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Peripheral nerve stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809704/kilohertz-electrical-stimulation-nerve-conduction-block-effects-of-electrode-material
#1
Yogi A Patel, Brian S Kim, Robert J Butera
Kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) has enabled a novel new paradigm for spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation to treat a variety of neurological diseases. KES can excite or inhibit nerve activity and is used in many clinical devices today. However, the impact of different electrode materials on the efficacy of KES is unknown. We investigated the effect of different electrode materials and their respective charge injection mechanisms on KES nerve block thresholds using 20 and 40 kHz current-controlled sinusoidal KES waveforms...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806960/16-channel-biphasic-current-mode-programmable-charge-balanced-neural-stimulation
#2
Xiaoran Li, Shunan Zhong, James Morizio
BACKGROUND: Neural stimulation is an important method used to activate or inhibit action potentials of the neuronal anatomical targets found in the brain, central nerve and peripheral nerve. The neural stimulator system produces biphasic pulses that deliver balanced charge into tissue from single or multichannel electrodes. The timing and amplitude of these biphasic pulses are precisely controlled by the neural stimulator software or imbedded algorithms. Amplitude mismatch between the anodic current and cathodic current of the biphasic pulse will cause permanently damage for the neural tissues...
August 14, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#3
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#4
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797281/the-efficacy-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-the-improvement-of-walking-distance-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-with-intermittent-claudication-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-tens-pad-study
#5
Florent Besnier, Jean-Michel Sénard, Vincent Grémeaux, Mélanie Riédel, Damien Garrigues, Thibaut Guiraud, Marc Labrunée
BACKGROUND: In patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), walking improvements are often limited by early pain onset due to vascular claudication. It would thus appear interesting to develop noninvasive therapeutic strategies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), to improve the participation of PAD patients in rehabilitation programmes, and thus improve their quality of life. Our team recently tested the efficacy of a single 45-min session of 10-Hz TENS prior to walking...
August 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795964/neuromuscular-monitoring-in-the-perioperative-period
#6
Glenn S Murphy
Neuromuscular monitoring devices were introduced into clinical practice in the 1970s. Qualitative neuromuscular monitors, or peripheral nerve stimulators, provide an electrical stimulus to a motor nerve and the response of corresponding muscle subjectively evaluated. A standard peripheral nerve stimulator provides several patterns of nerve stimulation, including train-of-four (TOF), double-burst, tetanic, and post-tetanic count. Qualitative (and quantitative) monitors are needed to determine onset of neuromuscular blockade, maintain the required depth of muscle relaxation during the surgical procedure, and assess an appropriate dose of reversal agent...
August 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782181/public-regulatory-databases-as-a-source-of-insight-for-neuromodulation-devices-stimulation-parameters
#7
REVIEW
Doe Kumsa, G Karl Steinke, Gregory F Molnar, Eric M Hudak, Fred W Montague, Shawn C Kelley, Darrel F Untereker, Alan Shi, Benjamin P Hahn, Chris Condit, Hyowon Lee, Dawn Bardot, Jose A Centeno, Victor Krauthamer, Pavel A Takmakov
OBJECTIVE: The Shannon model is often used to define an expected boundary between non-damaging and damaging modes of electrical neurostimulation. Numerous preclinical studies have been performed by manufacturers of neuromodulation devices using different animal models and a broad range of stimulation parameters while developing devices for clinical use. These studies are mostly absent from peer-reviewed literature, which may lead to this information being overlooked by the scientific community...
August 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763502/onset-of-microglial-entry-into-developing-quail-retina-coincides-with-increased-expression-of-active-caspase-3-and-is-mediated-by-extracellular-atp-and-udp
#9
María Martín-Estebané, Julio Navascués, Ana Sierra-Martín, Sandra M Martín-Guerrero, Miguel A Cuadros, María-Carmen Carrasco, José L Marín-Teva
Microglial cell precursors located in the area of the base of the pecten and the optic nerve head (BP/ONH) start to enter the retina of quail embryos at the 7th day of incubation (E7), subsequently colonizing the entire retina by central-to-peripheral tangential migration, as previously shown by our group. The present study demonstrates a precise chronological coincidence of the onset of microglial cell entry into the retina with a striking increase in death of retinal cells, as revealed by their active caspase-3 expression and TUNEL staining, in regions dorsal to the BP/ONH area, suggesting that dying retinal cells would contribute to the microglial cell inflow into the retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761419/interfacing-peripheral-nerve-with-macro-sieve-electrodes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Nathan K Birenbaum, Matthew R MacEwan, Wilson Z Ray
Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface the regenerated nerve was assessed by stimulating through the macro-sieve electrode and recording both electromyography signals and evoked muscle force from distal musculature...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750504/does-myofascial-and-trigger-point-treatment-reduce-pain-and-analgesic-intake-in-patients-undergoing-onabotulinumtoxina-injection-due-to-chronic-intractable-migraine-a-pilot-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Christian Geroin, Nicola Valè, Fabio Marchioretto, Andrea Turrina, Eleonora Dimitrova, Stefano Tamburin, Anna Serina, Paola Castellazzi, Andrea Meschieri, François Ricard, Leopold Saltuari, Alessandro Picelli, Nicola Smania
BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder associated with myofascial and trigger point disorders in the neck. Pharmacological management is the first line of treatment; however, rehabilitation procedures aimed at lessening symptoms of myofascial and trigger point disorders may add value in the management of headache symptoms. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of myofascial and trigger point treatment in chronic migraine patients receiving prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA...
July 27, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749398/f-wave-index-a-diagnostic-tool-for-peripheral-neuropathy
#12
G R Sathya, N Krishnamurthy, Susheela Veliath, Jayanthi Arulneyam, J Venkatachalam
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745303/extracellular-ph-monitoring-for-use-in-closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#13
Simon C Cork, Amir Eftekhar, Khalid B Mirza, James V Gardiner, Stephen R Bloom, Christofer Toumazou
OBJECTIVE: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown potential benefits for obesity treatment; however current devices lack physiological feedback, which limit their efficacy. Changes in extracellular pH (pH<sub>e</sub>) have shown to be correlated with neural activity, but have traditionally been measured with glass microelectrodes, which limit their in vivo applicability. APPROACH: Iridium oxide has previously been shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in pH and is biocompatible...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744193/on-the-origin-of-the-1-000-hz-peak-in-the-spectrum-of-the-human-tympanic-electrical-noise
#14
Javiera Pardo-Jadue, Constantino D Dragicevic, Macarena Bowen, Paul H Delano
The spectral analysis of the spontaneous activity recorded with an electrode positioned near the round window of the guinea pig cochlea shows a broad energy peak between 800 and 1,000 Hz. This spontaneous electric activity is called round window noise or ensemble background activity. In guinea pigs, the proposed origin of this peak is the random sum of the extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials of auditory nerve neurons. In this study, we used a non-invasive method to record the tympanic electric noise (TEN) in humans by means of a tympanic wick electrode...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743633/an-intra-neural-microstimulation-system-for-ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetoencephalography
#15
Paul M Glover, Roger H Watkins, George C O'Neill, Rochelle Ackerley, Rosa Sanchez-Panchuelo, Francis McGlone, Matthew J Brookes, Johan Wessberg, Susan T Francis
BACKGROUND: Intra-neural microstimulation (INMS) is a technique that allows the precise delivery of low-current electrical pulses into human peripheral nerves. Single unit INMS can be used to stimulate individual afferent nerve fibres during microneurography. Combining this with neuroimaging allows the unique monitoring of central nervous system activation in response to unitary, controlled tactile input, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing exquisite spatial localisation of brain activity and magnetoencephalography (MEG) high temporal resolution...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#16
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719457/regional-anesthesia-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#17
Werner Ten Hoope, Marjolein Looije, Philipp Lirk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize recent relevant literature regarding regional anesthesia in the diabetic neuropathic patient and formulate recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic neuropathic nerves, but not nerves of diabetic patients per se, exhibit complex functional changes. As a result, they seem more sensitive to local anesthetics, and are more difficult to stimulate. When catheters are used postoperatively, diabetes is an independent risk factor for infection...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719042/serotonergic-paraneurons-in-the-female-mouse-urethral-epithelium-and-their-potential-role-in-peripheral-sensory-information-processing
#18
F Aura Kullmann, Huiyi H Chang, Christian Gauthier, Bronagh M McDonnell, Jih-Chao Yeh, Dennis R Clayton, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Gerard L Apodaca, Lori A Birder
AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurons and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718163/incidence-and-management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-after-urethral-stricture-repair
#19
REVIEW
Amanda S J Chung, Kurt A McCammon
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after urethral stricture repair are not uncommon. Urgency has been reported in 40% of men and urge incontinence in 12% of men after anterior urethroplasty. De novo urgency and urge incontinence is seen in 9 and 5% of men, respectively, after urethroplasty. Once a complication of urethroplasty (such as recurrent urethral stricture or diverticulum) has been excluded as a cause, evaluation of LUTS in such patients should focus on differentiating bladder dysfunction (overactive bladder, underactive bladder), from other outlet obstruction (such as benign prostatic obstruction), dysfunctional voiding, or medical causes (such as nocturnal polyuria)...
September 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716587/botulinum-neurotoxin-a-promotes-functional-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-by-increasing-regeneration-of-myelinated-fibers
#20
Stefano Cobianchi, Jessica Jaramillo, Siro Luvisetto, Flaminia Pavone, Xavier Navarro
The injection of safe doses of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) have been reported to be useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain, but it is still unknown how functional recovery is induced after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the effects of intranerve application of BoNT/A, on regeneration and sensorimotor functional recovery in partial and complete peripheral nerve injuries in the mouse. After sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and intranerve delivery of BoNT/A (15pg), axonal regeneration was measured by nerve pinch test at different days...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
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