysfunction. Studies have consistently reported the advantages of selective procedures compared with a standard anterior temporal lobectomy, mainly in terms of neuropsychological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new technique to perform a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) through a transpalpebral approach with endoscopic assistance...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#15
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888331/hamartia-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
K L Gawelek, J M Gales, R A Prayson
Hamartia are small collections of rounded glioneuronal cells that are thought to be due to aberrant cell migration. Their presence has been recognized in association with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; their prevalence among cases of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and any potential association with patient demographics and outcomes is unknown. This study examines hamartia in a series of 292 patients with pathologically confirmed HS. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent patient clinical information (follow-up mean 5years)...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883807/comparing-cat12-and-vbm8-for-detecting-brain-morphological-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Farnaz Farokhian, Iman Beheshti, Daichi Sone, Hiroshi Matsuda
The identification of the brain morphological alterations that play important roles in neurodegenerative/neurological diseases will contribute to our understanding of the causes of these diseases. Various automated software programs are designed to provide an automatic framework to detect brain morphological changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can also be used for the detection of brain volumetric abnormalities. Here, we compared gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormality results obtained by a VBM analysis using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) via the current version of Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM12) with the results obtained by a VBM analysis using the VBM8 toolbox implemented in the older software SPM8, in adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with (n = 51) and without (n = 57) hippocampus sclerosis (HS), compared to healthy adult controls (n = 28)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842304/establishment-of-a-rhesus-monkey-model-of-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-repetitive-unilateral-intra-amygdala-kainic-acid-injections
#18
Yajie Chi, Bolin Wu, Jianwei Guan, Kuntai Xiao, Ziming Lu, Xiao Li, Yuting Xu, Shan Xue, Qiang Xu, Junhua Rao, Yanwu Guo
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common type of acquired epilepsy refractory to medical treatment. As such, establishing animal models of this disease is critical to developing new and effective treatment modalities. Because of their small head size, rodents are not suitable for comprehensive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation via scalp or subdural electrodes. Therefore, a larger primate model that closely recapitulates signs of TLE is needed; here we describe a rhesus monkey model resembling chronic TLE...
September 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841245/marked-accumulation-of-oligodendroglia-like-cells-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-amygdala-enlargement-and-hippocampal-sclerosis
#19
Daichi Sone, Masako Ikemura, Yuko Saito, Go Taniguchi, Naoto Kunii
Although an increasing number of cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have been reported, there are few pathological reports, and no clear consensus has been established. Oligodendroglia or oligodendroglia-like cells (OLCs) have recently attracted attention in epilepsy studies. Here, we report the clinical and pathological findings of a 40-year-old male TLE patient with AE and hippocampal sclerosis, in whom histopathological study demonstrated remarkable clustering of OLCs around the uncus...
August 25, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752020/giant-epidermoid-cyst-a-rare-cause-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Vinicius Gomes Trindade, Marcos de Queiroz Teles Gomes, Marcelo Prudente do Espirito Santo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Introduction  Epidermoid tumors represent approximately 0.3 to 1.8% of all intracranial brain tumors. Only 1.5% of all intracranial epidermoid cysts (ECs) invade the brain and secondary epilepsy is extremely rare. Since August 2014, a 59-year-old male smoker had been presenting bad smell feelings, totaling four episodes with sudden onset and duration of 2 minutes. On September 2014, after a sense of smell episode, it evolved into loss of contact and automatic movements followed by generalized tonic-clonic movements...
July 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
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