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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724130/early-postimplant-speech-perception-and-language-skills-predict-long-term-language-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-following-pediatric-cochlear-implantation
#1
Cynthia R Hunter, William G Kronenberger, Irina Castellanos, David B Pisoni
Purpose: We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes. Method: Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear implants, implanted at an average age of 3.4 years, completed measures of speech perception, language, and executive functioning an average of 14...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723827/neurocognitive-and-symptom-trajectories-of-adhd-from-childhood-to-early-adolescence
#2
Andrea L Murray, Thomas Robinson, Gail Tripp
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study investigated changes in neurocognitive functioning from childhood to early adolescence in a sample of children diagnosed with DSM-IV attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It also compared the neurocognitive trajectories of children who continued to meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD at follow-up and those in partial remission. METHODS: Children diagnosed with ADHD (N = 55) were tested at baseline (M = 7.7 years, SD = 1...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722468/evaluating-the-recovery-curve-for-clinically-assessed-reaction-time-after-concussion
#3
Gianluca Del Rossi
CONTEXT:   A change in reaction time is one of various clinical measures of neurocognitive function that can be monitored after concussion and has been reported to be among the most sensitive indicators of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the timeline for clinically assessed simple reaction time to return to baseline after a concussion in high school athletes. DESIGN:   Observational study. SETTING:   Athletic training room...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721742/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-with-memory-complaints-a-mixed-methods-study
#4
Lotte Berk, Rafke Hotterbeekx, Jim van Os, Martin van Boxtel
OBJECTIVES: In a rapidly aging world population, an increasingly large group faces age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Cognitive complaints of older adults are often related to worries and concerns associated with age-related functional decline. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) can successfully target stress, worry and ruminative thinking, but the applicability of this method in middle-aged and older adults with memory complaints is unclear. METHOD: Patients of a university hospital memory clinic (n = 13), aged 45-85 years, with memory complaints but no diagnosis of cognitive disorder, participated in a standard 8-week MBSR program, consisting of weekly group meetings and a one-day silent retreat...
July 19, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720484/long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy-improves-neurocognitive-functioning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-immune-tolerant-alpha-mannosidosis-mice
#5
Stijn Stroobants, Markus Damme, Ann Van der Jeugd, Ben Vermaercke, Claes Andersson, Jens Fogh, Paul Saftig, Judith Blanz, Rudi D'Hooge
Alpha-mannosidosis is a glycoproteinosis caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN), which markedly affects neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and causes pathognomonic intellectual dysfunction in the clinical condition. Cognitive improvement consequently remains a major therapeutic objective in research on this devastating genetic error. Immune-tolerant LAMAN knockout mice were developed to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by prolonged administration of recombinant human enzyme...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720027/long-term-alteration-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-in-the-first-6-months-of-life
#6
Monica McGauran, Brigid Jordan, Roseriet Beijers, Irma Janssen, Candice Franich-Ray, Carolina de Weerth, Michael Cheung
Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have poorer neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes. The mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. One mechanism could be that the stressful experience of cardiac surgery early in life influences long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been linked to poorer neurocognitive and psychological outcomes in other study populations. This case-control study aims to compare HPA-axis regulation (circadian rhythm and reactivity) using salivary cortisol in 3- to 5-year-olds with CHD who did and did not have cardiac surgery prior to 6 months of age...
July 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#7
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719507/the-relationship-between-chronic-pain-and-neurocognitive-function-a-systematic-review
#8
Diana M Higgins, Aaron M Martin, Dewleen G Baker, Jennifer J Vasterling, Victoria Risbrough
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the relationship between chronic pain and neurocognition has important implications for the assessment and treatment of pain. This paper provides an overview of the current literature examining the neurocognition-chronic pain relationship and suggests future avenues of research, along with a discussion of clinical implications of the literature findings. Consideration of potential moderators and mediators of this relationship, as well as a brief discussion of the importance of future research in special populations at particular risk for these problems, are also a focus of this paper...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719076/multimodal-image-analysis-of-clinical-influences-on-preterm-brain-development
#9
Gareth Ball, Paul Aljabar, Phumza Nongena, Nigel Kennea, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Shona Falconer, Andrew T M Chew, Nicholas Harper, Julia Wurie, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, A David Edwards
Objective Premature birth is associated with numerous complex abnormalities of white and grey matter and a high incidence of long-term neurocognitive impairment. An integrated understanding of these abnormalities and their association with clinical events is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify specific patterns of abnormal cerebral development and their antenatal and postnatal antecedents. Methods In a prospective cohort of 449 infants (226 male), we performed a multi-variate and data-driven analysis combining multiple imaging modalities...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719030/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Shi-Heng Wang, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ling-Ling Yeh, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, Yi-Ting Lin, Sharon D Chandler, Stephen V Faraone, Nan Laird, Benjamin Neale, Steve A McCarroll, Stephen J Glatt, Ming T Tsuang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wei J Chen
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical samples. This study aimed to examine if the polygenic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia modified neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were first derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on schizophrenia, and then the scores were calculated in our independent sample of 1130 schizophrenia trios, who had PsychChip data and were part of the Schizophrenia Families from Taiwan project...
July 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#11
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#12
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715675/resting-state-brain-networks-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-impulse-control-disorders
#14
Alessandro Tessitore, Gabriella Santangelo, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Simona Raimo, Marianna Amboni, Fabrizio Esposito, Paolo Barone, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715116/delayed-transplantation-may-affect-intellectual-ability-in-children
#15
Jiwon M Lee, Yeon Kyung Jung, Jeong-Hoon Bae, Sun Ah Yoon, Ju Hee Kim, YoungRok Choi, Hyeyoung Kim, Kwang-Woong Lee, Hye Young Ahn, Jae Won Kim, Min-Sup Shin, Kyung-Suk Suh, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Hee Gyung Kang, Nam-Joon Yi
BACKGROUND: Decline in neurocognitive function is a reported complication in children with chronic illness. Concerns have been increasing that exposure to a major surgery or trauma may negatively impact cognitive performance in children. This study has evaluated cognitive function in 43 Korean children who received organ transplantation, and sought to identify associated clinical factors. METHODS: Pediatric recipients of kidney (KT) or liver transplantation (LT) from years 1999 to 2011 were recruited for cognitive tests...
July 17, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713237/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-executive-function-interplay-between-inhibition-and-updating-processes
#16
Na Young Kim, Ellen Wittenberg, Chang S Nam
This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713035/intracerebral-gene-therapy-in-children-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-iiib-syndrome-an-uncontrolled-phase-1-2-clinical-trial
#17
Marc Tardieu, Michel Zérah, Marie-Lise Gougeon, Jérome Ausseil, Stéphanie de Bournonville, Béatrice Husson, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Giancarlo Parenti, Philippe Bourget, Béatrice Poirier, Valérie Furlan, Cécile Artaud, Thomas Baugnon, Thomas Roujeau, Ronald G Crystal, Christian Meyer, Kumaran Deiva, Jean-Michel Heard
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB syndrome (also known as Sanfilippo type B syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in progressive deterioration of cognitive acquisition after age 2-4 years. No treatment is available for the neurological manifestations of the disease. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel intracerebral gene therapy. METHODS: Local regulatory authorities in France allowed inclusion of up to four children in this phase 1/2 study...
July 13, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711660/a-novel-deletion-involving-gnas-exon-1-causes-php1a-and-further-refines-the-region-required-for-normal-methylation-at-exon-a-b
#18
Monica Reyes, Anara Karaca, Murat Bastepe, Nese Ersoz Gulcelik, Harald Jüppner
GNAS exons 1-13 encode the biallelically expressed alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gαs). Additional transcripts derived from this locus use alternative first exons that undergo parent-specific methylation, thus allowing transcription only from the non-modified allele. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP1A) is characterized by Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and resistance to multiple hormones; this disorder is caused by maternal inactivating mutations involving Gαs exons. In contrast, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized mostly by resistance to PTH and often mild TSH resistance, usually without AHO features...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711111/to-do-or-not-to-do-task-control-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Eyal Kalanthroff, Avishai Henik, Helen Blair Simpson, Doron Todder, Gideon E Anholt
Task control is an executive control mechanism that facilitates goal-directed task selection by suppressing irrelevant automatic "stimulus-driven" behaviors. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that less efficient task control in individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with OCD symptoms, and specifically, with the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD. Thirty-five healthy controls, 30 participants with OCD, and 26 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) completed the object-interference (OI) task to measure task control, the stop-signal task to measure response inhibition, and the arrow-flanker task to evaluate executive abilities not contingent upon task control...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710394/altered-brain-network-connectivity-as-a-potential-endophenotype-of-schizophrenia
#20
Peng Li, Teng-Teng Fan, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Ying Han, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Si-Jing Chen, Jie Shi, Xiao Lin, Lin Lu
Abnormal functional brain connectivity could be considered an endophenotype of psychosis in schizophrenia. Identifying candidate endophenotypes may serve as a tool for elucidating its biological and neural mechanisms. The present study investigated the similarities and differences of features of brain network connectivity between patients and their first-degree relatives. Independent component analysis was conducted on imaging data collected from 34 healthy controls, 33 schizophrenia patients, and 30 unaffected first-degree relatives...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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