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Occam's razor

Grace Thompson, Mina John
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Samuel W Ross, Jonathan D Bouchez, Peter E Fischer, Rita A Brintzenhoff, Ronald F Sing, A Britton Christmas, Bradley W Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
John H Noble
There are always rival hypotheses to explain away the one that is posited as the most likely to be true. Context and Occam's razor - the principle that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected - ultimately point to which hypothesis is the most likely to be true.
September 22, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Andrew J Ghio
Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam's razor to asthma, it is proposed that there is one cause underlying the numerous phenotypes of this disease and that the responsible molecular pathway is a deficiency of iron in the lung tissues. This deficiency can be either absolute (e.g. asthma in the neonate and during both pregnancy and menstruation) or functional (e...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Oleg A Raevsky
A detailed analysis of the possibility of using the Multiparameter Optimization approach (MPO) for CNS/non-CNS classification of drugs was carried out. This work has shown that MPO descriptors are able to describe only part of chemical transport in the CNS connected with transmembrane diffusion. Hence the "intuitive" CNS MPO approach with arbitrary selection of descriptors and calculations of score functions, search of thresholds of classification, and absence of any chemometric procedures, leads to rather modest accuracy of CNS/non-CNS classification models...
April 2016: Molecular Informatics
Jacob Feldman
The simplicity principle, traditionally referred to as Occam's razor, is the idea that simpler explanations of observations should be preferred to more complex ones. In recent decades the principle has been clarified via the incorporation of modern notions of computation and probability, allowing a more precise understanding of how exactly complexity minimization facilitates inference. The simplicity principle has found many applications in modern cognitive science, in contexts as diverse as perception, categorization, reasoning, and neuroscience...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Ciara Conduit, Ashutosh Hardikar, Ritam Prasad, Louise Nott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ram V Nampoothiri, Arjun Lakshman, Ashish Bhalla, Subhash Varma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Arjun Lakshman, Ram V Nampoothiri, Arjun Datt Law, Pankaj Malhotra, Subhash C Varma
Hypereosinophilia is an uncommon clinical problem encountered in hematology practice. While most of such cases are secondary or reactive, a significant fraction of cases are due to clonal myeloproliferative disorders. We report a young patient who presented with marked hypereosinophilia and was investigated extensively for its cause. Finally a common tropical infection was responsible for such marked eosinophilia fulfilling the principle of Occam's razor. The case emphasizes the need to search for treatable reactive causes even in presence of marked hypereosinophilia in a tropical country...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Uday Yanamandra, Kamal Kant Sahu, Alka Khadwal, Gaurav Prakash, Subhash Chander Varma, Pankaj Malhotra
We present a patient of acute promyelocytic leukaemia managed with all-trans-retinoic-acid and arsenic trioxide who developed hypercalcemia with target organ damage. The patient also was simultaneously discovered to be symptomatic from hyperparathyroidism, which was unmasked after ATRA administration. Patient was successfully managed without any interruption of ATRA therapy and parathyroidectomy. We discuss the mechanisms of ATRA in causing hypercalcemia and its possible role in index case in unmasking hyperparathyroidism...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
R Miller, S Appleton
Postoperative complications can pose a significant obstacle in the ongoing management of surgical patients. However, it is pertinent to remember that postoperative events are not always complications of the preceding operation. We present the case of a patient with calculous cholecystitis and gallbladder empyema who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperatively, he continued to have right upper quadrant pain associated with abnormal liver function tests. Ultimately, the cause of his postoperative symptoms was rather prosaic and ran counter to Occam's razor, the relevance of which is discussed below...
September 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Atsuhisa Tamura
The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing...
January 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Ian S Boon, Dilani Perera, John Ayuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Anish Desai, Alexander Fe, Amishi Desai, Jonathan Ilowite, Burke A Cunha, Joseph P Mathew
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is usually preceded by infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I). Patients with ATLL frequently get opportunistic infections of the lungs, intestines, and central nervous system. Pneumocystis pneumonia is commonly known as an AIDS defining illness. Grocott's methenamine silver stain of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained via bronchoscopy remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is seen in patients with T-cell deficiencies and a diagnosis is made by culture of sputum, BAL, or occasionally of pleural fluid...
February 2016: Connecticut Medicine
Mathias Garny, McCullen Sandora, Martin S Sloth
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself...
March 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Xiao Lin, Gabriel Terejanu, Sajan Shrestha, Sourav Banerjee, Anindya Chanda
This paper describes a rigorous methodology for quantification of model errors in fungal growth models. This is essential to choose the model that best describes the data and guide modeling efforts. Mathematical modeling of growth of filamentous fungi is necessary in fungal biology for gaining systems level understanding on hyphal and colony behaviors in different environments. A critical challenge in the development of these mathematical models arises from the indeterminate nature of their colony architecture, which is a result of processing diverse intracellular signals induced in response to a heterogeneous set of physical and nutritional factors...
June 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Avanthika Venkatachalam, Abhinav Parashar, Kelath Murali Manoj
PURPOSE: The currently held mechanistic understanding of microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) seeks that diverse drug molecules bind within the deep-seated distal heme pocket and subsequently react at the heme centre. To explain a bevy of experimental observations and meta-analyses, we indulge a hypothesis that involves a "diffusible radical mediated" mechanism. This new hypothesis posits that many substrates could also bind at alternate loci on/within the enzyme and be reacted without the pertinent moiety accessing a bonding proximity to the purported catalytic Fe-O enzyme intermediate...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
Rowan Daniel Beaumont Bell, Kieran John Moriarty
A 52-year-old man with Crohn's disease, treated with thiopurine therapy and a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α inhibitor, attended for surveillance colonoscopy, which revealed a transverse colon mass. Biopsies of this lesion showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. CT scan demonstrated this lesion, an additional caecal mass and multiple metastases. A supraclavicular lymph node was removed and demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with a synchronous caecal primary. At multidisciplinary oncological, haematological, histopathological, gastroenterological, radiological and palliative care assessment, the metastatic adenocarcinoma was deemed to carry a grave prognosis...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Scott R Henderson, Anand Shah, Susan J Copley, H Terence Cook, C D Pusey, Alan D Salama, Philip W Ind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Thorax
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