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Peter W Inglis, Lorena R Mata, Marcos José da Silva, Roberto F Vieira, Rosa de B N Alves, Dijalma B Silva, Vânia C R Azevedo
Plants of the genus Phyllanthus, principally Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus niruri , and Phyllanthus tenellus, are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat kidney stones as well as other ailments, where the latter two species are listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as quebra-pedra ( stone-breaker ). However, only P. niruri has been shown to be effective in a clinical setting. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 - 5.8S rRNA-ITS2), internal transcribed spacer 2, and chloroplasts rbc L, mat K, psb A- trn H, trn L, and trn L- trn F were screened for their potential as DNA barcodes for the identification of 48 Phyllanthus taxa in Brazilian medicinal plant germplasm banks and in "living pharmacies"...
June 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Safa Alqudah, Mark Chertoff, Dianne Durham, Jackob Moskovitz, Hinrich Staecker, Marcello Peppi
Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA and MsrB) protect the biological activity of proteins from oxidative modifications to methionine residues and are important for protecting against the pathological effects of neurodegenerative diseases. In the current study, we characterized the auditory phenotype of the MsrA knockout mouse. Young MsrA knockout mice showed small high-frequency threshold elevations for auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission compared to those of wild-type mice, which progressively worsened in older MsrA knockout mice...
June 21, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Dmitrii Pankin, Ilya Kolesnikov, Anna Vasileva, Anna Pilip, Vladislav Zigel, Alina Manshina
Raman spectra of the different ecotoxicants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate acid, organotin compounds of different families tributyl-, and triphenyl-, as well as chemically close compounds belonging to the same family - such as mono-, di-, and tributyl organotin compounds were analyzed. The comprehensive Raman spectra analysis allowed suggesting the identification scheme for clear recognition of the toxins family and the following intra-group specification. Possibility of unambiguous toxins detection and identification was demonstrated also for complex mixtures of various toxins on a base of control of characteristic peak groups, which can be considered as Raman fingerprints of the listed environmentally hazardous substances...
June 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Krzysztof Skowron, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Świeca, Zbigniew Paluszak, Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska, Ewa Wałecka-Zacharska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xueshi Sun, Dejiang Fan, Ming Liu, Yuan Tian, Yue Pang, Huijie Liao
Sediment samples, including 40 surface samples and 12 sediment cores, were collected from 52 stations of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in 2015 and 2016. The 95% linear prediction intervals (LPI) and principal components analysis (PCA), were conducted to evaluate the metal sources and grain-size effect (GSE). The in situ physico-chemical properties of pH, Eh, DO, salinity, temperature and turbidity were combined to elucidate the relationships between environmental factors and the fate of heavy metals in the river-estuary-shelf system...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Juliana Bazzan Arsand, Rodrigo Barcellos Hoff, Louise Jank, Lucas N Meirelles, M Silvia Díaz-Cruz, Tânia Mara Pizzolato, Damià Barceló
Antibiotics are widely used in human medicine and veterinary production. Residues of these compounds reach the water sources through waste or direct application (e.g. aquaculture). The constant input of the parent drugs and their transformation products into the environment leads these pharmaceuticals to be considered as emerging pollutants. For some molecules, the pathway of degradation and formation in products is less known. To assess the impact of these substances in the environment and in the human health, it is necessary to elucidate the transformation products and their kinetic of degradation to evaluate the possible risks...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adam M Reid, Andrew G Guzick, Alyka Glor Fernandez, Brett Deacon, Joseph P H McNamara, Gary R Geffken, Ryan McCarty, Catherine W Striley
Exposure therapy is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment technique for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Regardless, therapists in the community are reported to use exposure relatively rarely compared with other approaches. The goal of the present study was to identify how practicing clinicians treat youth with anxiety disorders across the United States and what factors contribute to their use of exposure therapy. Recruited from public directories, 257 private practice therapists who treat anxious youth were surveyed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Chao Zhou, Ylenia Carotenuto, Valentina Vitiello, Changwen Wu, Jianshe Zhang, Isabella Buttino
The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa is a reference species in standardized ecotoxicology bioassay. Despite this interest, there is a lack of knowledge on molecular responses of A. tonsa to contaminants. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa exposed 4 days to 8.5 and 17 mg/L nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), which have been shown to reduce egg hatching success and larval survival but had no effects on the adults. Aims of our study were to 1) improve the knowledge on the molecular responses of A...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Fiona Williams, Aileen McCafferty, Colin Dunkley, Martin Kirkpatrick
PURPOSE: To survey patient and carer experience for children and young people with epilepsy across the United Kingdom. METHODS: We used a Patient Reported Experience Measure methodology to explore perceived satisfaction with their epilepsy service. A survey collected anonymised proxy data on demography and illness severity, and perceptions of interaction with clinicians, ease of access to the service and the quality and quantity of epilepsy information provided...
June 8, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
L Proskuryakova
The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Svetlana V Sidorenko, Rustam H Ziganshin, Oksana G Luneva, Leonid I Deev, Natalya V Alekseeva, Georgy V Maksimov, Ryszard Grygorczyk, Sergei N Orlov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Chien-Chun Liu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Yung-Chin Hsiao, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu
Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. In this study, we characterized and compared their venom protein profiles using proteomic approaches. The major snake venom proteins were identified by GeLC-MS/MS and the total venom proteome was characterized by in-solution digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS. A total of 27-52 proteins, categorized into 23 protein families, were identified in each snake's venom...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Maryse Vanderplanck, Gaétan Glauser
Plants produce a large array of specialized metabolites to protect themselves. Among these allelochemicals, alkaloids display highly diverse and complex structures that are directly related to their biological activities. Plant alkaloid profiling traditionally requires extensive and time-consuming sample preparation and analysis. Herein, we developed a rapid and efficient approach for the comprehensive profiling of alkaloids in plants using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS)-based metabolomics...
June 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
Natalí Álvarez, Giovan F Gómez, Nelson Naranjo-Díaz, Margarita M Correa
The Arribalzagia Series of the Anopheles Subgenus comprises morphologically similar species or members of species complexes which makes correct species identification difficult. Therefore, the aim of this work was to discriminate the morphospecies of the Arribalzagia Series present in Colombia using a multilocus approach based on ITS2, COI and CAD sequences. Specimens of the Arribalzagia Series collected at 32 localities in nine departments were allocated to seven species. Individual and concatenated Bayesian analyses showed high support for each of the species and reinforced the previous report of the Apicimacula species Complex with distribution in the Pacific Coast and northwestern Colombia...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nikhil Pillai, Morgan Craig, Aristeidis Dokoumetzidis, Sorell L Schwartz, Robert Bies, Immanuel Freedman
In mathematical pharmacology, models are constructed to confer a robust method for optimizing treatment. The predictive capability of pharmacological models depends heavily on the ability to track the system and to accurately determine parameters with reference to the sensitivity in projected outcomes. To closely track chaotic systems, one may choose to apply chaos synchronization. An advantageous byproduct of this methodology is the ability to quantify model parameters. In this paper, we illustrate the use of chaos synchronization combined with Nelder-Mead search to estimate parameters of the well-known Kirschner-Panetta model of IL-2 immunotherapy from noisy data...
June 18, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Marilucy Lopez-Sublet, Lorenzo Caratti di Lanzacco, A H Jan Danser, Michel Lambert, Ghassan Elourimi, Alexandre Persu
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a well-known zinc-metallopeptidase that converts angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin, a powerful vasodilator, and as such plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac function. Increased circulating ACE (cACE) activity has been reported in multiple diseases, including but not limited to granulomatous disorders. Since 2001, genetic mutations leading to cACE elevation have also been described. This review takes advantage of the identification of a novel ACE mutation (25-IVS25 + 1G > A) in two Belgian pedigrees to summarize current knowledge about the differential diagnosis of cACE elevation, based on literature review and the experience of our centre...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Evangelia Gontikaki, Lloyd Potts, James A Anderson, Ursula Witte
AIMS: The aim of this study was the baseline description of oil-degrading sediment bacteria along a depth transect in the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) and the identification of biomarker taxa for the detection of oil contamination in FSC sediments. METHODS AND RESULTS: Oil-degrading sediment bacteria from 135, 500 and 1000 m were enriched in cultures with crude oil as the sole carbon source (at 12, 5 and 0°C respectively). The enriched communities were studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent (clone libraries) techniques...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Tomoko Tsuchiya, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Keiichi Nakagawa, Jae-Ryong Kim, Shiro Kanegasaki
Background and purpose: Intravenous administration of a single amino acid-substituted chemokine CCL3 derivative named eMIP elicits the abscopal effect (an effect distal to the target), after local irradiation at a tumor-bearing site. To distinguish the active portion of eMIP, we tested the antitumor activity of chemically synthesized partial peptides of eMIP. Synthetic peptide has various advantages in its clinical application. Material and methods: Colon26 adenocarcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in the right and left flanks of mice...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Charles R Marshall, Christopher J D Hardy, Micah Allen, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Objective: To establish proof-of-principle for the use of heart rate responses as objective measures of degraded emotional reactivity across the frontotemporal dementia spectrum, and to demonstrate specific relationships between cardiac autonomic responses and anatomical patterns of neurodegeneration. Methods: Thirty-two patients representing all major frontotemporal dementia syndromes and 19 healthy older controls performed an emotion recognition task, viewing dynamic, naturalistic videos of facial emotions while ECG was recorded...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Pierantonio Laveneziana
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent, complex and debilitating disease which imposes a formidable burden on patients and the healthcare system. The recognition that COPD is a multifaceted disease is not new, and increasing evidence have outlined the importance of its extra-pulmonary manifestations and its relation to other comorbid conditions in the clinical course of the disease and its societal cost. The relationship between aging, COPD and its comorbidities on skeletal muscle function and nutritional status is complex, multidirectional and incompletely understood...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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