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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913959/reaction-of-complement-factors-and-proteasomes-in-experimental-encephalitis
#1
Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Ewa Johansson, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis causes a deleterious inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. As a step towards examining the origin of the inflammation, we here report the response of circulating proteasomes and complement factors in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats infected with HSV-1. Infection was via the nasal route, with 1.1 × 10(4) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 2762 given in one or both nostrils. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the level of 26S proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factors 3 and 4...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911113/a-tribute-to-professor-steven-l-wechsler-1948-2016-the-man-and-the-scientist
#2
Anthony B Nesburn, Lbachir BenMohamed
Professor Steven L. Wechsler, a world-renowned eye researcher and virologist, passed away unexpectedly on June 12, 2016 at the age of 68. Many scientists came to know Professor Wechsler as a gifted researcher in the field of ocular Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) latency, reactivation, and pathogenesis. Professor Wechsler published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers during his career, pushing forward the frontiers of his field eye research. His colleagues would say, 'Steve literally wrote the book on herpes latency and reactivation...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904085/antiviral-activity-and-molecular-geometry-of-some-new-symmetrical-tris-aminoalkyl-amine-derivatives
#3
Nobuko Mibu, Kazumi Yokomizo, Kana Murakami, Yurika Ono, Masato Ishimaru, Marie Otsubo, Hiroshi Inao, Yutaro Ono, Jian-Rong Zhou, Kunihiro Sumoto
We report the preparation of new tripodal receptor-type C3- and CS-symmetrical molecules constructed on a tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA) template. Both the anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (anti-HSV-1) activity and cytotoxic activity of synthesized receptor-type derivatives were evaluated in order to find a characteristic structural feature for these bioactivities of compounds. Among the compounds of synthesized symmetrical TAEA-related derivatives, compound 13k showed high anti-HSV-1 activity (50% effective concentration (EC50)=16...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903680/herpes-simplex-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-a-cohort-with-primary-genital-infection-correlates-inversely-with-frequency-of-subsequent-recurrences
#4
Elisabeth Franzen-Röhl, Danika Schepis, Fredrik Atterfelt, Kristina Franck, Arne Wikström, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Tomas Bergström, Elisabeth Aurelius, Klas Kärre, Louise Berg, Hans Gaines
OBJECTIVES: During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood...
November 30, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903223/releasing-of-herpes-simplex-virus-carrying-ngf-in-subarachnoid-space-promotes-the-functional-repair-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#5
Zhi-Wei Chen, Hang-Ping Wang, Feng-Mei Yuan, Xiao Zhang, Xiu-Juan Dong, Rui-Shen Xie, Chao Tian, Bing-Shen Li, Zhen-Wu Sun, Long-Hui Zhou, Jian Liu, Tinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury is a serious disease which can lead to bad consequence in patients. Gene therapies as an effective strategy, has been developed for the treatment of disease. OBJECTIVE: Here, we explored the effect of NGF release carried by HSV-1 in the injured spinal cord. METHODS: Transgenic recombinant containing NGF was constructed by using clone technology. NGF was firstly constructed into plasimid, then enveloped by HSV-1 vector...
November 20, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#6
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899436/anti-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-activity-and-phenolic-content-of-crude-ethanol-extract-and-four-corresponding-fractions-of-quercus-brantii-l-acorn
#7
Ali Karimi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Somayeh Alidadi
This research was aimed to evaluate anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 (anti-HSV-1) activity of crude ethanol extract and 4 corresponding fractions of Quercus brantii acorn in vitro. Crude ethanol extract was prepared and subjected to fractionation with different polarity. Anti-HSV-1 activity was evaluated on baby hamster kidney cell line using MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of the plant materials on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of HSV-1 replication cycle were determined. Regression analysis was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration and 50% cytotoxicity concentration, from which selective index was calculated...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888111/neutralizing-human-recombinant-antibodies-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-glycoproteins-b-from-a-phage-displayed-scfv-antibody-library
#8
Vahid Bagheri, Foroogh Nejatollahi, Seyed Alireza Esmaeili, Amir Abbas Momtazi, Mohamad Motamedifar, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein B (gB) plays a critical role in virus entry into host cells. Neutralizing antibodies can therefore potentially prevent virus entry into target cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection. Our present study focused on the selection of neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies of a phage-displayed nonimmune human scFv antibody library against gB of HSV-1. To enrich specific scFvs, two phage antibodies were isolated against amino acid residues 31-43 derived from the N-terminal part of gB using panning technique...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881332/-herpes-simplex-virus-mediated-rna-interference-targeting-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-3-attenuates-tactile-allodynia-in-mice
#9
Jie-Qiong Liu, Chen-Hong Li, Qiong Luo, Ping-Ping Yin, Tao Lei, Fang Luo
OBJECTIVE: To construct a replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for delivering a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) and observe its effect in alleviating allodynia in mice. METHODS: The recombinant HSV-1 vector carrying the shRNA targeting Vglut3 (HSV-1-shvglut3) was constructed and inoculated in the sciatic nerve in a mouse model of mechanical allodynia to test its analgesia effect. Mechanical allodynia and heat hypersensitivity of the mice were tested by von Frey filaments and Hargreaves' test, respectively...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866900/a-viral-deamidase-targets-the-helicase-domain-of-rig-i-to-block-rna-induced-activation
#10
Jun Zhao, Yi Zeng, Simin Xu, Jie Chen, Guobo Shen, Caiqun Yu, David Knipe, Weiming Yuan, Jian Peng, Wenqing Xu, Chao Zhang, Zanxian Xia, Pinghui Feng
RIG-I detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to trigger antiviral cytokine production. Protein deamidation is emerging as a post-translational modification that chiefly regulates protein function. We report here that UL37 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a protein deamidase that targets RIG-I to block RNA-induced activation. Mass spectrometry analysis identified two asparagine residues in the helicase 2i domain of RIG-I that were deamidated upon UL37 expression or HSV-1 infection. Deamidation rendered RIG-I unable to sense viral dsRNA, thus blocking its ability to trigger antiviral immune responses and restrict viral replication...
November 16, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866863/il-2-complex-treatment-amplifies-cd8-t-cell-mediated-immunity-following-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection
#11
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
CD8(+) T cells play an important role in controlling numerous virus infections and some tumors and therefore several strategies have been adopted to modulate CD8(+) T cell responses. One such approach includes treatment with IL-2 bound to a monoclonal antibody against IL-2 (IL-2 complex) which was shown to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses and provide protection against some cancers and pathogens. This report analyses the value of IL-2 complex therapy to protect against a cutaneous virus infection as occurs with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection...
November 17, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865090/characterization-of-the-subcellular-localization-and-nuclear-import-molecular-mechanisms-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-ul2
#12
Mingsheng Cai, Zebin Huang, Zongmin Liao, Tao Chen, Ping Wang, Si Jiang, Daixiong Chen, Tao Peng, Yun Bian, Gengde Hong, Hang Yang, Zhancheng Zeng, Xiaowei Li, Meili Li
As a crucial protein, the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument component UL2 has been shown to take part in various stages of viral infection, nonetheless, its exact subcellular localization and transport molecular determinants is not well known thus far. In the present study, by using live cells fluorescent microscopy assay, UL2 tagged with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein was transient expressed in live cells and showed a completely nuclear accumulation without the presence of other HSV-1 proteins. Moreover, the nuclear transport of UL2 was characterized to be assisted by multiple transport pathways through Ran-, importin α1-, α5-, α7-, β1- and transportin-1 cellular transport receptors...
November 19, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856447/maternal-antibodies-to-herpes-virus-antigens-and-risk-of-gastroschisis-in-offspring
#13
Martha M Werler, Samantha E Parker, Klaus Hedman, Mika Gissler, Annukka Ritvanen, Heljä-Marja Surcel
Gastroschisis risk is highest in offspring of young women and is increasing in prevalence, suggesting that exposures that are increasingly common among younger females may be causal. Some infections by viruses in the herpes family are more common in the earlier childbearing years and have been increasing in prevalence over time. Data from the Finnish Maternity Cohort were linked to Finnish malformation and birth registers (1987-2012) for this study, a nested case-control study of mothers of offspring with gastroschisis and age-matched controls...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854033/comparative-analysis-of-the-antiviral-activity-of-camel-bovine-and-human-lactoperoxidases-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#14
Esmail M El-Fakharany, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Lactoperoxidase is a milk hemoprotein that acts as a non-immunoglobulin protective protein and shows strong antimicrobial activity. Bovine milk contains about 15 and 7 times higher levels of lactoperoxidase than human colustrum and camel milk, respectively. Human, bovine, and camel lactoperoxidases (hLPO, bLPO, and cLPO, respectively) were purified as homogeneous samples with specific activities of 4.2, 61.3, and 8.7 u/mg, respectively. The optimal working pH was 7.5 (hLPO and bLPO) and 6.5 (cLPO), whereas the optimal working temperature for these proteins was 40 °C...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852850/dual-function-of-the-pul7-pul51-tegument-protein-complex-in-hsv-1-infection
#15
Anna Albecka, Danielle J Owen, Lyudmila Ivanova, Juliane Brun, Rukayya Liman, Laura Davies, M Firoz Ahmed, Susanna Colaco, Michael Hollinshead, Stephen C Graham, Colin M Crump
: The tegument of herpesviruses is a highly complex structural layer between the nucleocapsid and the envelope of virions. Tegument proteins play both structural and regulatory functions during replication and spread, but the interactions and functions of many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we focus on two tegument proteins from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), pUL7 and pUL51, which have homologues in all other herpesviruses. We have now identified that HSV-1 pUL7 and pUL51 form a stable and direct protein-protein interaction, their expression levels rely on the presence of each other and that they function as a complex in infected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847363/mutations-inactivating-herpes-simplex-virus-1-mir-h2-do-not-detectably-increase-icp0-gene-expression-in-infected-cultured-cells-or-mouse-trigeminal-ganglia
#16
Dongli Pan, Jean M Pesola, Gang Li, Seamus McCarron, Donald M Coen
: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latency entails repression of "lytic" gene expression. An attractive hypothesis to explain some of this repression involves inhibition of expression of ICP0, a lytic gene activator, by a viral microRNA, miR-H2, which is completely complementary to ICP0 mRNA. To test this hypothesis, we engineered mutations that disrupt miR-H2 without affecting ICP0 into HSV-1. The mutant virus exhibited drastically reduced expression of miR-H2, but showed wild-type levels of infectious virus production and no increase in ICP0 expression in lytically infected cells, which is consistent with the weak expression of miR-H2 relative to ICP0 mRNA in that setting...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847362/domain-interaction-studies-of-hsv-1-tegument-protein-ul16-reveal-its-interaction-with-mitochondria
#17
Pooja Chadha, Akua Sarfo, Dan Zhang, Thomas Abraham, Jillian Carmichael, Jun Han, John W Wills
: The UL16 tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is conserved among all herpesviruses and plays many roles during replication. This protein has an N-terminal domain (NTD) that has been shown to bind to several viral proteins, including UL11, VP22, and glycoprotein E, and these interactions are negatively regulated by a C-terminal domain (CTD). Thus, in pair-wise transfections, UL16-binding is enabled only when the CTD is absent or altered. Based on these results, we hypothesized that direct interactions occur between the NTD and CTD...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847359/human-asymptomatic-epitopes-identified-from-the-herpes-simplex-virus-tegument-protein-vp13-14-ul47-preferentially-recall-polyfunctional-effector-memory-cd44highcd62llowcd8-tem-cells-and-protect-humanized-hla-a-02-01-transgenic-mice-against-ocular-herpes
#18
Ruchi Srivastava, Arif A Khan, Sumit Garg, Sabrina A Syed, Julie N Furness, Hawa Vahed, Tiffany Pham, Howard T Yu, Anthony B Nesburn, Lbachir BenMohamed
: The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural protection" seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 693 amino acids sequence of VP13/14 protein...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835628/herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-shedding-in-tears-and-nasal-and-oral-mucosa-of-healthy-adults
#19
Meena Ramchandani, Marlene Kong, Elizabeth Tronstein, Stacy Selke, Anna Mikhaylova, Amalia Magaret, Meei-Li Huang, Christine Johnston, Lawrence Corey, Anna Wald
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is prevalent worldwide and causes mucocutaneous infections of the oral area. We aimed to define the frequency and anatomic distribution of HSV-1 reactivation in the facial area in persons with a history of oral herpes. METHODS: Eight immunocompetent HSV-1 seropositive adults were evaluated for shedding of HSV-1 from 12 separate orofacial sites (8 from oral mucosa, 2 from nose, and 2 from conjunctiva) 5 days a week and from the oral cavity 7 days a week for approximately 5 consecutive weeks by a HSV DNA PCR assay...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830700/sensing-of-hsv-1-by-the-cgas-sting-pathway-in-microglia-orchestrates-antiviral-defence-in-the-cns
#20
Line S Reinert, Katarína Lopušná, Henriette Winther, Chenglong Sun, Martin K Thomsen, Ramya Nandakumar, Trine H Mogensen, Morten Meyer, Christian Vægter, Jens R Nyengaard, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Søren R Paludan
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are induced in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner. Consistently, mice defective in cGAS or STING are highly susceptible to acute HSE. Although STING is redundant for cell-autonomous antiviral resistance in astrocytes and neurons, viral replication is strongly increased in neurons in STING-deficient mice...
November 10, 2016: Nature Communications
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