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urban search and rescue

Jiaming Yan, Hong Hong, Heng Zhao, Yusheng Li, Chen Gu, Xiaohua Zhu
Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO) ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance...
2016: Sensors
P Armstrong, K D Nizio, K A Perrault, S L Forbes
Following a mass disaster, it is important that victims are rapidly located as the chances of survival decrease greatly after approximately 48 h. Urban search and rescue (USAR) teams may use a range of tools to assist their efforts but detector dogs still remain one of the most effective search tools to locate victims of mass disasters. USAR teams can choose to deploy human scent dogs (trained to locate living victims) or human remains detection (HRD) dogs (trained to locate deceased victims). However, little is known about the variation between live human scent and postmortem human remains scent and the timeframe during which one type of scent transitions to the other...
February 2016: Heliyon
Timothy L Edwards, Kate B La Londe, Christophe Cox, Bart Weetjens, Alan Poling
Standard operating procedures have been developed to train Cricetomys to locate humans in collapsed structures and return to the release point on command. The present study demonstrated that the schedule of reinforcement for target location influences the rats' performance. Rats required more time to locate targets when no reinforcement was arranged for target location but less time to return to the release point. These findings suggest that training conditions should be based on the priority assigned to target location and return in an operational scenario...
March 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Peter Tatham, Karen Spens
The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations...
April 2016: Disasters
Marta Ciesa, Stefano Grigolato, Raffaele Cavalli
OBJECTIVES: The rising number of people involved in outdoor recreation and tourism in mountain forest and wilderness areas close to urban areas has led to an increase of rescue efforts in the last decades. The study analyzes rescue operations in 2 mountain areas of the Veneto Prealps in Italy. METHODS: A retrospective review of search and rescue incident reports for a 20-year period was performed. The study also takes into consideration any differences between accidents in the 2 areas in relation to the morphology and mountain activities involved...
June 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Arkadiusz Sołtysiak
Urbanization at Tell Brak began in the late 5th millennium BCE and the site reached its maximum size in the Late Chalcolithic (LC) 3, ca. 3900-3600 BCE. During that time, a large midden was formed at the edge of the early city, now known as Tell Majnuna. Rescue excavations at Tell Majnuna revealed several clusters of commingled human remains and a cemetery on the top. Several human skeletons dated to the LC 3 and Early Bronze Age (EBA) were found also at Tell Brak itself and it was possible to investigate differences in cross-sectional femoral and tibial shaft shapes between LC 3 and EBA to test the hypothesis that rapid and extensive urbanization in the LC 3 induced increase in mobility...
April 2015: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Jenny T Visser, Adam F R Campbell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the range and types of medical and traumatic conditions encountered in land search and rescue operations in New Zealand. METHODS: Twenty months (May 2010 to December 2011) of land search and rescue operations were analyzed. Data on medical and traumatic conditions were extracted from the New Zealand Police search and rescue database. RESULTS: During the period audited, New Zealand Police coordinated 1490 land-based search and rescue operations, from which 611 persons fulfilled the study inclusion criteria...
December 2014: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Joseph G Kotora, Michael S Westrol, Mark A Merlin
OBJECTIVE: Accurate medical evaluation of victims injured during confined space rescues poses significant operational, medical, and logistical challenges for medical providers of all disciplines and experience levels. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) teaches rescuers to begin their assessment as soon as verbal contact is obtained with the victim. While a significant amount of information can be obtained by talking to the victim, an accurate assessment of the victim's condition is often limited or impossible...
2014: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Paweł Mochalski, Julian King, Karl Unterkofler, Hartmann Hinterhuber, Anton Amann
Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile...
May 15, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Barzin Doroodgar, Yugang Liu, Goldie Nejat
Semi-autonomous control schemes can address the limitations of both teleoperation and fully autonomous robotic control of rescue robots in disaster environments by allowing a human operator to cooperate and share such tasks with a rescue robot as navigation, exploration, and victim identification. In this paper, we present a unique hierarchical reinforcement learning-based semi-autonomous control architecture for rescue robots operating in cluttered and unknown urban search and rescue (USAR) environments. The aim of the controller is to enable a rescue robot to continuously learn from its own experiences in an environment in order to improve its overall performance in exploration of unknown disaster scenes...
December 2014: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
M Statheropoulos, G C Pallis, K Mikedi, S Giannoukos, A Agapiou, A Pappa, A Cole, W Vautz, C L Paul Thomas
The design, development, and validation of a dynamic vapor generator are presented. The generator simulates human scent (odor) emissions from trapped victims in the voids of collapsed buildings. The validation of the device was carried out using a reference detector: a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed sampling (PS-MS) system. A series of experiments were conducted for evaluating the simulator's performance, defining types and weights of different factors, and proposing further optimization of the device...
April 15, 2014: Analytical Chemistry
Paweł Mochalski, Karl Unterkofler, Hartmann Hinterhuber, Anton Amann
Selective reagent ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO(+) as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS (NO(+))) was applied for near real-time monitoring of selected skin-borne constituents which are potential markers of human presence. The experimental protocol involved a group of 10 healthy volunteers enclosed in a body plethysmography chamber mimicking the entrapment environment. A total of 12 preselected omnipresent in human scent volatiles were quantitatively monitored. Among them there were six aldehydes (n-propanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, n-nonanal, and 2 methyl 2-propenal), four ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-buten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one), one hydrocarbon (2-methyl 2-pentene), and one terpene (DL-limonene)...
April 15, 2014: Analytical Chemistry
Bruno Petinaux, Anthony G Macintyre, Joseph A Barbera
OBJECTIVE: A variety of hazards can precipitate the full or partial collapse of occupied structures. The rescue of entrapped survivors in these situations can be complex, require a multidisciplinary approach, and last for many hours. METHODS: The modern discipline of Urban Search and Rescue, which includes an active medical component, has evolved to address such situations. This case series spans several decades of experience and highlights the medical principles in the response to collapsed structure incidents...
February 2014: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Quirin Hamp, Leonhard Reindl, Denise Güthlin
The objective of assisting with tasks and decisions during incident response is to reduce the risks to victims and rescue personnel while increasing the efficiency of the rescue operation. Handling uncertain information during urban search and rescue (USAR) missions represents additional stress to the decision-maker. The aim of this study is to identify the decision-making behaviour of rescuers during USAR missions to pinpoint trapped or buried victims in debris in order to design assistance technologies and decision-support systems that meet their needs...
January 2014: Disasters
Marian Urban, Ondrej Szarszoi, Jan Pirk, Ivan Netuka
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) superior to dedicated ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with acutely failing allograft following transplantation. Altogether, 162 papers were found using the reported search, of which 8 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated...
April 2013: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Susan R Woskie, Hyun Kim, Alice Freund, Lori Stevenson, Bo Y Park, Sherry Baron, Robin Herbert, Micki Siegel de Hernández, Susan Teitelbaum, Rafael E de la Hoz, Juan P Wisnivesky, Phillip Landrigan
BACKGROUND: To date there have been no comprehensive reports of the work performedby 9/11 World Trade Center responders. METHODS: 18,969 responders enrolled in the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program were used to describe workers’ pre-9/11 occupations, WTC work activities and locations from September 11, 2001 to June 2002. RESULTS: The most common pre-9/11 occupation was protective services (47%); other common occupations included construction, telecommunications, transportation, and support services workers...
September 2011: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
M Beuran, S Paun, B Gaspar, N Vartic, S Hostiuc, A Chiotoroiu, I Negoi
INTRODUCTION: There are many controversies related to the trauma patient care during the pre-hospital period nowadays. Due to the heterogeneity of the rescue personnel and variability of protocols used in various countries, the benefit of the prehospital advanced life support on morbidity and mortality has been not established. METHOD: Systematic review of the literature using computer search of the Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health International PubMed Medline database using Entre interface...
September 2012: Chirurgia
Craig R Warden, Michael G Millin, Seth C Hawkins, Richard N Bradley
Within a healthcare system, operational emergency medical services (EMS) programs provide prehospital emergency care to patients in austere and resource-limited settings. Some of these programs are additionally considered to be wilderness EMS programs, a specialized type of operational EMS program, as they primarily function in a wilderness setting (eg, wilderness search and rescue, ski patrols, water rescue, beach patrols, and cave rescue). Other operational EMS programs include urban search and rescue, air medical support, and tactical law enforcement response...
March 2012: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Lori E Gordon
OBJECTIVE: To establish types and rates of injuries and illnesses among urban search-and-rescue (USAR) dogs deployed to Haiti following the January 12, 2010, earthquake. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. ANIMALS: 23 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) USAR dogs deployed to Haiti. PROCEDURES: An online survey was distributed to the handlers of all FEMA USAR dogs deployed to Haiti in response to the January 12, 2010, earthquake...
February 15, 2012: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Daniel J van Hoving, Wayne P Smith, Efraim B Kramer, Shaheem de Vries, Fathima Docrat, Lee A Wallis
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM STATEMENT: The South African response to the Haitian earthquake consisted of two independent non-government organisations (NGOs) working separately with minimal contact. Both teams experienced problems during the deployment, mainly owing to not following the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) guidelines. CRITICAL AREAS IDENTIFIED: To improve future South African disaster responses, three functional deployment categories were identified: urban search and rescue, triage and initial stabilisation, and definitive care...
August 2010: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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