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Peripheral nerve stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149156/survival-analysis-of-occipital-nerve-stimulator-leads-placed-under-fluoroscopic-guidance-with-and-without-ultrasonography
#1
James H Jones, Alison Brown, Daniel Moyse, Wenjing Qi, Lance Roy
BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation of the greater occipital nerves is performed to treat pain secondary to chronic daily headaches and occipital neuralgia. The use of fluoroscopy alone to guide the surgical placement of electrodes near the greater occipital nerves disregards the impact of tissue planes on lead stability and stimulation efficacy. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that occipital neurostimulator (ONS) leads placed with ultrasonography combined with fluoroscopy would demonstrate increased survival rates and times when compared to ONS leads placed with fluoroscopy alone...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#2
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141294/-positions-of-the-implanted-stimulating-electrodes-for-artificial-facial-nerve-for-inducing-contraction-of-the-orbicularis-oris-muscle-in-rabbit-with-peripheral-facial-paralysis
#3
D Y Xu, N J Zhao, Y X Zhao, D Luo, Y J Sun, K Y Li
Objective: To explore the optimal positions of the implanted stimulating eletrodes for artificial facial nerve (AFN) for inducing contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) in rabbit with peripheral facial paralysis. Methods: According to the four microelectrodes of the AFN stimulating side, four modes of the implanted positions were divided. In line with different modes, the electrodes were implanted into the affected OOM of the rabbits with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis. AFN output electric stimulation to induce contraction of the affected OOM with uniform stimulating frequency and pulse length in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131007/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-sensitivity-of-amplified-trpa1-activity-in-skeletal-muscle-afferent-nerves-and-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#5
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limb ischemia occurs in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that regulates blood flow directed to the ischemic limb is exaggerated during exercise in this disease, and transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in thin-fiber muscle afferents contributes to the amplified sympathetic response. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulating abnormal TRPA1 function and the TRPA1-mediated sympathetic component of the exercise pressor reflex...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128306/norman-bowery-s-discoveries-about-extrasynaptic-and-asynaptic-gaba-systems-and-their-significance
#6
REVIEW
David A Brown
Before discovering the GABA-B receptor, Norman Bowery completed a series of studies on an extrasynaptic or asynaptic "GABA system" in the rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. First, he discovered an uptake system for GABA in neuroglial cells in the ganglia and in peripheral nerves, with a different substrate specificity than that in neurons. Second, he showed that accumulated GABA in sympathetic glial cells was metabolized to succinate by a transaminase enzyme. Third, he provided detailed structure-activity information about compounds activating an extrasynaptic GABA-A receptor on neurons in the rat sympathetic ganglion...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122559/constant-hepatic-atp-concentrations-during-prolonged-fasting-and-absence-of-effects-of-cerbomed-nemos-%C3%A2-on-parasympathetic-tone-and-hepatic-energy-metabolism
#7
Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Daniel F Markgraf, Gidon J Bönhof, Kevin G Murphy, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Jesper Lundbom, Dan Ziegler, Michael Roden
OBJECTIVE: Brain insulin-induced improvement in glucose homeostasis has been proposed to be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) activating afferent branches of the vagus nerve may prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes models. We examined the effects of 14-min taVNS vs sham stimulation by Cerbomed Nemos(®) on glucose metabolism, lipids, and hepatic energy homeostasis in fasted healthy humans (n = 10, age 51 ± 6 yrs, BMI 25...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118955/effect-of-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-nerve-regeneration-in-sciatic-nerve-ligated-mice
#8
Farzaneh Samiee, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118716/etiology-and-recovery-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-competitive-soccer-match-play
#9
Callum G Brownstein, Jack P Dent, Paul Parker, Kirsty M Hicks, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas
Aim: Previous research into the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play has primarily focused on peripheral perturbations, with limited research assessing central nervous system function in the days post-match. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution and time-course of recovery of central and peripheral factors toward neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play. Methods: Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-min soccer match...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117885/functional-evaluation-of-small-fiber-pathways-in-primary-restless-legs-syndrome-a%C3%AE-pathway-study
#10
Michał Fila, Mariusz Stasiołek, Adam Markiewicz, Andrzej Bogucki
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide a neurophysiological evaluation of the function of large and small fibers, particularly the peripheral part of the thermonociceptiveAδ pathway in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS). METHODS: The main evaluation was based on an analysis of the parameters of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs), N2 and P2 components, and an assessment of thermonociceptive thresholds (pain thresholds; PThs). Routine nerve conduction studies (NCS) were also performed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107209/phkv-a-toxin-isolated-from-the-spider-venom-induces-antinociception-by-inhibition-of-cholinesterase-activating-cholinergic-system
#11
Flavia Karine Rigo, Mateus Fortes Rossato, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Rafael Porto Ineu, Mariane Bernardo Duarte, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholinergic agents cause antinociception by mimicking the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from spinal cholinergic nerves. PhKv is a peptide isolated from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer. It has an antiarrythmogenic activity that involves the enhanced release of acetylcholine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PhKv had an antinociceptive action in mice. METHODS: Male albino Swiss mice (25-35g) were used in this study...
October 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#12
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099679/photobiomodulation-in-neuroscience-a-summary-of-personal-experience
#13
Shimon Rochkind
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes personal experience with laser photobiomodulation and its potentials for the treatment of peripheral and central nerve system injuries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Laser photobiomodulation was shown to induce nerve cell activation, have a positive effect on metabolism of the nerve cells, and to stimulate nerve sprouting processes. Studies investigating the effects of laser photobiomodulation on injured peripheral nerves in rats reported immediate protective effects which increase the functional activity of the nerve, decrease or prevent scar tissue formation at the injured site, prevent or decrease degeneration in corresponding motor neurons of the spinal cord, and significantly increase axonal growth and myelinization...
November 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082637/peripheral-nerve-stimulation-for-painful-mononeuropathy-secondary-to-leprosy-a-12-month-follow-up-study
#14
Tiago da Silva Freitas, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Oswaldo Ribeiro Marquez Neto, Iruena Moraes Kessler, Laura Mendes Barros, Ronan Wilk Guimaraes, Monalisa Ferreira Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: Leprosy affects approximately 10-15 million patients worldwide and remains a relevant public health issue. Chronic pain secondary to leprosy is a primary cause of morbidity, and its treatment remains a challenge. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for painful mononeuropathy secondary to leprosy that is refractory to pharmacological therapy and surgical intervention (decompression). METHODS: Between 2011 and 2013 twenty-three patients with painful mononeuropathy secondary to leprosy were recruited to this prospective case series...
October 29, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079432/peripheral-nerve-injury-induced-rearrangement-of-neural-circuit-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-revealed-by-cross-correlation-analysis
#15
Yu Takemura, Shunsaku Kobayashi, Eiko Kato, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Yuuichi Hori
Peripheral nerve injury often induces abnormal pain states, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. In this study, we attempted to elucidate how neurons are synaptically integrated into the neuronal circuitry in the spinal dorsal horn and how synaptic connectivity patterns among dorsal horn neurons are altered by peripheral nerve injury. Experiments were performed on 6-8-week-old ICR mice. Partial sciatic nerve ligation was performed. Transverse slices of the lumbar spinal cord were prepared. Spike activities were simultaneously recorded from multiple neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) using a multi-electrode array system, and cross-correlograms between spike trains of neuron pairs were constructed...
October 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077882/cx32-hemichannel-opening-by-cytosolic-ca2-is-inhibited-by-the-r220x-mutation-that-causes-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#16
Andrea Carrer, Alessandro Leparulo, Giulia Crispino, Catalin Dacian Ciubotaru, Oriano Marin, Francesco Zonta, Mario Bortolozzi
Mutations of the GJB1 gene encoding connexin 32 (Cx32) cause the X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1), a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy for which there is no cure. A growing body of evidence indicates that ATP release through Cx32 hemichannels in Schwann cells could be critical for nerve myelination, but it is unknown if CMTX1 mutations alter the cytosolic Ca2+-dependent gating mechanism that controls Cx32 hemichannel opening and ATP release. The current study uncovered that loss of the C-terminus in Cx32 (R220X mutation), which causes a severe CMTX1 phenotype, inhibits hemichannel opening during a canonical IP3-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ in HeLa cells...
October 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076212/high-resolution-multi-scale-computational-model-for-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#17
Antonios P Mourdoukoutas, Dennis Q Truong, Devin K Adair, Bruce J Simon, Marom Bikson
OBJECTIVES: To develop the first high-resolution, multi-scale model of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) and to predict vagus fiber type activation, given clinically relevant rheobase thresholds. METHODS: An MRI-derived Finite Element Method (FEM) model was developed to accurately simulate key macroscopic (e.g., skin, soft tissue, muscle) and mesoscopic (cervical enlargement, vertebral arch and foramen, cerebral spinal fluid [CSF], nerve sheath) tissue components to predict extracellular potential, electric field (E-Field), and activating function along the vagus nerve...
October 27, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071355/extent-of-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-plasticity-and-its-association-with-working-memory-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease
#18
Sanjeev Kumar, Reza Zomorrodi, Zaid Ghazala, Michelle S Goodman, Daniel M Blumberger, Amay Cheam, Corinne Fischer, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Benoit H Mulsant, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
Importance: The extent of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plasticity in Alzheimer disease (AD) and its association with working memory are not known. Objectives: To determine whether participants with AD had impaired DLPFC plasticity compared with healthy control participants, to compare working memory between participants with AD and controls, and to determine whether DLPFC plasticity was associated with working memory. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 32 participants with AD who were 65 years or older and met diagnostic criteria for dementia due to probable AD with a score of at least 17 on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 16 age-matched control participants...
October 25, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071033/stimulation-effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-in-rat
#19
Mohammadreza Mashhoudi Barez, Masoud Tajziehchi, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Atta Bushehri, Fariborz Moayer, Neda Mansouri, Niloufar Safavi Naini, Abolfazl Movafagh
Introduction: Recent studies showed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates the regeneration process of injured peripheral nerve tissue. The objective of this study was investigate the effect of LLLT (780 nm) on regeneration of injured right sciatic nerve of male Wistar rat. Methods: In this research work, the effect of LLLT (780 nm) on the regeneration process and reconstruction of injured peripheral right side sciatic nerve was investigated. Twelve adult male Wistar rats underwent surgery in aseptic conditions under general anesthesia to induce a lesion to their right side sciatic nerve according to standard protocol...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067749/combined-brain-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-in-chronic-stroke-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-motor-impairment
#20
Isabella S Menezes, Leonardo G Cohen, Eduardo A Mello, André G Machado, Paul Hunter Peckham, Sarah M Anjos, Inara L Siqueira, Juliana Conti, Ela B Plow, Adriana B Conforto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of somatosensory stimulation in the form of repetitive peripheral nerve sensory stimulation (RPSS) in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), tDCS alone, RPSS alone, or sham RPSS + tDCS as add-on interventions to training of wrist extension with functional electrical stimulation (FES), in chronic stroke patients with moderate to severe upper limb impairments in a crossover design. We hypothesized that the combination of RPSS and tDCS would enhance the effects of FES on active range of movement (ROM) of the paretic wrist to a greater extent than RPSS alone, tDCS alone or sham RPSS + tDCS...
October 25, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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