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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458114/severity-dependent-influence-of-isocapnic-hypoxia-on-reaction-time-is-independent-of-neurovascular-coupling
#1
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457997/detection-of-acute-and-long-term-effects-of-concussion-dual-task-gait-balance-control-vs-computerized-neurocognitive-test
#2
David R Howell, Louis R Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the acute (within 72 hours of injury) and long-term (2 months post-injury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case-control SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Participants who sustained a concussion underwent a dual-task gait analysis and computerized neurocognitive testing within 72 hours of injury and again 2 months later...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457330/modeling-suicide-in-bipolar-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456902/review-of-assessment-scales-for-diagnosing-and-monitoring-sports-related-concussion
#4
REVIEW
Alexa M Dessy, Frank J Yuk, Akbar Y Maniya, Alex Gometz, Jonathan J Rasouli, Mark R Lovell, Tanvir F Choudhri
Sports-related concussion has emerged as a public health crisis due to increased diagnosis of the condition and increased participation in organized and recreational athletics worldwide. Under-recognition of concussions can lead to premature clearance for athletic participation, leaving athletes vulnerable to repeat injury and subsequent short- and long-term complications. There is overwhelming evidence that assessment and management of sports-related concussions should involve a multifaceted approach. A number of assessment criteria have been developed for this purpose...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456127/neurocognitive-disorder-in-hypertensive-patients-heart-brain-study
#5
A Vicario, G H Cerezo, M Del Sueldo, J Zilberman, S M Pawluk, N Lódolo, A E De Cerchio, R M Ruffa, R Plunkett, M E Giuliano, P Forcada, S Hauad, R Flores
The relation between hypertension and cognitive impairment is an undisputable fact. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients, to identify the most affected cognitive domain, and to observe the association with different parameters of hypertension and other vascular risk factors. A multicentre study was carried out, and 1281 hypertensive patients of both genders and ≥21 years of age were included. Data on the following parameters were obtained: cognitive status (Minimal Cognitive Examination), behavioural status (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), blood pressure, anthropometry, and biochemical profile...
February 15, 2018: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455946/abstract-semantics-in-the-motor-system-an-event-related-fmri-study-on-passive-reading-of-semantic-word-categories-carrying-abstract-emotional-and-mental-meaning
#6
Felix R Dreyer, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Previous research showed that modality-preferential sensorimotor areas are relevant for processing concrete words used to speak about actions. However, whether modality-preferential areas also play a role for abstract words is still under debate. Whereas recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest an involvement of motor cortex in processing the meaning of abstract emotion words as, for example, 'love', other non-emotional abstract words, in particular 'mental words', such as 'thought' or 'logic', are believed to engage 'amodal' semantic systems only...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455617/the-role-of-premorbid-adjustment-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-cognitive-remediation-outcome
#7
Mariachiara Buonocore, Francesca Bosinelli, Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Marco Piantanida, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro, Marta Bosia
Premorbid adjustment has been associated with several outcomes in schizophrenia and has been proposed as an index of cognitive reserve. This study aims to comprehensively analyse the relation between premorbid adjustment and clinical, neurocognitive, socio-cognitive and functional assessments, as well as to investigate the effect of premorbid adjustment on cognitive improvements after a cognitive remediation therapy protocol. Seventy-nine clinically stabilised outpatients with schizophrenia underwent a combined intervention consisting of cognitive remediation therapy added to standard rehabilitation therapy...
February 19, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455611/evaluation-of-foetal-neurological-behaviour-in-hypothyroid-pregnant-females-a-pilot-study
#8
Amira Dieb, Randa Salam, Dina Shaheen, Eman Shaeer
OBJECTIVES: Maternal hypothyroidism is known for its possible deleterious effect on the neurocognitive function of the offspring. The aim of the current study is to investigate if maternal hypothyroidism also affects foetal neurological behaviour. METHODS: Fifty foetuses were examined for abnormal neurological behaviour from 25 euthyroid and 25 hypothyroid age matched pregnant females, between 28 and 38 weeks gestation. The hypothyroid group was further subdivided into controlled (n = 5) and uncontrolled (n = 20) groups...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455265/grit-and-ambition-are-associated-with-better-neurocognitive-and-everyday-functioning-among-adults-living-with-hiv
#9
Raeanne C Moore, Mariam A Hussain, Caitlin W-M Watson, Pariya L Fazeli, María J Marquine, Brandon C Yarns, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
Grit and ambition are psychological factors that may protect neurocognitive function among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We examined associations between grit, ambition, premorbid verbal intellectual function, and current neurocognitive and everyday functioning among PLWH and persons without HIV (HIV-). 120 PLWH and 94 HIV- adults completed the Grit Scale (includes total score and consistency of interests and perseverance of effort subscales), ambition scale, and a comprehensive neurobehavioral battery. PLWH had lower grit scores than HIV- adults...
February 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454255/effects-of-adjunctive-eslicarbazepine-acetate-on-neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-refractory-focal-onset-seizures
#10
Sergiusz Jóźwiak, P Veggiotti, J Moreira, H Gama, F Rocha, P Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: This was a phase-II, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate neurocognitive effects of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients with refractory focal-onset seizures (FOS). METHODS: Children (6-16years old) with FOS were randomized (2:1) to ESL or placebo. Treatment started at 10mg/kg/day, was up-titrated up to 30mg/kg/day (target dose), and maintained for 8weeks, followed by one-year open-label follow-up...
February 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454227/a-pilot-trial-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-biomarkers-of-injury
#11
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454185/preterm-infants-undergoing-laparotomy-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-or-spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-display-evidence-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-autoregulation
#12
Sara J Kuik, Michelle E van der Laan, Margot T Brouwer-Bergsma, Jan B F Hulscher, Anthony R Absalom, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants requiring surgery are at risk of impaired neurocognitive development caused, possibly, by cerebral ischemia associated with impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation (CAR). We evaluated CAR before, during, and after laparotomy. STUDY DESIGN: This was a hypothesis generating prospective observational cohort study. SUBJECTS: We included preterm infants requiring surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP)...
February 14, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453035/changes-in-correlation-characteristics-of-time-consumption-and-mind-reading-performance-in-pre-onset-and-post-onset-psychosis
#13
TianHong Zhang, LiHua Xu, HuiRu Cui, YingYing Tang, YanYan Wei, XiaoChen Tang, XiaoHua Liu, XinMei Cao, ChunBo Li, JiJun Wang
There is a strong correlation between neurocognition and social cognition. However, none of these studies have examined the key role of time consumption during social cognition tasks. Participants included 84 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR), 95 healthy controls (HC), and 66 case controls (schizophrenia patients, SZ), who were assessed through the Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks (RMET) with computerized recording of the response time (RT). Neurocognitive tests were also performed for the HC and CHR groups...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452810/interleukin-6-is-both-necessary-and-sufficient-to-produce-perioperative-neurocognitive-disorder-in-mice
#14
J Hu, X Feng, M Valdearcos, D Lutrin, Y Uchida, S K Koliwad, M Maze
BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) result in long-term morbidity and mortality with no effective interventions available. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is consistently up-regulated by trauma, including after surgery, we determined whether IL-6 is a putative therapeutic target for PND in a mouse model. METHODS: Following institutional approval, adult (12-14 weeks) male C57/Bl6 mice were pretreated with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) blocking antibody tocilizumab prior to open tibia fracture with internal fixation under isoflurane anaesthesia...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452802/moving-to-human-trials-for-argon-neuroprotection-in-neurological-injury-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
A J Gardner, D K Menon
Despite the global burden of brain injury, neuroprotective agents remain elusive. There are no clinically effective therapies which reduce mortality or improve long-term cognitive outcome. Ventilation could be an easily modifiable variable in resuscitation; gases are relatively simple to administer. Xenon is the prototypic agent of a new generation of experimental treatments which show promise. However, use is hindered by its prohibitive cost and anaesthetic properties. Argon is an attractive option, being cheaper, easy to transport, non-sedating, and mechanistically distinct from xenon...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452780/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-the-risk-of-hip-fracture-in-the-older-population
#16
Elena Lobo, Guillermo Marcos, Javier Santabárbara, Luis Lobo-Escolar, Helena Salvador-Rosés, Concepción De la Cámara, Raul Lopez-Anton, Patricia Gracia-García, Antonio Lobo-Escolar
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that differences by gender will be observed in the association of hip fracture risk with stages of cognitive impairment; and to explore the association between Petersen's "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI) and DSM-5 "mild neurocognitive disorder" (MND). STUDY DESIGN: A community sample of 4803 individuals aged 55+ years was assessed in a two-phase case-finding enquiry in Zaragoza, Spain, and was followed up for 16 years...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450447/interplay-among-psychopathologic-variables-personal-resources-context-related-factors-and-real-life-functioning-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-network-analysis
#17
Silvana Galderisi, Paola Rucci, Brian Kirkpatrick, Armida Mucci, Dino Gibertoni, Paola Rocca, Alessandro Rossi, Alessandro Bertolino, Gregory P Strauss, Eugenio Aguglia, Antonello Bellomo, Martino Belvederi Murri, Paola Bucci, Bernardo Carpiniello, Anna Comparelli, Alessandro Cuomo, Domenico De Berardis, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabio Di Fabio, Barbara Gelao, Carlo Marchesi, Palmiero Monteleone, Cristiana Montemagni, Giulia Orsenigo, Francesca Pacitti, Rita Roncone, Paolo Santonastaso, Alberto Siracusano, Annarita Vignapiano, Antonio Vita, Patrizia Zeppegno, Mario Maj
Importance: Enhanced understanding of factors associated with symptomatic and functional recovery is instrumental to designing personalized treatment plans for people with schizophrenia. To date, this is the first study using network analysis to investigate the associations among cognitive, psychopathologic, and psychosocial variables in a large sample of community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. Objective: To assess the interplay among psychopathologic variables, cognitive dysfunctions, functional capacity, personal resources, perceived stigma, and real-life functioning in individuals with schizophrenia, using a data-driven approach...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#18
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448083/sympathetic-arousal-but-not-disturbed-executive-functioning-mediates-the-impairment-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-stress
#19
Martin Marko, Igor Riečanský
Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference...
February 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#20
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
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