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Battlefield anaesthesia

I F Hendriks, J G Bovill, F Boer, E S Houwaart, P C W Hogendoorn
A key figure in the development of anaesthesia in Russia was the surgeon Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (1810-1881). He experimented with ether and chloroform and organised the general introduction of anaesthesia in Russia for patients undergoing surgery. He was the first to perform systematic research into anaesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. More specifically, he was one of the first to administer ether anaesthesia on the battlefield, where the principles of military medicine that he established remained virtually unchanged until the outbreak of the Second World War...
February 2015: Anaesthesia
(no author information available yet)
The author of the article came to conclusion that in view of electronics breakthrough, nanotechnology and genetic engineering development it is necessary to reconsider the system of emergency care, anesthesia and intensive care service on the battlefield, reduction of the influence of pathologic factors and secure evacuation to special treatment department. One of the main criteria is constant improvement of material and technical equipment for heavy rescue. Necessity of dislocation, problems with communications infrastructure, poor medical gas supply are the main problems which cause the necessity of development of special equipment which must be equal characteristics and security level of analogues, used in peace time...
July 2013: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Robert D Combes
Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed...
November 2013: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
K J Kinch, J C Clasper
Throughout the history of warfare, changes in weaponry have produced changes in the nature of war injury. The 16th century saw the introduction of firearms in conventional warfare, bringing the destructive power of weaponry to new and unseen heights with a dramatic increase in the severity and complexity of battle injuries. Destructive gunshot wounding associated with embedded foreign material often led to sepsis and demanded the more radical treatment of amputation. Over the past 500 years innumerable developments have taken place in anaesthesia, asepsis, transfusion therapy and resuscitation, antibiotic therapy, vascular surgery and wound management...
December 2011: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
K Smyth, R Hebballi, M K Peterson
The medical facility at Camp Bastion continues to evolve as a consequence of the increased throughput of battlefield trauma patients. There is a requirement for rapid and accurate diagnosis of haemodynamic instability and continued haemodynamic monitoring throughout the peri-operative period. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has been used for this purpose in the arena of cardiac anaesthesia since the mid 1980s. It is being introduced to other peri-operative settings where severe haemodynamic instability is expected...
December 2010: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
R Tully, R Eltringham, I A Walker, A J Bartlett
A portable version of the Glostavent anaesthetic machine is described in which recent developments in draw-over technology are incorporated into a traditional draw-over anaesthetic system. The additional features include a more efficient reservoir and an improved vaporiser which have enhanced the performance and versatility. The portable Glostavent weighs less than 10 kg and is transported in a container the size of a small suitcase. It can be used to provide inhalational anaesthesia safely and economically in situations where there are no support facilities...
November 2010: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
S J Mercer, C L Whittle, P F Mahoney
Anaesthetists in the Defence Medical Services spend most of their clinical time in the National Health Service and deploy on military operations every 6-18 months. The deployed operational environment has a number of key differences particularly as there is more severe trauma than an average UK hospital and injury patterns are mainly due to blast or ballistics. Equipment may also be unfamiliar and there is an expectation to be conversant with specific standard operating procedures. Anaesthetists must be ready to arrive and work in an established team and effective non-technical skills (or human factors) are important to ensure success...
July 2010: British Journal of Anaesthesia
S M J Mortazavi, A Atefi, P Roshan-Shomal, N Raadpey, G Mortazavi
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhage remains the greatest threat to life on the battlefield, accounting for half of all deaths. Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever haemorrhages and has introduced an effective zeolite based haemostatic agent. In this paper the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals; bentonite and zeolite are presented. METHODS: In this experimental study, 50 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each...
January 2009: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
I T Houghton
Although anaesthesia was discovered in 1846, pain relief had been used for many years previously. Opium, mandragora, and Indian hemp amongst others have been used since the earliest times as alluded to by many of the classical writers. The use of refrigeration anaesthesia is known to have been recommended a millennium ago although it never had much usage. Very soon after the introduction of ether anaesthesia, it was recommended for military use and the first use by the American forces was in Buena Vista early in 1847 and then again at Vera Cruz...
June 2006: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Iu L Shevchenko
Article by the Chief of the Academy has been based on its history of 200 years. One of the oldest establishments of medical education has played a great role in the development of the national and world medicine. Among the Academy graduates of highest merit was N. I. Pirogov, a famous surgeon, who marked a new age in the medical science and education and introduced important innovations in the casualty treatment on the battlefield. He was the first to apply ether anaesthesia and plaster bandage and to have women taking care of the wounded on the theater of operations...
November 1998: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
R H Jago, J Restall, M C Thompson
An anaesthetic technique suitable for military field anaesthesia was sought which would attenuate the psychic side effects of ketamine. Heavy premedication with 30 mg of papaveretum and induction of anaesthesia with Althesin were evaluated. A combination of the two lowered the incidence of side effects, but they still occurred frequently enough to pose problems. Ketamine sequelae are considered incompatible with the battlefield environment.
September 1984: Anaesthesia
A Trouwborst, B K Weber, D Dufour
War surgery presents conditions and problems that are radically different from those of peacetime surgery. Categorization of the injured may be necessary (triage), while a short or erratic supply of drugs, materials and personnel may exist. In this study, the hospital mortality following military action was 6.4 per cent. In the group of patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries mortality was high. However, the inflow of this type of patient was relatively low. In 50 per cent of the cases, ketamine/benzodiazepine anaesthesia without intubation and artificial ventilation was sufficient, with the result that the use of oxygen and nitrous oxide was minimized...
March 1987: Injury
R J Wilson, S A Ridley
A total intravenous technique using propofol and alfentanil was used successfully in four battlefield casualties treated at a British Military Field Hospital during the recent Gulf conflict. All patients made a rapid recovery of adequate quality for prompt evacuation. We believe that the use of propofol and alfentanil as an induction and maintenance regimen for military anaesthesia merits further evaluation and comparison with established techniques.
March 1992: Anaesthesia
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