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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447697/herpes-simplex-virus-1-vp22-inhibits-aim2-dependent-inflammasome-activation-to-enable-efficient-viral-replication
#1
Yuhei Maruzuru, Takeshi Ichinohe, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake, Tokuju Okano, Toshihiko Suzuki, Takumi Koshiba, Naoto Koyanagi, Shumpei Tsuda, Mizuki Watanabe, Jun Arii, Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447144/quickstats-age-adjusted-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-among-adolescents-and-adults-aged-14-49-years-united-states-1999-2000-through-2015-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
During 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-1 was 48.1% among adolescents and adults aged 14-49 years (50.9% for females and 45.2% for males). Prevalence was higher for females than males in most 2-year periods from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Also during 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-2 for those aged 14-49 years was 12.1% (15.9% among females compared to 8.2% among males) and was higher for females than males for all 2-year periods. Prevalence significantly declined from 1999-2000 through 2015-2016 for HSV-1 and HSV-2 among both males and females...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445241/is-early-life-exposure-to-polyomaviruses-and-herpesviruses-associated-with-obesity-indices-and-metabolic-traits-in-childhood
#3
Marianna Karachaliou, Silvia de Sanjose, Tim Waterboer, Theano Roumeliotaki, Maria Vassilaki, Katerina Sarri, Vasiliki Leventakou, Marina Vafeiadi, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an infectious origin of obesity is emerging. We explored whether common viruses were associated with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODS: We used cross-sectional (n = 674) and prospective (n = 440) data from children participating at the 4 and 6 years of age follow-up in the Rhea birth cohort. Presence of IgG antibodies to ten polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, MCPyV, HPyV9, and HPyV10) and four herpesviruses (EBV, CMV, HSV-1, and HSV-2) were measured at age 4...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444978/an-off-target-effect-of-bx795-blocks-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-eye
#4
Dinesh Jaishankar, Abraam M Yakoub, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex Agelidis, Neel Thakkar, Satvik Hadigal, Joshua Ames, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444835/retrospective-review-of-t-pallidum-pcr-and-serology-results-are-both-tests-necessary
#5
Anna Brischetto, Ian Gassiep, David Whiley, Robert Norton
There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemi-luminescence immunoassay (CMIA), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid reagin (RPR) flocculation test). A retrospective audit was conducted of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, T...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442994/prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-type-2-in-persons-aged-14-49-united-states-2015-2016
#6
Geraldine McQuillan, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Elaine W Flagg, Ryne Paulose-Ram
During 2015-2016, prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was 47.8%, and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 11.9%. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased with age. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was higher among females than males. Prevalence of HSV-1 was highest among Mexican- American persons and lowest among non-Hispanic white persons. HSV-2 prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic black persons and lowest among non-Hispanic Asian persons. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 decreased from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016 (from 59...
February 2018: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437965/ctcf-binding-sites-in-the-hsv-1-genome-display-site-specific-ctcf-occupation-protein-recruitment-and-insulator-function
#7
Shannan D Washington, Farhana Musarrat, Monica K Ertel, Gregory L Backes, Donna M Neumann
There are seven conserved CTCF binding domains in the HSV-1 genome. These binding sites individually flank the LAT and the IE gene regions, suggesting that CTCF insulators differentially control transcriptional domains in HSV-1 latency. In this work, we show that two CTCF binding motifs in HSV-1 display enhancer-blocking in a cell-type specific manner. We found that CTCF binding to the latent HSV-1 genome was LAT-dependent and the quantity of bound CTCF was site-specific. Following reactivation, CTCF eviction was dynamic suggesting each CTCF site was independently regulated...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429998/zdhhc11-modulates-innate-immune-response-to-dna-virus-by-mediating-mita-irf3-association
#8
Ying Liu, Qian Zhou, Li Zhong, Heng Lin, Ming-Ming Hu, Yan Zhou, Hong-Bing Shu, Shu Li
MITA is a central adaptor in innate immune responses to DNA viruses. The mechanisms responsible for recruitment of downstream kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3 to MITA remains enigmatic. Here we identified ZDHHC11, a member of DHHC palmitoyl transferase family, as a positive regulator of DNA virus-triggered signaling. Overexpression of ZDHHC11 activated the IFN-β promoter, while ZDHHC11-deficiency specifically impaired DNA virus HSV-1-induced transcription of downstream antiviral genes. Zdhhc11-/- mice exhibited lower serum cytokine levels and higher lethality after HSV-1 infection...
February 12, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426904/trim56-mediated-monoubiquitination-of-cgas-for-cytosolic-dna-sensing
#9
Gil Ju Seo, Charlotte Kim, Woo-Jin Shin, Ella H Sklan, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung
Intracellular nucleic acid sensors often undergo sophisticated modifications that are critical for the regulation of antimicrobial responses. Upon recognition of DNA, the cytosolic sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cGAMP, which subsequently initiates downstream signaling to induce interferon-αβ (IFNαβ) production. Here we report that TRIM56 E3 ligase-induced monoubiquitination of cGAS is important for cytosolic DNA sensing and IFNαβ production to induce anti-DNA viral immunity...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409366/oral-shedding-of-hsv-1-and-ebv-and-oral-manifestations-in-paediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-and-renal-transplant-recipients
#10
Rubens Caliento, Dmitry José de Santana Sarmento, Érika Mont'alverne Pereira Silva, Tânia Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Priscila Lie Tobouti, Vanda Benini, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Marina Gallottini
OBJECTIVE: Previous research demonstrated that salivary shedding of HSV-1 and EBV occurs often in adult renal transplant recipients, but there is a lack of studies on the presence of them in the saliva of paediatric population. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe oral characteristics and to compare the shedding profile of HSV-1 and EBV in the saliva of children with renal transplant to that of chronic kidney disease patients and controls. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children, being 25 renal transplant recipients, 25 chronic kidney disease patients and 50 healthy children...
February 6, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408023/broad-anti-herpesviral-activity-of-%C3%AE-hydroxytropolones
#11
Shannon D Dehghanpir, Claire H Birkenheuer, Kui Yang, Ryan P Murelli, Lynda A Morrison, Stuart F J Le Grice, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous in animals and cause economic losses concomitant with many diseases. Most of the domestic animal herpesviruses are within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which includes human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Suppression of HSV-1 replication has been reported with α-hydroxytropolones (αHTs), aromatic ring compounds that have broad bioactivity due to potent chelating activity. It is postulated that αHTs inhibit enzymes within the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS). These enzymes require divalent cations for nucleic acid cleavage activity...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394264/epstein-barr-virus-is-present-in-the-brain-of-most-cases-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-may-engage-more-than-just-b-cells
#12
Asma Hassani, John R Corboy, Suhail Al-Salam, Gulfaraz Khan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a major cause of neurological disability in young adults, particularly women. What triggers the destruction of myelin sheaths covering nerve fibres is unknown. Both genetic and infectious agents have been implicated. Of the infectious agents, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common herpesvirus, has the strongest epidemiological and serological evidence. However, the presence of EBV in the CNS and demonstration of the underlying mechanism(s) linking EBV to the pathogenesis of MS remain to be elucidated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382085/multifunctional-tannic-acid-silver-nanoparticle-based-mucoadhesive-hydrogel-for-improved-local-treatment-of-hsv-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#13
Emilia Szymańska, Piotr Orłowski, Katarzyna Winnicka, Emilia Tomaszewska, Piotr Bąska, Grzegorz Celichowski, Jarosław Grobelny, Anna Basa, Małgorzata Krzyżowska
Mucoadhesive gelling systems with tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles were developed for effective treatment of herpes virus infections. To increase nanoparticle residence time after local application, semi solid formulations designed from generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients were investigated for their rheological and mechanical properties followed with ex vivo mucoadhesive behavior to the porcine vaginal mucosa. Particular effort was made to evaluate the activity of nanoparticle-based hydrogels toward herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 infection in vitro in immortal human keratinocyte cell line and in vivo using murine model of HSV-2 genital infection...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380794/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-acute-retinal-necrosis-following-encephalitis
#14
Vinita Rao, Jyotirmay Biswas, Gopal Lingam
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) following herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in an immunocompetent patient is a rare condition. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has made it possible to identify and quantify viral genome. We report a case of ARN following HSE managed with the help of qPCR. A 45-year-old man developed ARN following HSE and was treated with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The retinitis did not respond initially and the qPCR demonstrated a rise in the number of copies of the HSV-1 viral genome...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372257/rapid-detection-and-identification-of-uveitis-pathogens-by-qualitative-multiplex-real-time-pcr
#15
Paulo J M Bispo, Samaneh Davoudi, Matthew L Sahm, Ai Ren, John Miller, John Romano, Lucia Sobrin, Michael S Gilmore
Purpose: Infectious uveitis is a serious sight-threatening infection commonly caused by herpesviruses and Toxoplasma gondii. Etiologic diagnosis based on the clinical evaluation is often challenging. We developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR assay coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) for rapid detection and identification of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and T. gondii. Methods: The assay was designed to target pathogen genome regions that yield products with distinct melting temperatures...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371118/ankrd1-regulates-innate-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-1-a-potential-role-in-eczema-herpeticum
#16
Lianghua Bin, Xiaozhao Li, Brittany Richers, Joanne E Streib, Jack W Hu, Patricia Taylor, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease. A subset of AD is susceptible to disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, a complication termed as eczema herpeticum(ADEH+). The immune mechanisms causing ADEH+ remain elusive. Using RNA-sequencing, we recently found that ankyrin repeat domain 1 (ANKRD1) was significantly induced in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon HSV-1 stimulation; and its induction in ADEH+ was significantly reduced as compared to AD patients without a history of EH (ADEH-)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367603/multifunctional-viral-protein-%C3%AE-34-5-manipulates-nucleolar-protein-nop53-for-optimal-viral-replication-of-hsv-1
#17
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Xiao-Jia Wang
To ensure efficient virus replication, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes several viral proteins to counter host defense response upon infection. Among these proteins, the multifunctional viral protein γ34.5 crucially interferes with or disrupts several antiviral pathways at multiple levels. The current study shows that γ34.5 utilizes nucleolar protein NOP53 to facilitate the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α for efficient viral translation. Our study shows that: (1) ectopic expression of NOP53 greatly increases the intracellular and extracellular viral yields of HSV-1 (wild strain F) in type I interferon-deficient Vero cells, and more subtly promotes viral replication of γ34...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360750/proteomic-analysis-of-secretomes-of-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-infected-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#18
Shinya Tada, Masakazu Hamada, Yoshiaki Yura
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain RH2 induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) with the release and surface exposure of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) SCCVII cells. The supernatants of RH2-infected SCCVII cells also exhibited antitumor ability by intratumoral administration in SCCVII tumor-bearing mice. The supernatants of RH2-infected cells and mock-infected cells were concentrated to produce Med24 and MedC for proteomic analyses. In Med24, the up- and down-regulated proteins were observed...
January 23, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357297/synergy-evaluation-of-anti-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-2-compounds-acting-on-different-steps-of-virus-life-cycle
#19
Elena Criscuolo, Nicola Clementi, Nicasio Mancini, Roberto Burioni, Marco Miduri, Matteo Castelli, Massimo Clementi
Despite the clinical need of novel and safe anti-herpetic compounds effective for treating both primary infections and reactivations of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), the development of novel antivirals approved for clinical administration has been limited in the last decades to improvements of nucleoside analogues compounds. In this context, targeting different steps of the herpesvirus life cycle, including entry and cell-to-cell infection, can represent an important starting point for obtaining more efficient infection inhibition, and for overcoming both drug resistance and toxicity...
January 18, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337348/expression-of-the-purine-biosynthetic-enzyme-phosphoribosyl-formylglycinamidine-synthase-fgams-in-neurons
#20
Colleen A Mangold, Pamela J Yao, Mei Du, Willard M Freeman, Stephen J Benkovic, Moriah L Szpara
Purines are metabolic building blocks essential for all living organisms on earth. De novo purine biosynthesis occurs in the brain and appears to play important roles in neural development. Phosphoribosyl formylglycinamidine synthase (FGAMS, also known as PFAS or FGARAT), a core enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purines, may play alternative roles in viral pathogenesis. To date, no thorough investigation of the endogenous expression and localization of de novo purine biosynthetic enzymes has been conducted in human neurons or in virally infected cells...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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