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"Population health"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148353/uses-of-population-health-rankings-in-local-policy-contexts-a-multisite-case-study
#1
Jonathan Purtle, Rachel Peters, Jennifer Kolker, Ana V Diez Roux
Population health rankings are a common strategy to spur evidence-informed health policy making, but little is known about their uses or impacts. The study aims were to (1) understand how and why the County Health Rankings (CH-Rankings) are used in local policy contexts, (2) identify factors that influence CH-Rankings utilization, and (3) explore potentially negative impacts of the CH-Rankings. Forty-four interviews were conducted with health organization officials and public policy makers in 15 purposively selected counties...
August 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146652/dynamic-treatment-selection-and-modification-for-personalised-blood-pressure-therapy-using-a-markov-decision-process-model-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Sung Eun Choi, Margaret L Brandeau, Sanjay Basu
OBJECTIVE: Personalised medicine seeks to select and modify treatments based on individual patient characteristics and preferences. We sought to develop an automated strategy to select and modify blood pressure treatments, incorporating the likelihood that patients with different characteristics would benefit from different types of medications and dosages and the potential severity and impact of different side effects among patients with different characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a Markov decision process (MDP) model to incorporate meta-analytic data and estimate the optimal treatment for maximising discounted lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on individual patient characteristics, incorporating medication adjustment choices when a patient incurs side effects...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146122/health-and-wellbeing-of-indigenous-adolescents-in-australia-a-systematic-synthesis-of-population-data
#3
Peter S Azzopardi, Susan M Sawyer, John B Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Ngiare Brown, Alex D Brown, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145659/the-population-health-research-institute
#4
Janette Panhuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144787/lessons-learned-from-a-food-environment-intervention-study-recruitment-and-retention-of-participants-in-disadvantaged-urban-inner-city-neighborhoods
#5
Rachel Engler-Stringer, Joelle Schaefer, Tracy Ridalls, Nazeem Muhajarine
Growing health inequities have led to calls for population health intervention research that can contribute to improving the health of marginalized populations, but conducting research with these communities can be challenging. When research aims to examine and understand an aspect of health in a population characterized as hard-to-reach or marginalized, recruitment techniques appear to have a significant impact on participation and sample retention in longitudinal studies. We examine and comment on the recruitment and retention techniques used in the Good Food, Healthy Families study conducted in low-income, inner-city neighborhoods in a midsized Canadian city; we hope that this will inform recruitment and retention approaches for population health intervention studies in similar populations...
November 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143578/non-participation-modestly-increased-with-distance-to-the-examination-clinic-among-adults-in-finnish-health-examination-surveys
#6
Jaakko Reinikainen, Perttu Saarsalmi, Tommi Härkänen, Pekka Jousilahti, Juha Karvanen, Satu Männistö, Hanna Tolonen
AIMS: Health examination surveys (HES) provide important information about population health and health-related factors, but declining participation rates threaten the representativeness of collected data. It is hard to conduct national HESs at examination clinics near to every sampled individual. Thus, it is interesting to look into the possible association between the distance from home to the examination clinic and non-participation, and whether there is a certain distance after which the participation activity decreases considerably...
November 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143070/the-use-of-critical-incident-technique-in-population-health-intervention-research-lessons-learned
#7
Achille Dadly Borvil, Natalie Kishchuk, Louise Potvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141153/using-observational-data-to-calibrate-simulation-models
#8
Eleanor J Murray, James M Robins, George R Seage, Sara Lodi, Emily P Hyle, Krishna P Reddy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Individual-level simulation models are valuable tools for comparing the impact of clinical or public health interventions on population health and cost outcomes over time. However, a key challenge is ensuring that outcome estimates correctly reflect real-world impacts. Calibration to targets obtained from randomized trials may be insufficient if trials do not exist for populations, time periods, or interventions of interest. Observational data can provide a wider range of calibration targets but requires methods to adjust for treatment-confounder feedback...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140263/access-to-guideline-recommended-pharmacogenomic-tests-for-cancer-treatments-experience-of-providers-and-patients
#9
Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y Lu
Genomic tests are the fastest growing sector in medicine and medical science, yet there remains a dearth of research on access to pharmacogenomic tests and medications. The objective of this study is to explore providers' and patients' experiences and views on test access as well as strategies used for gaining access. We interviewed clinicians who prescribed medications that should be guided by pharmacogenomic testing and patients who received those prescriptions. We organized the themes into the four dimensions suggested by the World Health Organization framework on access to medications and health technologies...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138590/the-prevalence-of-probable-neuropathic-pain-in-the-us-results-from-a-multimodal-general-population-health-survey
#10
Marco D DiBonaventura, Alesia Sadosky, Kristen Concialdi, Markay Hopps, Ian Kudel, Bruce Parsons, Joseph C Cappelleri, Patrick Hlavacek, Andrea H Alexander, Brett R Stacey, John D Markman, John T Farrar
Background: The prevalence of neuropathic pain (NeP) has been estimated within specific health conditions; however, there are no published data on its broad prevalence in the US. The current exploratory study addresses this gap using the validated PainDetect questionnaire as a screener for probable NeP in a general-population health survey conducted with a multimodal recruitment strategy to maximize demographic representativeness. Materials and methods: Adult respondents were recruited from a combination of Internet panels, telephone lists, address lists, mall-based interviews, and store-receipt invitations using a random stratified-sampling framework, with strata defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137503/global-lessons-in-frugal-innovation-to-improve-health-care-delivery-in-the-united-states
#11
Yasser Bhatti, Andrea Taylor, Matthew Harris, Hester Wadge, Erin Escobar, Matt Prime, Hannah Patel, Alexander W Carter, Greg Parston, Ara W Darzi, Krishna Udayakumar
In a 2015 global study of low-cost or frugal innovations, we identified five leading innovations that scaled successfully in their original contexts and that may provide insights for scaling such innovations in the United States. We describe common themes among these diverse innovations, critical factors for their translation to the United States to improve the efficiency and quality of health care, and lessons for the implementation and scaling of other innovations. We highlight promising trends in the United States that support adapting these innovations, including growing interest in moving care out of health care facilities and into community and home settings; the growth of alternative payment models and incentives to experiment with new approaches to population health and care delivery; and the increasing use of diverse health professionals, such as community health workers and advanced practice providers...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136182/assessing-privacy-risks-in-population-health-publications-using-a-checklist-based-approach
#12
Christine M O'Keefe, Adrien Ickowicz, Tim Churches, Mark Westcott, Maree O'Sullivan, Atikur Khan
Objective: Recent growth in the number of population health researchers accessing detailed datasets, either on their own computers or through virtual data centers, has the potential to increase privacy risks. In response, a checklist for identifying and reducing privacy risks in population health analysis outputs has been proposed for use by researchers themselves. In this study we explore the usability and reliability of such an approach by investigating whether different users identify the same privacy risks on applying the checklist to a sample of publications...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136001/a-combination-intervention-strategy-to-improve-linkage-to-and-retention-in-hiv-care-following-diagnosis-in-mozambique-a-cluster-randomized-study
#13
Batya Elul, Matthew R Lamb, Maria Lahuerta, Fatima Abacassamo, Laurence Ahoua, Stephanie A Kujawski, Maria Tomo, Ilesh Jani
BACKGROUND: Concerning gaps in the HIV care continuum compromise individual and population health. We evaluated a combination intervention strategy (CIS) targeting prevalent barriers to timely linkage and sustained retention in HIV care in Mozambique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cluster-randomized trial, 10 primary health facilities in the city of Maputo and Inhambane Province were randomly assigned to provide the CIS or the standard of care (SOC). The CIS included point-of-care CD4 testing at the time of diagnosis, accelerated ART initiation, and short message service (SMS) health messages and appointment reminders...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135897/is-bmi-a-valid-measure-of-obesity-in-postmenopausal-women
#14
Hailey R Banack, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Kathleen M Hovey, Andrew Stokes
OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan...
November 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135771/detecting-lung-and-colorectal-cancer-recurrence-using-structured-clinical-administrative-data-to-enable-outcomes-research-and-population-health-management
#15
Michael J Hassett, Hajime Uno, Angel M Cronin, Nikki M Carroll, Mark C Hornbrook, Debra Ritzwoller
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent cancer is common, costly, and lethal, yet we know little about it in community-based populations. Electronic health records and tumor registries contain vast amounts of data regarding community-based patients, but usually lack recurrence status. Existing algorithms that use structured data to detect recurrence have limitations. METHODS: We developed algorithms to detect the presence and timing of recurrence after definitive therapy for stages I-III lung and colorectal cancer using 2 data sources that contain a widely available type of structured data (claims or electronic health record encounters) linked to gold-standard recurrence status: Medicare claims linked to the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study, and the Cancer Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse linked to registry data...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126852/a-three-step-health-services-research-approach-to-improve-prescribing
#16
REVIEW
Adam J Rose, Megan B McCullough, Guneet K Jasuja
Medications are often prescribed suboptimally; some effective medications are underused, some ineffective medications are overused, and some medications that should be received by a few are instead given to many. The underlying causes of suboptimal prescribing likely differ for each medication, and therefore must be understood anew, although previous studies can help generate hypotheses. This perspective sets forth a 3-step research agenda, which has worked well for us in several recently completed and ongoing projects...
November 7, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124627/laboring-until-labor-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-antenatal-maternity-leave-in-the-united-states
#17
Julia M Goodman
Introduction Most women in the U.S. are employed during pregnancy and work until the month of childbirth. For many, working throughout pregnancy poses little threat to their health; however, women experiencing difficult pregnancies and/or working in strenuous or inflexible jobs may benefit from taking time from work as they approach childbirth, but almost no empirical evidence examines antenatal leave (ANL). Methods Using a national survey of English-speaking women, this paper offers the first national description of ANL and examines state policy predictors of uptake...
November 9, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122700/using-reference-values-to-define-disease-based-on-the-lower-limit-of-normal-biased-the-population-attributable-fraction-but-not-the-population-excess-risk-the-example-of-chronic-airflow-obstruction
#18
Peter Burney, Cosetta Minelli
The impact of disease on population health is most commonly estimated by the population attributable fraction (PAF). This measurement, an estimate of the proportion of the disease in the population that is attributable to the exposure, is sensitive to the way that the disease is defined. When disease is defined from reference values that are derived from the distribution of values in the "normal" population the PAF is difficult to interpret. Using measures of chronic airflow obstruction as an example, we demonstrate that where normality is defined by centiles (or fractiles) of values in a "normal" population, PAF is strongly influenced by which centile is selected to define normality...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122544/population-health-management-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Parambir S Dulai, Siddharth Singh, Lucilla Ohno-Machado, William J Sandborn
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic and impose significant, multi-dimensional burdens on patients and healthcare systems. The increasing prevalence of IBD will only worsen this problem globally-population health management (PHM) strategies are needed to increase quality of care and population health outcomes while reducing healthcare costs. We discuss the key components of PHM in IBD. Effective implementation of PHM strategies requires accurate identification of at-risk patients and of key areas of variability in care...
November 6, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120312/a-strategic-approach-to-workforce-development-for-local-public-health
#20
Beverley Bryant, Megan Ward
SETTING: In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1.4 million people. INTERVENTION: An organization-wide strategic workforce development program was instituted...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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