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I Porreca, L Ulloa-Severino, P Almeida, D Cuomo, A Nardone, G Falco, M Mallardo, C Ambrosino
Several studies associate foetal human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) to metabolic/endocrine diseases, mainly diabesity. They describe the role of BPA in the disruption of pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte and hepatocyte functions. Indeed, the complexity of the diabesity phenotype is due to the involvement of different endoderm-derived organs, all targets of BPA. Here, we analyse this point delineating a picture of different mechanisms of BPA toxicity in endoderm-derived organs leading to diabesity. Moving from epidemiological data, we summarize the in vivo experimental data of the BPA effects on endoderm-derived organs (thyroid, pancreas, liver, gut, prostate and lung) after prenatal exposure...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Simone Cristoni, Guglielmo Dusi, Paolo Brambilla, Adriana Albini, Matteo Conti, Maura Brambilla, Antonino Bruno, Francesca Digaudio, Luca Ferlin, Valeria Tazzari, Silvia Mengozzi, Simone Barera, Carlos Salier, Tommaso Trenti, Marco Cantu, Luigi Rossi Bernardi, Douglas M Noonan
Electrospray Ionization (EI) and Collision Induced Dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) are usually employed to obtain compound identification through a mass spectra match. Different algorithms have been developed for this purpose (for example the NIST match algorithm). These approaches compare the tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of the unknown analyte with the MS/MS spectra of known compounds inserted in a database. The compounds are usually identified on the basis of spectral match value associated with a probability of recognition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Kaihang Wang, Julius Fredens, Simon F Brunner, Samuel H Kim, Tiongsun Chia, Jason W Chin
Synthetic recoding of genomes, to remove targeted sense codons, may facilitate the encoded cellular synthesis of unnatural polymers by orthogonal translation systems. However, our limited understanding of allowed synonymous codon substitutions, and the absence of methods that enable the stepwise replacement of the Escherichia coli genome with long synthetic DNA and provide feedback on allowed and disallowed design features in synthetic genomes, have restricted progress towards this goal. Here we endow E. coli with a system for efficient, programmable replacement of genomic DNA with long (>100-kb) synthetic DNA, through the in vivo excision of double-stranded DNA from an episomal replicon by CRISPR/Cas9, coupled to lambda-red-mediated recombination and simultaneous positive and negative selection...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Guang-Hui Ma, Yan Ye, Dan Zhang, Xin Xu, Pei Si, Jian-Long Peng, Yong-Long Xiao, Rui-Yuan Cao, Yu-Ling Yin, Jing Chen, Lin-Xiang Zhao, Yu Zhou, Wu Zhong, Hong Liu, Xiao-Min Luo, Li-Li Chen, Xu Shen
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious, highly contagious disease. HFMD caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71), results in severe complications and even death. The pivotal role of EV71 3C(pro) in the viral life cycle makes it an attractive target for drug discovery and development to treat HFMD. In this study, we identified novel EV71 3C(pro) inhibitors by docking-based virtual screening. Totally 50 compounds were selected to test their inhibitory activity against EV71 3C(pro). The best inhibitor DC07090 exhibited the inhibition potency with an IC50 value of 21...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gianluca Macauda, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Peter Brugger, Bigna Lenggenhager
Individuals with xenomelia identify with an amputated rather than with their physically complete, healthy body. They often mimic amputees and show a strong admiration of and sexual attraction towards them. Here we investigated for the first time empirically whether such unusual preference for amputated bodies is present also on an implicit level. Using the well-validated Implicit Association Test we show that individuals with xenomelia manifested a stronger implicit and explicit preference for amputated bodies than a normally-limbed control group and a group of involuntary amputees did...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ethan Groves, Christopher S Palenik, Skip Palenik
The characterization and identification of dyes in fibers can be used to provide investigative leads and strengthen associations between known and questioned items of evidence. The isolation of a dye from its matrix (e.g., a textile fiber) permits detailed characterization, comparison and, in some cases, identification using methods such as thin layer chromatography in conjunction with infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A survey of dye extraction publications reveals that pyridine:water (4:3) is among the most commonly cited extraction solvent across a range of fiber and dye chemistries...
March 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
Money Gupta, Rashi Chauhan, Yamuna Prasad, Gulshan Wadhwa, Chakresh Kumar Jain
The lack of complete treatments and appearance of multiple drug-resistance strains of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are causing an increased risk of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc infection is a big risk to human health and demands an urgent need to identify new therapeutics against these bacteria. Network biology has emerged as one of the prospective hope in identifying novel drug targets and hits. We have applied protein-protein interaction methodology to identify new drug-target candidates (orthologs) in Burkhloderia cepacia GG4, which is an important strain for studying the quorum-sensing phenomena...
October 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Jun Itakura, Masayuki Kurosaki, Chitomi Hasebe, Yukio Osaki, Kouji Joko, Hitoshi Yagisawa, Shinya Sakita, Hiroaki Okushin, Takashi Satou, Hiroyuki Hisai, Takehiko Abe, Keiji Tsuji, Takashi Tamada, Haruhiko Kobashi, Akeri Mitsuda, Yasushi Ide, Chikara Ogawa, Syotaro Tsuruta, Kouichi Takaguchi, Miyako Murakawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Namiki Izumi
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: We aimed to clarify the characteristics of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after treatment failure with NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV) in combination with NS3/4A inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection. METHODS: This is a nationwide multicenter study conducted by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group. The sera were obtained from 68 patients with virological failure after 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment...
2016: PloS One
Pedro J Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Francisco García-Tabares, María C Mena, Sergio Ciordia, Vicente Larraga
Leishmania amazonensis is one of the major etiological agents of the neglected, stigmatizing disease termed american cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). ACL is a zoonosis and rodents are the main reservoirs. Most cases of ACL are reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. The biological cycle of the parasite is digenetic because sand fly vectors transmit the motile promastigote stage to the mammalian host dermis during blood meal intakes. The amastigote stage survives within phagocytes of the mammalian host...
2016: PloS One
Suli Huang, Ziquan Lv, Yi Guo, Lu Li, Yanwei Zhang, Li Zhou, Binyao Yang, Shuang Wu, Ying Zhang, Changhui Xie, Shanshan Li, Jinquan Cheng
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as novel disease biomarkers. Using a miRNA microarray, we previously showed that the whole blood level of let-7e-5p was significantly higher in ischemic stroke patients than in control subjects. However, the association between let-7e-5p expression and the occurrence of ischemic stroke remains unknown. In this study, we validated the expression levels of let-7e-5p in two case-control populations using miRNA TaqMan assays and further investigated the potential targets of let-7e-5p...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Adnexal masses (ie, masses of the ovary, fallopian tube, or surrounding tissues) commonly are encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists and often present diagnostic and management dilemmas. Most adnexal masses are detected incidentally on physical examination or at the time of pelvic imaging. Less commonly, a mass may present with symptoms of acute or intermittent pain. Management decisions often are influenced by the age and family history of the patient. Although most adnexal masses are benign, the main goal of the diagnostic evaluation is to exclude malignancy...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Adnexal masses (ie, masses of the ovary, fallopian tube, or surrounding tissues) commonly are encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists and often present diagnostic and management dilemmas. Most adnexal masses are detected incidentally on physical examination or at the time of pelvic imaging. Less commonly, a mass may present with symptoms of acute or intermittent pain. Management decisions often are influenced by the age and family history of the patient. Although most adnexal masses are benign, the main goal of the diagnostic evaluation is to exclude malignancy...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jasper L A Vleugels, Joep E G IJspeert, Yark Hazewinkel, Manon van der Vlugt, Paul Fockens, Lianne Koens, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Optical diagnosis of diminutive (1 to 5 mm) polyps could result in a more cost-effective colonoscopy practice. Previous optical diagnosis studies did not incorporate the differentiation of sessile serrated polyps (SSPs). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of optical diagnosis of diminutive SSPs on the overall performance of endoscopic polyp differentiation in daily colonoscopy practice. METHODS: Endoscopy data were prospectively collected between 2011 and 2014 in a colonoscopy center...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Shun Wang, Zhe Dong, Shen Li, Haotian Yin, Zhifu Zhao, Dongmei Gao, Guimin Ren, Xuexiang Bao
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues...
October 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Kimiko Aoki, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Makoto Ueki
When the tampering of a urine sample is suspected in doping control, personal identification of the sample needs to be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using DNA. We established a method for extracting DNA from urine samples stored at -20 °C without using any additives or procedures, which is consistent with how samples are required to be managed for doping control. The method, using the Puregene® Blood Core kit followed by NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up or NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up XS kit, does not need any special instrument and can provide a purified extract with high-quality DNA from up to 40 mL of urine suitable for STR analysis using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR amplification kit...
October 24, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
D F Paulo, A M L Azeredo-Espin, L E C Canesin, R Vicentini, A C M Junqueira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in two closely related screwworm flies with different feeding habits: Cochliomyia hominivorax and Cochliomyia macellaria. The New World screwworm, C. hominivorax, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded vertebrates, whereas the secondary screwworm, C. macellaria, is a free-living organism that feeds on decaying organic matter. Here, the small RNA transcriptomes of adults and third-instar larvae of both species were sequenced...
October 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Sergey V Malov, Alexey Antonik, Minzhong Tang, Alexandre Berred, Yi Zeng, Stephen J O'Brien
A new approach for statistical association signal identification is developed in this paper. We consider a strategy for nonprecise signal identification by extending the well-known signal detection and signal identification methods applicable to the multiple testing problem. Collection of statistical instruments under the presented approach is much broader than under the traditional signal identification methods, allowing more efficient signal discovery. Further assessments of maximal value and average statistics in signal discovery are improved...
October 24, 2016: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Puneeta Tandon, K Rajender Reddy, Jacqueline G O'Leary, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Juan G Abraldes, Florence Wong, Scott W Biggins, Benedict Maliakkal, Michael B Fallon, Ram M Subramanian, Paul Thuluvath, Patrick S Kamath, Leroy R Thacker, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of patients with cirrhosis at risk for death within 3 months of discharge from the hospital is essential to individualize post-discharge plans. The objective of the study was to identify an easy-to-use prognostic model based on the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). METHODS: NACSELD consists of 16 tertiary-care hepatology centers that prospectively enroll non-electively admitted cirrhotic patients. Patients enrolled had KPS assessed one week post-discharge...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jürgen Maibaum, Sha-Mei Liao, Anna Vulpetti, Nils Ostermann, Stefan Randl, Simon Rüdisser, Edwige Lorthiois, Paul Erbel, Bernd Kinzel, Fabrice A Kolb, Samuel Barbieri, Julia Wagner, Corinne Durand, Kamal Fettis, Solene Dussauge, Nicola Hughes, Omar Delgado, Ulrich Hommel, Ty Gould, Aengus Mac Sweeney, Bernd Gerhartz, Frederic Cumin, Stefanie Flohr, Anna Schubart, Bruce Jaffee, Richard Harrison, Antonio Maria Risitano, Jörg Eder, Karen Anderson
Complement is a key component of the innate immune system, recognizing pathogens and promoting their elimination. Complement component 3 (C3) is the central component of the system. Activation of C3 can be initiated by three distinct routes-the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathways-with the alternative pathway also acting as an amplification loop for the other two pathways. The protease factor D (FD) is essential for this amplification process, which, when dysregulated, predisposes individuals to diverse disorders including age-related macular degeneration and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
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