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Occam's razor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870471/challenging-occam-s-razor-an-unusual-combination-of-sarcoidosis-and-amyloidosis-the-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-infiltrative-cardiomyopathies
#1
Eva Nyktari, Vassilios S Vassiliou, Monika Arzanauskaite, Peter Gatehouse, Andreas Greiser, Ashutosh Wechalekar, Janet Gilbertson, Iain Pierce, Rakesh Sharma, Raad Mohiaddin
We describe the case of a 66-year old woman with the extremely rare combination of sarcoidosis and amyloidosis (light chain) and the important role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate between these 2 infiltrative diseases. Myocardial characterization with T1 mapping can improve disease detection, especially in overlap cases, and possibly obviate the need for cardiac biopsy.
July 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818975/inherited-thrombocytopenia-and-occam-s-razor
#2
Jeffrey M Lipton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811031/bayesian-approach-to-peak-deconvolution-and-library-search-for-high-resolution-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#3
A Barcaru, H G J Mol, M Tienstra, G Vivó-Truyols
A novel probabilistic Bayesian strategy is proposed to resolve highly coeluting peaks in high-resolution GC-MS (Orbitrap) data. Opposed to a deterministic approach, we propose to solve the problem probabilistically, using a complete pipeline. First, the retention time(s) for a (probabilistic) number of compounds for each mass channel are estimated. The statistical dependency between m/z channels was implied by including penalties in the model objective function. Second, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) is used as Occam's razor for the probabilistic assessment of the number of components...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781107/epileptogenesis-meets-occam-s-razor
#4
REVIEW
Robert S Sloviter
Pharmacological treatment to prevent brain injury-induced temporal lobe epileptogenesis has been generally unsuccessful, raising the issues of exactly when the conversion process to an epileptic brain state occurs and reaches completion, and which cellular or network processes might be the most promising therapeutic targets. The time course of epileptogenesis is a central issue, with recent results suggesting that injury-induced epileptogenesis can be a much more rapid process than previously thought, and may be inconsistent with a delayed epileptogenic mechanism...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708438/can-occam-s-razor-help-physicians-cut-out-the-unnecessary-data
#5
Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad Jalili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706972/fever-and-pancytopenia-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient-going-against-the-rules-of-occam-s-razor
#6
Lionel Hon Wai Lum, Fei Wen Chen, Louise Jackett, Simone I Strasser, Rebecca J Davis
The syndrome of fever and pancytopenia is not infrequently encountered postliver transplant, and a broad differential list of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies can be invoked. A transplant patient is susceptible to more than 1 opportunistic infection or disease process. We described the diagnostic conundrums in managing our patient who ran a complex protracted course postliver transplant. He was diagnosed to have both disseminated tuberculosis and graft-versus-host disease, a rare complication after solid organ transplantation...
July 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691978/occam-s-razor-could-not-cut-it-tale-of-2-headaches-in-a-postpartum-patient-a-case-report
#7
James A Dolak, Constantinos G Hadjipanayis, Linda J Demma
Not all postpartum headaches are caused by dural puncture, and it is possible for postpartum patients to have >1 cause for headache. After neuraxial block with an incidental large-gauge dural puncture, our patient developed a severe, classic postdural puncture headache which initially responded to an epidural blood patch. The patient was readmitted 2 days after discharge complaining of recurrent headache less characteristic of a postdural puncture headache, now being bifrontal/retro-orbital and without clear positional component...
July 6, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623531/elevated-serum-beta-d-glucan-with-pseudomonas-aspergillus-and-a-partially-acid-fast-organism-in-respiratory-cultures-a-case-of-hickam-s-dictum-over-occam-s-razor
#8
Salman Khan, Camille Hamula, Meenakshi Rana, Timothy Sullivan, Dallas Dunn, Pinki Patel, Aaron Mishkin, Shirish Huprikar
We describe a case of a man with ectopic Cushing's syndrome, elevated serum beta-D-glucan, and respiratory cultures with Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, and a partially acid-fast organism. Our case highlights challenges in diagnosis and management of coinfection in an immunocompromised host.
June 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451987/erg-and-other-discriminators-between-advanced-hydroxychloroquine-retinopathy-and-retinitis-pigmentosa
#9
Archana A Nair, Michael F Marmor
PURPOSE: To study whether the ERG and other clinical findings help to distinguish between advanced hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy and pericentral or diffuse retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with similar fundus appearance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced HCQ retinopathy (n = 11), pericentral RP (n = 8) and diffuse RP (n = 8). Pericentral RP was defined as having limited fundus damage and relatively normal flicker ERG time-to-peak...
June 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395579/an-argument-against-the-use-of-occam-s-razor-in-modern-medical-education
#10
Martin B Whyte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270884/critical-imperative-for-the-reform-of-british-interpretation-of-fetal-heart-rate-decelerations-analysis-of-figo-and-nice-guidelines-post-truth-foundations-cognitive-fallacies-myths-and-occam-s-razor
#11
REVIEW
Shashikant L Sholapurkar
Cardiotocography (CTG) has disappointingly failed to show good predictability for fetal acidemia or neonatal outcomes in several large studies. A complete rethink of CTG interpretation will not be out of place. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the most common deviations, benign as well as manifestation of impending fetal hypoxemia/acidemia, much more commonly than FHR baseline or variability. Their specific nomenclature is important (center-stage) because it provides the basic concepts and framework on which the complex "pattern recognition" of CTG interpretation by clinicians depends...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170084/debunking-occam-s-razor-diagnosing-multiple-genetic-diseases-in-families-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#12
T B Balci, T Hartley, Y Xi, D A Dyment, C L Beaulieu, F P Bernier, L Dupuis, G A Horvath, R Mendoza-Londono, C Prasad, J Richer, X-R Yang, C M Armour, E Bareke, B A Fernandez, H J McMillan, R E Lamont, J Majewski, J S Parboosingh, A N Prasad, C A Rupar, J Schwartzentruber, A C Smith, M Tétreault, A M Innes, K M Boycott
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) cohorts have identified unanticipated multiple genetic diagnoses in single patients. However, the frequency of multiple genetic diagnoses in families is largely unknown. AIMS: We set out to identify the rate of multiple genetic diagnoses in probands and their families referred for analysis in two national research programs in Canada. MATERIALS & METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed WES results for 802 undiagnosed probands referred over the past 5 years in either the FORGE or Care4Rare Canada WES initiatives...
September 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940761/tetanus-and-occam-s-razor-almost-forgotten-but-not-gone-a-case-report
#13
Stephanie O Skuby, Eunice Rhee, Elizabeth H Thilo, Eric A F Simões
Tetanus is a rare disease in industrialized countries, largely due to the highly protective effect of immunization. We present a case of tetanus in a formerly preterm infant with myelomeningocele repaired in utero, who presented at 44 days of age with poor feeding, lethargy, and increased tone. His symptoms progressed despite a course of antibiotics for presumed meningitis. At 73 days of age (on 29th day of hospitalization), a clinical diagnosis of tetanus was made based on the presence of risus sardonicus, trismus, and generalized hypertonicity...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930274/a-violation-of-occams-razor-acute-appendicitis-after-motor-vehicle-collision
#14
Samuel W Ross, Jonathan D Bouchez, Peter E Fischer, Rita A Brintzenhoff, Ronald F Sing, A Britton Christmas, Bradley W Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772812/with-complements-to-occam-s-razor
#15
Grace Thompson, Mina John
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670549/a-violation-of-occam-s-razor-acute-appendicitis-after-motor-vehicle-collision
#16
Samuel W Ross, Jonathan D Bouchez, Peter E Fischer, Rita A Brintzenhoff, Ronald F Sing, A Britton Christmas, Bradley W Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660907/-trust-the-researchers-flying-in-the-face-of-evidence
#17
John H Noble
There are always rival hypotheses to explain away the one that is posited as the most likely to be true. Context and Occam's razor - the principle that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected - ultimately point to which hypothesis is the most likely to be true.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595579/asthma-as-a-disruption-in-iron-homeostasis
#18
Andrew J Ghio
Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam's razor to asthma, it is proposed that there is one cause underlying the numerous phenotypes of this disease and that the responsible molecular pathway is a deficiency of iron in the lung tissues. This deficiency can be either absolute (e.g. asthma in the neonate and during both pregnancy and menstruation) or functional (e...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491918/cns-multiparameter-optimization-approach-is-it-in-accordance-with-occam-s-razor-principle
#19
Oleg A Raevsky
A detailed analysis of the possibility of using the Multiparameter Optimization approach (MPO) for CNS/non-CNS classification of drugs was carried out. This work has shown that MPO descriptors are able to describe only part of chemical transport in the CNS connected with transmembrane diffusion. Hence the "intuitive" CNS MPO approach with arbitrary selection of descriptors and calculations of score functions, search of thresholds of classification, and absence of any chemometric procedures, leads to rather modest accuracy of CNS/non-CNS classification models...
April 2016: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470193/the-simplicity-principle-in-perception-and-cognition
#20
REVIEW
Jacob Feldman
The simplicity principle, traditionally referred to as Occam's razor, is the idea that simpler explanations of observations should be preferred to more complex ones. In recent decades the principle has been clarified via the incorporation of modern notions of computation and probability, allowing a more precise understanding of how exactly complexity minimization facilitates inference. The simplicity principle has found many applications in modern cognitive science, in contexts as diverse as perception, categorization, reasoning, and neuroscience...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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