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Intravascular disseminated coagulopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289544/pathophysiology-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-with-the-fibrinolytic-phenotype
#1
REVIEW
Mineji Hayakawa
In severe trauma patients, coagulopathy is frequently observed in the acute phase of trauma. Trauma-induced coagulopathy is coagulopathy caused by the trauma itself. The pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy consists of coagulation activation, hyperfibrino(geno)lysis, and consumption coagulopathy. These pathophysiological mechanisms are the characteristics to DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype.
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274032/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-and-excessive-fibrinolysis-dic-xfl-syndrome-in-prostate-cancer-a-rare-complicated-disorder
#2
Azhar Bin Amir Hamzah, Yew Maw Choo, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Fahad Saleem, Ashutosh Kumar Verma
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) develops in patient with prostate cancer, which is manifested by systemic, intracranial, intracavitary or intracutaneous bleeding indicating uncompensated or excessive fibrinolysis (XFL). This case report is a description of a 61-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer that progressed to manifest DIC. The condition is rare in clinical practice, and even rarer when is coupled with XFL. Treatment was mainly replenishing coagulation factors, platelets and controlling the disease progression with aggressive hormonal therapy...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264746/extremely-refractory-kawasaki-disease-with-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation
#3
Young Kwon Koh, Jae Hee Lee, Yeong Bong Park
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in <0.1% of Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration...
March 7, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256481/spectrum-and-outcome-of-neonatal-emergencies-seen-in-a-free-health-care-program-in-south-western-nigeria
#4
M T Abiodun, R O Oluwafemi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal emergencies contribute significantly to under-five morbidity and mortality in developing countries, partly due to poverty and limited access to quality healthcare in rural communities. AIMS: The aim is to evaluate the spectrum, outcome, case fatality rates (CFRs), and prognostic factors of neonatal emergencies seen in the two free health-care facilities in Ondo State. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of neonatal emergencies...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255545/fatality-in-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-a-rare-phenomenon
#5
Bianca Barbat, Ruby Jhaj, Daniyeh Khurram
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is an uncommon condition, typically characterized by lymphadenopathy and fevers. It usually has a benign course; however, it may progress to fatality in extremely rare occasions. The diagnosis is made via lymph node biopsy and histopathology. Our patient was a young female who presented with shortness of breath, fever, and malaise. Physical examination revealed significant cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Chest X-ray displayed multilobar pneumonia...
February 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236427/procoagulant-extracellular-vesicles-in-amniotic-fluid
#6
Lena Hell, Lukas Wisgrill, Cihan Ay, Andreas Spittler, Michael Schwameis, Bernd Jilma, Ingrid Pabinger, Peter Altevogt, Johannes Thaler
Embolization of amniotic fluid (AF) into the blood circulation leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS)- and tissue factor (TF)-exposing extracellular vesicles (EVs) might play an important role in AF embolism-induced DIC. It was the aim of the present study to perform analyses of the procoagulant properties of AF with a panel of functional coagulation assays and flow cytometry. We applied a prothrombinase assay (that quantifies PS exposure on EVs), an EV-associated TF activity assay, a fibrin generation assay, a thrombin generation assay, a whole blood clotting model, and flow cytometry in AF and control plasma...
February 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223734/early-thrombomodulin-%C3%AE-administration-outcome-for-acute-disseminated-intravascular-coagulopathy-in-gastrointestinal-surgery
#7
Hirotaka Konishi, Kazuma Okamoto, Katsutoshi Shoda, Tomohiro Arita, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Ryo Morimura, Shuhei Komatsu, Yasutoshi Murayama, Atsushi Shiozaki, Yoshiaki Kuriu, Hisashi Ikoma, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Daisuke Ichikawa, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Eigo Otsuji
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of thrombomodulin (TM)-α for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in the field of gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: Thirty-six peri-operative DIC patients in the field of gastrointestinal surgery who were treated with TM-α were retrospectively investigated. The relationships between patient demographics and the efficacy of TM-α were examined. Analysis of survival at 28 d was also performed on some parameters by means of the Kaplan-Meier method...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203580/unusual-presentation-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-splenic-infarcts
#8
Vivek Kumar, Parita Soni, Vishangi Dave, Jonathan Harris
A 67-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of abdominal pain, fever, and significant weight loss over 2 months. Physical examination revealed left upper quadrant tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and bilateral pitting edema but peripheral lymphadenopathy was absent. Laboratory tests showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). PTT was corrected completely in mixing study. Further workup for the cause of coagulopathy revealed decreased levels of all clotting factors except factor VIII and increase fibrinogen levels, which ruled out disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202022/hematologic-manifestations-of-babesiosis
#9
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Neville Mobarakai
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis, a zoonotic parasitic infection transmitted by the Ixodes tick, has become an emerging health problem in humans that is attracting attention worldwide. Most cases of human babesiosis are reported in the United States and Europe. The disease is caused by the protozoa of the genus Babesia, which invade human erythrocytes and lyse them causing a febrile hemolytic anemia. The infection is usually asymptomatic or self-limited in the immunocompetent host, or follows a persistent, relapsing, and/or life threatening course with multi-organ failure, mainly in the splenectomized or immunosuppressed patients...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188959/amniotic-fluid-embolism-pathophysiology-from-the-perspective-of-pathology
#10
Naoaki Tamura, Mustari Farhana, Tomoaki Oda, Hiroaki Itoh, Naohiro Kanayama
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is recognized as a type of syndrome characterized by the abrupt onset of hypoxia, hypotension, seizures, or disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), occurring during labor, delivery, or immediately postpartum, caused by the inflow of amniotic components into the maternal circulation. AFE is a rare condition but one of the most serious obstetrical complications, resulting in a high mortality rate among pregnant women. Despite earlier recognition and intensive critical management, we often encounter patients who unfortunately do not recover from the exacerbation of AFE-related conditions...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179388/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-like-reaction-following-rituximab-infusion
#11
Hind Rafei, Samah Nassereddine, Ivan F Garcia
Rituximab generally is a well-tolerated medication used in a variety of haematological and autoimmune conditions. The safety profile of the medication has been reviewed in the literature. Infusion reactions due to cytokine release are the most common side effects. With the increased use of rituximab, there is an increase incidence of cytopenias, most commonly thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Coagulopathy is quite rare, reported previously in four cases in the literature. We highlighted the clinical course of a 39-year-old patient with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who was started on rituximab infusion...
February 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178155/complement-mediated-thrombotic-microangiopathy-secondary-to-sepsis-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab-a-case-report
#12
Tomohiro Abe, Akira Sasaki, Taichiro Ueda, Yoshitaka Miyakawa, Hidenobu Ochiai
Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are induced by several underlying conditions; most are resolved by treating background disease. Eculizumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the final stage of the complement system and effectively treats atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). In this report, we present a patient with TMA secondary to sepsis- induced coagulopathy, who was successfully treated with eculizumab.A 44-year-old woman, who had no special medical history or familial history of TMAs, was admitted on suspicion of septic shock...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149244/monitoring-and-treatment-of-coagulation-abnormalities-in-burn-patients-an-international-survey-on-current-practices
#13
A Lavrentieva, N Depetris, E Kaimakamis, M Berardino, M Stella
The magnitude of coagulation abnormalities, and the definition and treatment of coagulopathy in burn patients are inadequately understood and continue to be discussed in the literature. We aimed to analyse physicians' views on monitoring and treating coagulation abnormalities in burn patients. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed electronically to burn ICU physicians. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Responses were analysed electronically and comparisons were made according to the region of the ICU or the specialty of the physician...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002328/chronic-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-induced-by-left-atrial-thrombus-in-a-patient-with-giant-normal-heart-a-case-report
#14
Qianqian Shao, Ran Tian, Xu Zhang, Xin Gao, Jinzhi Lai, Zhuang Tian, Xiaowei Yan, Shuyang Zhang
INTRODUCTION: We herein describe a patient with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by a giant thrombus in the left atrium.A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of extensive mucocutaneous hemorrhage, especially at the sites of venipuncture, on May 21, 2015. Considering her long history of rheumatic heart disease and atrial fibrillation and her mitral valve replacement performed several years previously, we strongly suspected that the bleeding was closely related to postoperative over-anticoagulation of warfarin...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994260/a-case-of-successful-thromboelastographic-guided-resuscitation-after-postpartum-hemorrhage-and-cardiac-arrest
#15
M Hurwich, D Zimmer, E Guerra, E Evans, T Shire, M Abernathy, J T Shreve, G R Kolettis, M T McCurdy, F J Castellino, M Walsh
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unusual cause of life threatening peri partum hemorrhage (PPH). AFE resuscitation is often associated with renal and respiratory insufficiency, and a coagulopathy similar to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Resuscitation requires immediate recognition and limited use of crystalloid. We present a case of PPH caused by AFE with resultant cardiac arrest, renal and respiratory failure, and DIC-like coagulopathy, whose successful resuscitation was guided by perfusionist-directed serial thromboelastography (TEG)...
December 2016: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927771/propagation-of-thrombosis-by-neutrophils-and-extracellular-nucleosome-networks
#16
REVIEW
Susanne Pfeiler, Konstantin Stark, Steffen Massberg, Bernd Engelmann
Neutrophils, early mediators of the innate immune defense, are recruited to developing thrombi in different types of thrombosis. They amplify intravascular coagulation by stimulating the tissue factor-dependent extrinsic pathway via inactivation of endogenous anticoagulants, enhancing factor XII activation or decreasing plasmin generation. Neutrophil-dependent prothrombotic mechanisms are supported by the externalization of decondensed nucleosomes and granule proteins that together form neutrophil extracellular traps...
February 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891406/amniotic-fluid-embolism-with-isolated-coagulopathy-a-report-of-two-cases
#17
Chi-Yuan Liao, Fuh-Jinn Luo
Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE) is a catastrophic complication of pregnancy with high mortality rate. The most common clinical presentation is an abrupt onset of cardiopulmonary collapse. Here, we present an uncommon variant involving isolated disseminated intravascular coagulation that developed without antecedent cardiopulmonary disturbances. Both patients developed symptoms soon after delivery. Blood test was sent at 14 minutes postpartum for the second patient due to suspected amniotic fluid embolism. Fetal components were observed in the uterine veins of the lower uterine segments in both cases...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854087/spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-complicated-by-malignancyinduced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-a-case-report
#18
Hung-Yi Wu, Shu-Shya Hseu, Shih-Pin Chen, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Yen-Feng Wang, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Jong-Ling Fuh
PURPOSE: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare type of headache. The association of SIH with malignancy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has not previously been reported. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman had orthostatic headache for more than one month before admission. MRI of brain showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement with bilateral subdural hematoma. MR myelography revealed epidural fluid collection and possible CSF leakage at the level of C5 to C6...
September 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816150/critical-care-for-the-obstetrician-and-gynecologist-obstetric-hemorrhage-and-disseminated-intravascular-coagulopathy
#19
REVIEW
Arthur Jason Vaught
Obstetric hemorrhage accounts for 5% all deliveries in the United States and accounts for high maternal morbidity and mortality. Many hemorrhages are secondary to uterine atony and are quickly ameliorated with appropriate uterotonic use. However, for a subset of cases, severe hemorrhage may require advanced resuscitative techniques, and innovative procedural and surgical techniques. This article guides a provider through such a resuscitation.
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795523/diagnosis-and-management-of-dic-complicated-by-hematological-malignancies
#20
Takayuki Ikezoe
The clinical features noted in individuals with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) complicated by hematological malignancies include life threatening hemorrhage that is associated with thrombocytopenia and consumptive deficiency of coagulation factors. Exacerbation of DIC after the initiation of chemotherapy is also related to fatal hemorrhage. The Japanese Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis recently proposed provisional DIC diagnostic criteria allowing evaluation of hypercoagulable markers such as soluble fibrin and thrombin-antithrombin complex to help physicians to diagnose DIC and initiate treatment in the early phase of coagulopathy...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
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