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Medically ill substance-abusing adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#1
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739073/narratives-of-self-neglect-patterns-of-traumatic-personal-experiences-and-maladaptive-behaviors-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#2
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627570/correlates-of-abusing-and-misusing-over-the-counter-pain-relievers-among-adult-population-of-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#3
Monika Wójta-Kempa, Dominik M Krzyżanowski
BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595276/performance-of-the-tobacco-alcohol-prescription-medication-and-other-substance-use-taps-tool-for-substance-use-screening-in-primary-care-patients
#4
Jennifer McNeely, Li-Tzy Wu, Geetha Subramaniam, Gaurav Sharma, Lauretta A Cathers, Dace Svikis, Luke Sleiter, Linnea Russell, Courtney Nordeck, Anjalee Sharma, Kevin E O'Grady, Leah B Bouk, Carol Cushing, Jacqueline King, Aimee Wahle, Robert P Schwartz
Background: Substance use, a leading cause of illness and death, is underidentified in medical practice. Objective: The Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription medication, and other Substance use (TAPS) tool was developed to address the need for a brief screening and assessment instrument that includes all commonly used substances and fits into clinical workflows. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of the TAPS tool in primary care patients. Design: Multisite study, conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, comparing the TAPS tool with a reference standard measure...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593083/cumulative-burden-of-comorbid-mental-disorders-substance-use-disorders-chronic-medical-conditions-and-poverty-on-health-among-adults-in-the-u-s-a
#5
Elizabeth Reisinger Walker, Benjamin G Druss
The health of individuals in the U.S.A. is increasingly being defined by complexity and multimorbidity. We examined the patterns of co-occurrence of mental illness, substance abuse/dependence, and chronic medical conditions and the cumulative burden of these conditions and living in poverty on self-rated health. We conducted a secondary data analysis using publically-available data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), which is an annual nationally-representative survey. Pooled data from the 2010-2012 NSDUH surveys included 115,921 adults 18 years of age or older...
September 3, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566722/pain-management-strategies-for-patients-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Mel Clark Taveros, Elizabeth J Chuang
CONTEXT: Prescription opioid and heroin abuse has increased substantially in recent years. Enrolment on opioid agonist therapy programmes is consequently increasing as well. As a result of these trends, more patients who present with acute pain secondary to a malignancy are also on chronic methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for substance abuse. This combination of diagnoses presents a pain management challenge for palliative care providers. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to gather and review the available medical literature pertaining to the use of opioid analgesia in methadone-maintained patients...
August 26, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503793/adverse-child-experiences-and-health-in-adulthood-in-a-rural-population-based-sample
#7
Kristen C Iniguez, Rachel V Stankowski
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including emotional abuse, substance abuse in the household, separation or divorce, physical abuse, violence between adults, mental illness in the household, sexual abuse, or incarceration of a household member, have the potential to profoundly impact health and well-being in adulthood. To assess whether previously reported relationships between ACEs and health outcomes withstand validation, we conducted a community-based ACE study with the unique capacity to link self-reported ACEs and other survey results to validated health data in an electronic medical record (EMR)...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Medicine & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272524/misdemeanor-arrestees-with-mental-health-needs-diversion-and-outpatient-services-as-a-recidivism-reduction-strategy
#8
Leanne Fiftal Alarid, Maureen Rubin
Individuals with mental illnesses who are arrested for criminal activity cycle between criminal justice and mental health systems at disproportionately high rates. Studying recidivism of this population has been difficult due to separate system data bases. This study compared recidivism outcomes of 102 adults with mental illness who were arrested for a misdemeanor offense. One group had a diagnosed mental illness (n = 58) and the other group was diagnosed with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders (n = 44)...
June 5, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216906/what-does-mental-health-parity-really-mean-for-the-care-of-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#9
REVIEW
John Bartlett, Ron Manderscheid
Parity of mental health and substance abuse insurance benefits with medical care benefits, as well as parity in their management, are major ongoing concerns for adults with serious mental illness (SMI). The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 guaranteed this parity of benefits and management in large private insurance plans and privately managed state Medicaid plans, but only if the benefits were offered at all. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 extended parity to all persons receiving insurance through the state health insurance marketplaces, through the state Medicaid Expansions, and through new individual and small group plans...
June 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180498/anxiety-in-older-adults-often-goes-undiagnosed
#10
Ivan Koychev, Klaus P Ebmeier
Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness)...
January 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101890/screening-for-social-determinants-of-health-among-children-and-families-living-in-poverty-a-guide-for-clinicians
#11
Esther K Chung, Benjamin S Siegel, Arvin Garg, Kathleen Conroy, Rachel S Gross, Dayna A Long, Gena Lewis, Cynthia J Osman, Mary Jo Messito, Roy Wade, H Shonna Yin, Joanne Cox, Arthur H Fierman
Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy...
May 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035043/common-questions-about-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#12
Margaret Riley, Sana Ahmed, Amy Locke
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper and are often disobedient and defiant toward others. There are no tools specifically designed for diagnosing ODD, but multiple questionnaires can aid in diagnosis while assessing for other psychiatric conditions. ODD is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression...
April 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991889/baseline-medical-comorbidities-in-adults-randomized-in-the-stride-trial-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#13
Adriane M Dela Cruz, Thomas Carmody, Tracy L Greer, Chad D Rethorst, Diane Warden, Robrina Walker, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rates of medical illnesses may be higher among individuals with substance use disorders, complicating their care. This study aimed to expand the understanding of other medical conditions in treatment-seeking adults with stimulant use disorder (SUD) using data from Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dose Exercise (STRIDE), a randomized, multisite trial investigating exercise augmentation of treatment as usual. METHODS: Utilizing STRIDE baseline data, we examined demographic and clinical characteristics based on the number of self-reported diagnosed medical conditions among participants meeting eligibility criteria (passing medical screening exam and maximal exercise test, non-opioid dependent, no concomitant beta blocker, or opioid replacement therapy)...
April 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604770/early-stages-of-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-retrospective-analysis-of-a-czech-inpatient-sample
#14
Michal Goetz, Tomas Novak, Marie Vesela, Zdenek Hlavka, Martin Brunovsky, Michal Povazan, Radek Ptacek, Antonin Sebela
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30%-60% of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) report onset between the ages 15 and 19 years; however, a correct diagnosis is often delayed by several years. Therefore, investigations of the early features of BD are important for adequately understanding the prodromal stages of the illness. METHODS: A complete review of the medical records of 46 children and adolescents who were hospitalized for BD at two psychiatric teaching centers in Prague, Czech Republic was performed...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494850/cognitive-neuropsychological-functioning-in-new-zealand-m%C3%A4-ori-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#15
Tai R Kake, Nicholas Garrett, Menetta Te Aonui
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that New Zealand Māori may have an elevated rate of schizophrenia. However, there is limited evidence on important clinical features of the illness in this population. This study examined cognitive neuropsychological functioning in 54 adult Māori diagnosed with schizophrenia and 56 Māori controls. This study also examined associations between cognition, medication and symptoms of psychosis in the schizophrenia group. METHOD: The groups were matched on socio-demographic variables, handedness and premorbid cognitive ability...
June 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25881797/intoxications-by-the-dissociative-new-psychoactive-substances-diphenidine-and-methoxphenidine
#16
Anders Helander, Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg
BACKGROUND: Diphenidine (1-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperidine) and its 2-methoxylated derivative methoxphenidine (MXP, 2-MeO-diphenidine) are substances with dissociative effects that were recently introduced for "recreational" purpose through the online-based sale of new psychoactive substances (NPS). A number of analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxications associated with diphenidine or MXP have occurred in Sweden and were included in the STRIDA project. STUDY DESIGN: Observational case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS and requiring intensive treatment in an emergency room and hospitalization in Sweden...
June 2015: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25671515/mapping-patient-identified-barriers-and-facilitators-to-retention-in-hiv-care-and-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-to-andersen-s-behavioral-model
#17
REVIEW
Carol W Holtzman, Judy A Shea, Karen Glanz, Lisa M Jacobs, Robert Gross, Janet Hines, Karam Mounzer, Rafik Samuel, Joshua P Metlay, Baligh R Yehia
Andersen's Behavioral Model (ABM) provides a framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors impact health behaviors and outcomes. We compared patient-identified barriers/facilitators to retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and evaluated how they mapped to ABM. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 51 HIV-infected adults at HIV clinics in Philadelphia, PA, in 2013 were used to explore patients' experiences with HIV care and treatment. Interview data were analyzed for themes using a grounded theory approach...
2015: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25625990/somatic-health-of-patients-at-an-outpatient-clinic-for-substance-abuse
#18
Erling Dalen, Jostein Holmen, Hans M Nordahl
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have detected a considerable degree of somatic illness among substance abusers. At our outpatient clinic for substance abuse we frequently find that referral documents provide scant information on somatic illnesses, and that patients complain of poor contact with their GP. We wished to investigate these issues. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From September 2009 to November 2012 a total of 155 of 365 patients (42%) at an outpatient clinic for substance abuse at Levanger Hospital were included in the study...
January 27, 2015: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25589442/interactive-effects-of-neurocognitive-impairment-and-substance-use-on-antiretroviral-non-adherence-in-hiv-disease
#19
Nicholas S Thaler, Philip Sayegh, Michelle S Kim, Steven A Castellon, Charles H Hinkin
While numerous studies have established the adverse independent effects of clinical conditions including neurocognitive dysfunction, psychiatric illness, and substance abuse/dependence on medication adherence among HIV-infected adults, fewer have studied their interactive effects. The current study examined this issue among 204 HIV-infected participants based upon current neurocognitive functioning and DSM-IV-diagnosed psychiatric illness and current substance abuse or dependence. Results confirmed that participants with any of these risk factors demonstrated poorer adherence than individuals with no risk factors...
March 2015: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25582802/family-history-of-mental-illness-or-alcohol-abuse-and-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
James R Knight, G Richard Locke, Alan R Zinsmeister, Cathy D Schleck, Nicholas J Talley
OBJECTIVE: We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol and postulated that this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. METHODS: A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects' self-reported personal and family health histories...
March 2015: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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