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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448558/the-herpevac-trial-for-women-sequence-analysis-of-glycoproteins-from-viruses-obtained-from-infected-subjects
#1
Miguel A Minaya, Maria Korom, Hong Wang, Robert B Belshe, Lynda A Morrison
The Herpevac Trial for Women revealed that three dose HSV-2 gD vaccine was 58% protective against culture-positive HSV-1 genital disease, but it was not protective against HSV-2 infection or disease. To determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses had selected for a particular gD sequence in strains infecting vaccine recipients compared with viruses infecting control subjects, genetic sequencing studies were carried out on viruses isolated from subjects infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2. We identified naturally occurring variants among the gD sequences obtained from 83 infected subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446678/differential-involvement-during-latent-hsv-1-infection-of-the-superior-and-inferior-divisions-of-the-vestibular-ganglia-implications-for-vestibular-neuritis
#2
Susanne Himmelein, Anja Lindemann, Inga Sinicina, Anja K E Horn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Katharina Hüfner
Controversy still surrounds both the etiology and pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis (VN). Especially uncertain is why the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) is more frequently affected than the inferior part (IVN), which is partially or totally spared. To address this question we developed an improved method for preparing human vestibular ganglia (VG) and nerve. Subsequently macro- and micro-anatomical as well as PCR studies were performed on 38 human ganglia from 38 individuals. The SVN was 2.4 mm longer than the IVN, and in 65% of the cases the IVN ran in two separate bony canals, which was not the case for the SVN...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446672/cellular-cholesterol-facilitates-the-post-entry-replication-cycle-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#3
George A Wudiri, Anthony V Nicola
Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for HSV-1 entry (1-3). Treatment of HSV-1-infected Vero cells with methyl beta-cyclodextrin from 2 - 9 hours post-entry reduced plaque numbers. Transport of incoming viral capsids to the nuclear periphery was unaffected by cholesterol reduction suggesting that cell cholesterol is important for the HSV-1 replicative cycle at a stage(s) beyond entry after the arrival of capsids at the nucleus. The synthesis and release of infectious HSV-1 and cell-to-cell spread of infection were all impaired in cholesterol-reduced cells...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443092/disarming-cellular-alarm-systems-manipulation-of-stress-induced-nkg2d-ligands-by-human-herpesviruses
#4
REVIEW
Dominik Schmiedel, Ofer Mandelboim
The coevolution of viruses and their hosts led to the repeated emergence of cellular alert signals and viral strategies to counteract them. The herpesvirus family of viruses displays the most sophisticated repertoire of immune escape mechanisms enabling infected cells to evade immune recognition and thereby maintain infection. The herpesvirus family consists of nine viruses that are capable of infecting humans: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), roseoloviruses (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7), and Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440579/prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-at-maternal-and-fetal-sides-of-the-placenta-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women
#5
Fabiana Finger-Jardim, Emiliana C Avila, Vanusa P da Hora, Carla V Gonçalves, Ana Maria B de Martinez, Marcelo A Soares
PROBLEM: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial infection, but can also infect the genital mucosa. In contrast, HSV-2 is usually genital. Genital herpes can transmit the virus vertically to the fetus during pregnancy. We sought to estimate the prevalence of HSV-1/2 on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. METHOD OF STUDY: Placental tissues were collected from pregnant women seen at the Rio Grande University Hospital. HSV-1 and HSV-2 were detected by nested PCR...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#6
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432334/regulation-of-viral-gene-expression-by-duck-enteritis-virus-ul54
#7
Chaoyue Liu, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL54 is a homologue of human herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) ICP27, which plays essential regulatory roles during infection. Our previous studies indicated that DEV UL54 is an immediate-early protein that can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that UL54-deleted DEV (DEV-ΔUL54) exhibits growth kinetics, a plaque size and a viral DNA copy number that are significantly different from those of its parent wild-type virus (DEV-LoxP) and the revertant (DEV-ΔUL54 (Revertant))...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423694/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-encoded-small-rnas-ebers-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-head-and-neck-carcinomas
#8
Turunen Aaro, Rautava Jaana, Grénman Reidar, Syrjänen Kari, Syrjänen Stina
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the main cause of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), also found in other head and neck carcinomas (HNSCCs) where its role remains controversial. RESULTS: EBV was found in 80% and 21% of the samples with PCR and ISH (in cancer cells), respectively. Eight of ISH-positive samples were not NPCs. EBER-RNA detection in carcinoma cells was associated with worse prognosis, whether or not NPCs were included. HPV/EBV and HSV/HPV coinfections associated with a shorter survival...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420448/association-of-cognitive-function-and-liability-to-addiction-with-childhood-herpesvirus-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Michael M Vanyukov, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Levent Kirisci, Galina P Kirillova, Maureen D Reynolds, Konasale Prasad, Ralph E Tarter, Robert H Yolken
Liability to substance use disorder (SUD) is largely nonspecific to particular drugs and is related to behavior dysregulation, including reduced cognitive control. Recent data suggest that cognitive mechanisms may be influenced by exposure to neurotropic infections, such as human herpesviruses. In this study, serological evidence of exposure to human herpesvirus Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as well as Toxoplasma gondii was determined in childhood (age ~11 years) in 395 sons and 174 daughters of fathers with or without SUD...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419615/involvement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-ul13-protein-kinase-in-the-induction-of-socs-genes-the-negative-regulator-of-cytokine-signaling
#10
Yuka Sato, Tetsuo Koshizuka, Kei Ishibashi, Koichi Hashimoto, Ken Ishioka, Kazufumi Ikuta, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Nobuhiro Fujii, Tatsuo Suzutani
The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family consists of 8 members and suppresses various cytokine signaling pathways including interferon (IFN) signaling. Therefore, some viruses have evolved molecular mechanisms to induce SOCS proteins in order to escape from host immunity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has a mechanism for escaping from type I IFN by induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well. In this study, expression of 8 members of the SOCS family by HSV-1 infection was comparatively analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR...
April 17, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418354/-clinical-and-morphological-signs-of-viral-damage-to-a-kidney-transplant
#11
S E Solovyeva, E M Paltseva, M M Morozova, M M Kaabak, N A Krainik, A V Matveev
AIM: Тo compare morphological changes and results of immunohistochemical (IHC) identification of viruses (polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and herpesviruses) in the biopsy specimens with their clinical manifestations in recipients of renal transplants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morphological and IHC studies were conducted using 71 needle renal transplant biopsy specimens from patients in the study group and 10 renal biopsy specimens from those in the control group. A number of clinical indicators were estimated...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#12
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
April 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413399/hsv-1-hsv-2-infection-related-cancers-in-bantu-populations-driving-hiv-1-prevalence-in-africa-tracking-the-origin-of-aids-at-the-onset-of-the-20th-century
#13
Jacqueline Le Goaster, Patrice Bouree, Franck N El Sissy, Florence Phuong Bui, Johanna Pokossy Epee, Paul Rollin, Frédéric Tangy, Anne-Lise Haenni
INTRODUCTION: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412547/intracellular-dna-sensing-pathway-of-cgas-cgamp-is-decreased-in-human-newborns-and-young-children
#14
Zhan-Sheng Wang, Yu-Lu Liu, Nan Mi, Dao-Yun Duan
Newborns are highly susceptible to DNA virus infections, which may result from the characteristics of neonatal innate immune systems. Here we analyzed for the first time the development of innate immune sensing and signaling of intracellular DNA virus infection in human newborns and young children. Both mRNA and protein expression of cGAS, an intracellular DNA sensor, were shown to be significantly reduced in neonatal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, cGAS expression in neonatal PBMCs could be induced upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or interferon-α (IFNα) stimulation...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407276/synthesis-characterization-and-biological-evaluation-of-some-novel-quinoxaline-derivatives-as-antiviral-agents
#15
Heba S A El-Zahabi
Ethyl (6,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-3-yl)acetate and ethyl (6-methyl-2-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-3-yl)acetate (1a,b), 3-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (4) and 1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (11) were the starting precursors for nine novel quinoxaline compounds, 3a, 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 20, via adopting different nucleophilic reactions. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antiviral activity against HCV, HBV, HSV-1, and HCMV. Concomitantly, their safety profile was investigated as well as their selectivity against the viral strains...
April 13, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405631/electric-cell-substrate-impedance-sensing-to-monitor-viral-growth-and-study-cellular-responses-to-infection-with-alphaherpesviruses-in-real-time
#16
Matthew R Pennington, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measures changes in an electrical circuit formed in a culture dish. As cells grow over a gold electrode, they block the flow of electricity and this is read as an increase in electrical impedance in the circuit. ECIS has previously been used in a variety of applications to study cell growth, migration, and behavior in response to stimuli in real time and without the need for cellular labels. Here, we demonstrate that ECIS is also a valuable tool with which to study infection by alphaherpesviruses...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404853/herpes-virus-entry-mediator-hvem-and-ocular-herpes-infection-more-than-meets-the-eye
#17
Rebecca G Edwards, Richard Longnecker
As its name suggests, the host receptor herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) facilitates herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry through interactions with a viral envelope glycoprotein. HVEM also bridges several signaling networks, binding ligands from both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamilies with diverse, and often opposing, outcomes. While HVEM was first identified as a viral entry receptor for HSV, it is only recently that HVEM has emerged as an important host factor in immunopathogenesis of ocular HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404850/stress-hormones-epinephrine-and-corticosterone-selectively-modulate-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-productive-infection-in-adult-sympathetic-but-not-sensory-neurons
#18
Angela M Ives, Andrea S Bertke
Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect and establish latency in peripheral neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is associated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms and induction of recurrences in humans and animal models. The viruses preferentially replicate and establish latency in different subtypes of sensory neurons, as well as in neurons of the autonomic nervous system that are highly responsive to stress hormones. To determine if stress-related hormones modulate productive HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection within sensory and autonomic neurons, we analyzed viral DNA and production of viral progeny after treatment of primary adult murine neuronal cultures with the stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404844/intramuscular-immunization-of-mice-with-the-live-attenuated-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-vaccine-strain-vc2-expressing-the-equine-herpesvirus-1-ehv-1-glycoprotein-d-gd-generates-anti-ehv-1-immune-responses-in-mice
#19
Shiliang A Liu, Brent A Stanfield, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Shan Naidu, Ingeborg Langohr, Fabio Del Piero, Jacqueline Ferracone, Alma A Roy, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Vaccination remains the best option to combat EHV-1 infection and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of the Equine Herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein D (gD), and that intramuscular immunization of mice resulted in strong anti-viral humoral and cellular immune responses...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404842/an-immortalized-human-dorsal-root-ganglia-cell-line-provides-a-novel-context-to-study-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-latency-and-reactivation
#20
Nikki M Thellman, Carolyn Botting, Zachary Madaj, Steven J Triezenberg
A defining characteristic of alphaherpesviruses is the establishment of lifelong latency in host sensory ganglia with occasional reactivation causing recurrent lytic infections. As an alternative to rodent models, we explored the use of an immortalized cell line derived from human dorsal root ganglia. HD10.6 cells proliferate by virtue of a transduced tetracycline-regulated v-myc oncogene. In the presence of doxycycline, HD10.6 cells mature to exhibit neuronal morphology and express sensory neuron-associated markers such as neurotrophin receptors TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, and RET and the sensory neurofilament peripherin...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
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