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lung mycetoma review

Joyce Betta Sevilha, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori
Aspergilloma, also known as mycetoma or fungus ball, is characterized by a round or oval mass with soft-tissue attenuation within a preexisting lung cavity. The typical computed tomography (CT) aspect of an aspergilloma is a mass separated from the wall of the cavity by an airspace of variable size and shape, resulting in the air crescent sign, also known as the meniscus sign. This CT feature is non-specific and can be simulated by several other entities that result in intracavitary masses. This review describes the main clinical and imaging aspects of the infectious and non-infectious diseases that may present with fungus-ball appearance, including pulmonary hydatid cyst, Rasmussen aneurysm, pulmonary gangrene, intracavitary clot, textiloma, lung cancer, metastasis, and teratoma, focusing on the differential diagnosis...
February 2018: Lung
Marc A Judson
Sarcoidosis has innumerable clinical manifestations, as the disease may affect every body organ. Furthermore, the severity of sarcoidosis involvement may range from an asymptomatic state to a life-threatening condition. This manuscript reviews a wide variety of common and less common clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis. These manifestations are presented organ by organ, although additional sections describe systemic and multiorgan presentations of sarcoidosis. The lung is the organ most commonly involved with sarcoidosis with at least 90 % of sarcoidosis patients demonstrating lung involvement in most series...
August 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Cecilia M Jude, Nita B Nayak, Maitraya K Patel, Monica Deshmukh, Poonam Batra
Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America. The incidence of reported disease increased substantially between 1998 and 2011, and the infection is encountered beyond the endemic areas because of a mobile society. The disease is caused by inhalation of spores of Coccidioides species. Individuals at high risk are those exposed to frequent soil aerosolization. The diagnosis is established by direct visualization of mature spherules by using special stains or cultures from biologic specimens...
July 2014: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
J S Schieffelin, J B Garcia-Diaz, G E Loss, E N Beckman, R A Keller, C Staffeld-Coit, J C Garces, G A Pankey
BACKGROUND: Dematiaceous, or dark-pigmented, fungi are known to cause infections such as phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. These fungi are becoming increasingly important opportunistic pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). We present a retrospective chart review of 27 SOTR who developed phaeohyphomycosis infections post transplant from 1988 to 2009. METHODS: Cases were reviewed for fungal species isolated, date and source of culture, immunosuppressive and fungal therapy used, and outcome...
April 2014: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Milton Camplesi Júnior, Adriano de Moraes Arantes, Hildene Meneses Silva, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
Changes in the spectrum of clinically important fungal infection have been observed in recent years. Acremonium species has been responsible for eumycotic mycetomas but has also been increasingly implicated in systemic fungal diseases. A case of Acremonium kiliense fungemia with proven involvement of the lungs in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell patient is reported. A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the lungs showed nodules in both lungs. Multiple cultures of blood demonstrated narrow septate hyphae, cylindrical conidia, and solitary tapering phialides and microconidia that remained grouped in slimy heads...
December 2013: Mycopathologia
Adam S Morgenthau, Alvin S Teirstein
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease...
December 2011: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Amparo Solé
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium spp. are filamentous fungi, and the 2 most important species are Scedosporium prolificans and Scedosporium apiospermum. S. apiospermum accounts for approximately 25% of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi infections in organ transplant recipients. Scedosporium can colonize the sinuses and airways of lung recipients with underlying pulmonary diseases, such as bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis before transplant, and develop invasive disease after lung transplantation...
July 2011: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Emmanuel Roilides, Maria Simitsopoulou
Filamentous fungi especially Aspergillus spp. and Scedosporium spp. can colonize the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent infection by these organisms may cause deterioration of lung function, mycetomas or local invasive disease. Although CF patients exert an excessive inflammatory response to inhaled bacteria, very little is known about the local innate immune response to filamentous fungi. In this paper, we review the innate immune response of respiratory tract of healthy individuals to filamentous fungi with some inference to CF patients and link the latter to existing data...
November 2010: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Clifford Quan, Brad Spellberg
Serious infections due to non-Aspergillus molds are being encountered with increasing frequency. Factors likely responsible for the rise of these infections include aging populations in countries with advanced medical technologies, the resultant increase in incidence of many cancers, increasingly intensive myeloablative therapies for these cancers, increasingly intensive care for critically ill patients, and increases in the frequency of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have improved, mortality rates for invasive mold infections remain high...
May 2010: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
Siva T Sarva, Skantha K Manjunath, Heather S Baldwin, David B Robins, Amado X Freire
A 31-year-old African American woman with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (recent CD4 count of 66/mm) presented to the emergency room with a tension pneumothorax that required an emergent chest tube placement. Computed tomography scan showed fungus balls in multiple lung cavities and surrounding infiltrates. The patient showed remarkable improvement with voriconazole suggesting aspergillosis. However, the patient was serologically negative for Aspergillus and other common fungal infections...
March 2010: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Aniket Vadnerkar, Cornelius J Clancy, Umit Celik, Samuel A Yousem, Dimitra Mitsani, Yoshiya Toyoda, Minh-Ly Nguyen, Eun J Kwak, Joseph Pilewski, Fernanda P Silveira, Maria Crespo, M Hong Nguyen
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the incidence or significance of mold infections in the explanted lungs of lung transplant recipients. METHOD: We reviewed the histopathology of the explanted lungs from 304 patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2005 to 2007 and received alemtuzumab induction therapy and posttransplant voriconazole prophylaxis. RESULTS: Invasive mold infections were present in the explanted lungs of 5% (14 of 304) of patients, including chronic necrotizing pneumonias (n=7), mycetomas (n=4), and invasive fungal pneumonias (n=3)...
January 27, 2010: Transplantation
Robert Sheu, Aliye O Bricker, Hina Sahi, Tan-Lucien H Mohammed
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate chest computed tomography (CT) findings in 3 lung transplant recipients infected with Pseudallescheria boydii complex or its asexual anamorph, Scedosporium apiospermum, 2 after double-lung transplant and 1 after single-lung transplantation. Awareness and early diagnosis of this rare but potentially lethal infection are important, as it is largely refractory to treatment with the antifungal agents of choice used for the more common Aspergillus species...
March 2009: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Efstratios Panselinas, Marc A Judson
The expectoration of metal fragments (metalloptysis) is a rare complication after thoracic surgery. It usually occurs in patients with severe emphysema. We present a case of metalloptysis of surgical staples that is unique in several aspects: it occurred longer after surgery than any previously reported case, it occurred after lobar resection surgery, and it most likely developed as a result of chronic necrotizing aspergillosis. Although metalloptysis usually requires no therapy, it may indicate an active infectious process that requires appropriate therapy...
October 2008: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Eilidh Mowat, Craig Williams, Brian Jones, Susan McChlery, Gordon Ramage
Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasingly prevalent opportunistic fungal pathogen of various immuno-compromised individuals. It has the ability to filament within the lungs forming dense intertwined mycelial balls. These morphological characteristics resemble those of microbial biofilms, which are matrix enclosed microbial populations, adherent to each other and/or to surfaces or interfaces. The purpose of this paper is to review some recent experiments that indicate the potential biofilm forming capacity of A...
2009: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Sin-Man Lam, Arthur Chun-Wing Lau, Ming-Wai Ma, Loretta Yin-Chun Yam
A 53-year-old lady with blood-stained sputum and pleuritic pain had a lingular opacity on CXR which failed to resolve. A bronchial aspirate and transbronchial biopsy revealed features of bronchocentric granulomatosis with dichotomous branching hyphae suggestive of Aspergillus infection. However, subsequent fungal culture grew Pseudallescheria boydii. This case demonstrates the similarity of clinical and histological features caused by these two fungi. This appears to be the first reported case of pulmonary pseudallescheria with a bronchocentric granulomatous response...
May 2008: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Louise Cooley, Denis Spelman, Karin Thursky, Monica Slavin
Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans are fungi of increasing clinical importance, particularly in persons with underlying diseases. We reviewed the records of 59 patients in Australia from whom Scedosporium spp. were isolated from June 30, 1997, through December 31, 2003. S. apiospermum was isolated predominantly from the respiratory tracts of 28 of 31 patients with underlying lung diseases and resulted in 2 infections and 1 death. The annual number of S. apiospermum isolates remained constant. S. prolificans was isolated from 28 patients only after November 1999...
August 2007: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hina Sahi, Robin K Avery, Omar A Minai, Geraldine Hall, Atul C Mehta, Paola Raina, Marie Budev
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum, the asexual counterpart of the teleomorph Pseudallescheria boydii, is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen in transplant recipients. Infection is associated with a high rate of dissemination and poor outcome overall. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of The Cleveland Clinic lung transplant database identified 5 patients with S. apiospermum isolated from respiratory tract specimens. Demographic data and lung transplant outcomes were obtained by review of medical records...
April 2007: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Mona Kapadia, Kenneth V I Rolston, Xiang Y Han
Streptomyces are saprophytic soil organisms rarely known to cause invasive infections other than mycetoma. We report 6 cases of invasive Streptomyces infections and review 13 previously reported cases. Our series included 2 cases of lung abscess or pneumonitis, 3 cases of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, and I case of possible hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Most previous cases also included lung infections and bloodstream infections. Preexisting conditions, such as cancer, AIDS or HIV infection, presence of a central venous catheter, and prosthetic heart valve, were present in all cases since 1985...
April 2007: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Muriel Fartoukh, Antoine Khalil, Laurence Louis, Marie-France Carette, Bernard Bazelly, Jacques Cadranel, Charles Mayaud, Antoine Parrot
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available concerning patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe haemoptysis. We reviewed a large series of patients managed in a uniform way to describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of haemoptysis in this setting, and better define the indications for bronchial artery embolisation (BAE). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 196 patients referred for severe haemoptysis to a respiratory intermediate care ward and ICU between January 1999 and December 2001...
February 15, 2007: Respiratory Research
Yasodah Jayamohan, Julie A Ribes
CONTEXT: Pseudallescheria boydii is being increasingly isolated in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE: To present 24 years of data on patients from whom P. boydii was isolated. DESIGN: Retrospective review of archival laboratory data and patient charts at a tertiary care hospital with a full service mycology laboratory. All patients evaluated from whom P. boydii was isolated between 1980 and 2003 were included in this study. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients from whom P...
December 2006: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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