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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689425/the-lysosome-system-is-severely-impaired-in-a-cellular-model-of-neurodegeneration-induced-by-hsv-1-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Henrike Kristen, Isabel Sastre, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Maria Recuero, Jesus Aldudo, Maria J Bullido
The causal agent(s) and molecular mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. Mounting evidence suggests that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is involved in the AD pathogenesis. Oxidative stress (OS) may also be crucial in the AD development. Our group previously reported that both HSV-1 and OS trigger the appearance of AD-type neurodegeneration markers. The main aim of the present study was to identify the mechanisms involved in this triggering. Expression studies revealed the involvement of a set of OS-regulated genes in HSV-1-infected cells and in cells harboring the Swedish mutation of the amyloid beta precursor protein gene...
March 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688863/infection-status-of-human-parvovirus-b19-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-1-2-in-women-with-first-trimester-spontaneous-abortions-in-chongqing-china
#2
Ya-Ling Gao, Zhan Gao, Miao He, Pu Liao
BACKGROUND: Infection with Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) may cause fetal loses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. Few comprehensive studies have investigated first-trimester spontaneous abortions caused by virus infections in Chongqing, China. Our study intends to investigate the infection of B19V, CMV and HSV-1/2 in first-trimester spontaneous abortions and the corresponding immune response...
April 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688572/enhanced-expression-of-ifi16-and-rig-i-in-human-third-trimester-placentas-following-hsv-1-infection
#3
Agnieszka Jabłońska, Mirosława Studzińska, Patrycja Suski, Jarosław Kalinka, Edyta Paradowska
The innate immune response in the placenta depends on the ability of maternal immune cells and fetal trophoblast cells to detect and eliminate invading pathogens through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In the present study, we analyzed the transcripts and protein expression of IFI16, MDA5, RIG-I, and TLR3 in third-trimester human placentas and investigated cytokine profiles generated during herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Decidual and chorionic villous biopsies (38-42 week of gestation) were obtained from healthy women immediately after a cesarean section...
April 24, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688441/interference-by-rheumatoid-factor-in-immunoglobulin-m-class-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-2-immunoassays
#4
Jingjing Pan, Gaili Meng, Bin Huang, Liangzi Lan, Liang Ming
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 + 2 immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies assays are important tools for diagnosing pregnant women and their newborns. However, it is unclear whether high levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) interfere with serological methods used to test for HSV types 1 + 2 type-specific IgM antibodies. We report a case of a false-positive result for HSV 1 + 2 IgM antibodies due to gross overestimation of RF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This result occurred in a 25-year-old Han Chinese woman who was 28 weeks pregnant with a fetus (sex of fetus unknown)...
April 24, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677136/cytoplasmic-translocation-of-nucleolar-protein-nop53-promotes-viral-replication-by-suppressing-host-defense
#5
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669832/comparative-analysis-of-ul16-mutants-derived-from-multiple-strains-of-hsv-2-and-hsv-1-reveals-species-specific-requirements-for-the-ul16-protein
#6
Jie Gao, Xiaohu Yan, Bruce W Banfield
Orthologs of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL16 gene are conserved throughout the Herpesviridae Because of this conservation, one might expect that these proteins perform similar functions for all herpesviruses. Previous studies on a UL16 null mutant derived from HSV-2 strain 186 revealed a roughly 100-fold replication defect and a critical role for UL16 in the nuclear egress of capsids. These findings were in stark contrast to what has been observed with UL16 mutants of HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus where roughly 10-fold replication deficiencies were reported that were accompanied by defects in the secondary envelopment of cytoplasmic capsids...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669784/pd-l1-b7-h1-inhibits-viral-clearance-by-macrophages-in-hsv-1-infected-corneas
#7
Sohyun Jeon, Alexander M Rowe, Kate L Carroll, Stephen A K Harvey, Robert L Hendricks
Immune privilege helps protect the cornea from damaging inflammation but can also impair pathogen clearance from this mucosal surface. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or B7-H1) contributes to corneal immune privilege by inhibiting the function of a variety of immune cells. We asked whether programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 interaction regulates HSV-1 clearance from infected corneas. We show that PD-L1 is constitutively expressed in the corneal epithelium and is upregulated upon HSV-1 corneal infection, with peak expression on CD45+ cells NK cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages and CD45- corneal epithelial cells at 4 d postinfection (dpi)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668948/combined-infection-of-human-herpes-viruses-a-risk-factor-for-subsequent-colectomy-in-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Shuhei Hosomi, Kenji Watanabe, Yu Nishida, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tomomi Yukawa, Koji Otani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Koichi Taira, Noriko Kamata, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Toshio Watanabe, Hisashi Nagahara, Kiyoshi Maeda, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
Background: Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenicity of human herpes viruses except for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human herpes viruses on colonic mucosa in patients with IBD and assess the long-term outcomes in these patients. Methods: We examined the colonic mucosal specimens from 66 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 54 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 29 healthy patients to identify the 6 most common types of human herpes virus, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668856/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-among-pregnant-women-and-sexually-active-non-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#9
Monica E Patton, Kyle Bernstein, Gui Liu, Akbar Zaidi, Lauri E Markowitz
Background: Neonatal herpes is a rare, devastating consequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2) infection during pregnancy. The risk of neonatal infection is higher among pregnant women seronegative for HSV-1 or HSV-2 who acquire their first HSV infection near delivery. Methods: We estimated HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 1999-2014, assessed HSV seroprevalence changes between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014, and compared HSV seroprevalence between pregnant women and sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 2007-2014 using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658163/a-novel-oncolytic-herpes-capable-of-cell-specific-transcriptional-targeting-of-cd133%C3%A2-cancer-cells-induces-significant-tumor-regression
#10
Kaoru Terai, Danse Bi, Zhengian Liu, Emma Borrego-Diaz, Kyle Kimura, Zohreh Sanaat, Roya Dolatkhah, Mina Soleimani, Christopher Jones, Judith Larson, Allison Bright, Tuba Esfandyari, Faris Farassati
The topic of cancer stem cells is of significant importance due to its implications in our understanding of the tumor biology, as well as the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, the question of whether targeting cancer stem cells can hamper the growth of tumors remains mainly unanswered due to the lack of specific agents for this purpose. In order to address this issue, we have developed the first mutated version of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) that is transcriptionally targeted against CD133+ cells...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655629/intramuscular-vaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-human-herpes-simplex-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-a-transcriptional-profile-of-vaginal-th17-and-regulatory-tr1-responses
#11
Brent A Stanfield, Paul J F Rider, John Caskey, Fabio Del Piero, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Herpes simplex virus is a common causative agent of oral and genital diseases. Novel vaccines and therapeutics are needed to combat herpes infections especially after the failure of subunit vaccines in human clinical trials. We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. The guinea pig represents the best small animal model of genital HSV-2 disease...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643250/neuronal-subtype-determines-hsv-1-latency-associated-transcript-lat-promoter-activity-during-latency
#12
Jorge Ruben Cabrera, Audra J Charron, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency in neurons remains poorly understood, and the heterogeneity of the sensory nervous system complicates mechanistic studies. In this study, we used primary culture of adult trigeminal ganglion (TG) mouse neurons in microfluidic devices, and an in vivo model, to examine the subtypes of sensory neurons involved in HSV latency. HSV-infected neurofilament heavy-positive neurons (NefH+ ) were more likely to express Latency-Associated Transcripts (LATs) relative to infected neurofilament heavy-negative neurons (NefH- )...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642603/acyclovir-loaded-chitosan-nanospheres-from-nano-emulsion-templating-for-the-topical-treatment-of-herpesviruses-infections
#13
Manuela Donalisio, Federica Leone, Andrea Civra, Rita Spagnolo, Ozgen Ozer, David Lembo, Roberta Cavalli
Acyclovir is not a good candidate for passive permeation since its polarity and solubility limit is partitioning into the stratum corneum. This work aims to develop a new topical formulation for the acyclovir delivery. New chitosan nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a modified nano-emulsion template method. Chitosan NS were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and an in vitro release study. The in vitro skin permeation experiment was carried out using Franz cells and was equipped with porcine skin...
April 10, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629396/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-nonencephalitic-hsv-1-infection
#14
Amy Salovin, Jason Glanzman, Kylie Roslin, Thais Armangue, David R Lynch, Jessica A Panzer
Objective: To determine whether there is an association between nonencephalitic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE). Methods: Antibody testing was performed using samples from 2 cohorts in a case-control observational study. The cohort "Philadelphia" included 16 serum samples of pediatric anti-NMDARE cases and 42 age-matched controls with other neuroinflammatory disorders studied at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625473/corneal-epithelial-cells-exhibit-myeloid-characteristics-and-present-antigen-via-mhc-class-ii
#15
Derek J Royer, Michael H Elliott, Yun Z Le, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: To explore the impact of ocular surface insults on the immunomodulatory capacity and phenotype of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) with a focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Corneas were harvested from mice 6 days following scratch injury, ragweed pollen-induced allergy, or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and compared to healthy tissue controls. Corneas were enzymatically digested and CECs phenotypically characterized using flow cytometry...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622628/structure-of-the-herpes-simplex-virus-1-capsid-with-associated-tegument-protein-complexes
#16
Xinghong Dai, Z Hong Zhou
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) rely on capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) for long-range axonal transport of their genome-containing capsids between sites of infection and neuronal cell bodies. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HSV-1 capsid with CATC up to 3.5-angstrom resolution and atomic models of multiple conformers of capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36. Crowning every capsid vertex are five copies of heteropentameric CATC, each containing a pUL17 monomer supporting the coiled-coil helix bundle of a pUL25 dimer and a pUL36 dimer, thus positioning their flexible domains for potential involvement in nuclear capsid egress and axonal capsid transport...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620508/increasing-antigen-presentation-on-hsv-1-infected-cells-increases-lesion-size-but-does-not-alter-neural-infection-or-latency
#17
Tiffany A Russell, Thilaga Velusamy, Yeu-Yang Tseng, David C Tscharke
CD8+ T cells have a role in the control of acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and may also be important in the maintenance of latency. In this study we have explored the consequences of boosting the efficacy of CD8+ T cells against HSV by increasing the amount of an MHC I-presented epitope on the surface of infected cells. To do this we used HSVs engineered to express an extra copy of the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope in C57Bl/6 mice, namely gB498 (SSIEFARL). Despite greater presentation of gB498 on infected cells, CD8+ T cell responses to these viruses in mice were similar to those elicited by a control virus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618646/functional-relevance-of-the-transmembrane-domain-and-cytoplasmic-tail-of-the-pseudorabies-virus-glycoprotein-h-for-membrane-fusion
#18
Melina Vallbracht, Walter Fuchs, Barbara G Klupp, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus membrane fusion depends on the core fusion machinery comprising glycoproteins (g)B and gH/gL. Although gB structurally resembles autonomous class III fusion proteins, it strictly depends on gH/gL to drive membrane fusion. Whether the gH/gL complex needs to be membrane-anchored to fulfill its function and which role the gH cytoplasmic (CD) and transmembrane domains (TMD) play in fusion is unclear. While the gH CD and TMD play an important role during infection, soluble gH/gL of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) seems to be sufficient to mediate cell-cell fusion in transient assays arguing against an essential contribution of the CD and TMD...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617951/non-mumps-viral-parotitis-during-the-2014-2015-influenza-season-in-the-united-states
#19
Lina I Elbadawi, Pamela Talley, Melissa A Rolfes, Alexander J Millman, Erik Reisdorf, Natalie A Kramer, John R Barnes, Lenee Blanton, Jaime Christensen, Stefanie Cole, Tonya Danz, John J Dreisig, Rebecca Garten, Thomas Haupt, Beth M Isaac, Mary Anne Jackson, Anna Kocharian, Daniel Leifer, Karen Martin, Lisa McHugh, Rebecca J McNall, Jennifer Palm, Kay W Radford, Sara Robinson, Jennifer B Rosen, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Peter Shult, Anna K Strain, George Turabelidze, Lori A Webber, Meghan Pearce Weinberg, David E Wentworth, Brett L Whitaker, Lyn Finelli, Michael A Jhung, Ruth Lynfield, Jeffrey P Davis
Background: During the 2014-2015 US influenza season, 320 cases of non-mumps parotitis (NMP) among residents of 21 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We conducted an epidemiologic and laboratory investigation to determine viral etiologies and clinical features of NMP during this unusually large occurrence. Methods: NMP was defined as acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling of >2 days duration in a person with a mumps- negative laboratory result...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617372/trends-in-the-relative-prevalence-of-genital-ulcer-disease-pathogens-and-association-with-hiv-infection-in-johannesburg-south-africa-2007-2015
#20
Ranmini S Kularatne, Etienne E Muller, Dumisile V Maseko, Tendesayi Kufa-Chakezha, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, treatment of genital ulcer disease (GUD) occurs in the context of syndromic management. GUD aetiological studies have been conducted in Johannesburg since 2007. We report on GUD pathogen prevalence, sero-prevalence of STI co-infections and aetiological trends among GUD patients presenting to a community-based primary healthcare facility in Johannesburg over a 9-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: GUD surveys were conducted from January to April each year...
2018: PloS One
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