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Administrative Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#1
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920518/the-indirect-costs-of-underfunding-foreign-partners-in-global-health-research-a-case-study
#2
Johanna T Crane, Irene Andia Biraro, Tamer M Fouad, Yap Boum, David R Bangsberg
This study of a global health research partnership assesses how U.S. fiscal administrative policies impact capacity building at foreign partner institutions. We conducted a case study of a research collaboration between Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Mbarara, Uganda, and originally the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), but now Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Our case study is based on three of the authors' experiences directing and working with this partnership from its inception in 2003 through 2015...
September 16, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916244/-how-do-immigrant-women-access-health-services-in-the-basque-country-perceptions-of-health-professionals
#3
Iratxe Pérez-Urdiales, Isabel Goicolea
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perception of health professionals working in alternative health centres on the barriers and facilitators in the access by immigrant women to general public health services and sexual and reproductive health in the Basque Country. LOCATION: Basque Country. DESIGN: Analysis of qualitative content based on 11 individual interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Health professionals working in alternative health centres of Primary Care and sexual and reproductive health...
September 12, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915164/organizational-and-environmental-factors-influencing-hospital-community-orientation
#4
JʼAime C Jennings, Amy Y Landry, Larry R Hearld, Robert Weech-Maldonado, Scott W Snyder, Patricia A Patrician
BACKGROUND: Community orientation refers to hospitals' efforts to assess and meet the health needs of the local population. Variations in the number of community orientation-related activities offered by hospitals may be attributed to differences in organizational and environmental characteristics. Therefore, hospitals have to strategically respond to these internal and external constraints to improve community health. Understanding the facilitators and barriers of hospital community orientation is important to health care managers facing pressure from the external environment to meet the expectations of the community as well as Affordable Care Act guidelines...
September 15, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910222/restricted-access-state-medicaid-coverage-of-sofosbuvir-hepatitis-c-treatment
#5
Marea B Tumber
Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection can persist for decades without symptoms. Many Americans are unaware of their infection status and are not receiving necessary care and treatment. This places them at greater risk for severe, even fatal, complications from the disease and increases the likelihood that they will transmit the virus to others. In late 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved a direct acting antiviral drug called sofosbuvir to treat chronic HCV infection. Sofosbuvir is a highly effective, but very expensive, curative treatment for HCV...
January 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904248/the-system-and-human-resources-for-occupational-health-in-republic-of-indonesia-for-japanese-enterprises-to-manage-proper-occupational-health-activities-at-overseas-workplaces
#6
Ko Hiraoka, Shigeyuki Kajiki, Yuichi Kobayashi, Nuri Purwito Adi, Dewi Sumaryani Soemarko, Masamichi Uehara, Shigemoto Nakanishi, Koji Mori
OBJECTIVES: To consider the appropriate occupational health system for Japanese enterprises in Indonesia with information on the regulations and development of the specialists. METHODS: In this study, we used the information-gathering checklist developed by Kajiki et al. Along with literature and internet surveys, we surveyed local corporations owned and operated by Indonesians, central government agencies in charge of medical and health issues, a Japanese independent administrative agency supporting subsidiaries of overseas Japanese enterprises, and an educational institution formulating specialized occupational physician training curricula...
September 13, 2017: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904064/structurally-novel-antiestrogens-elicit-differential-responses-from-constitutively-active-mutant-estrogen-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells-and-tumors
#7
Benita S Katzenellenbogen, Yuechao Zhao, Mary J Laws, Valeria Sanabria Guillen, Yvonne Ziegler, Jian Min, Abhishek Sharma, Sung Hoon Kim, David Chu, Ben Ho Park, Steffi Oesterreich, Chengjian Mao, David J Shapiro, Kendall W Nettles, John A Katzenellenbogen
Many ERα-positive breast cancers develop resistance to endocrine therapy via mutation of estrogen receptors (ER) whose constitutive activation is associated with shorter patient survival. Because there is now a clinical need for new antiestrogens (AE) against these mutant ER, we describe here our development and characterization of three chemically novel AE that effectively suppress proliferation of breast cancer cells and tumors. Our AE are effective against wild type and Y537S and D538G ER, the two most commonly occurring constitutively active ER...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#8
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895450/identifying-occupations-at-risk-for-laryngeal-disorders-requiring-specialty-voice-care
#9
Matthew C Mori, David O Francis, Phillip C Song
Objective To identify occupational groups' use of specialty voice clinic evaluation. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary subspecialty clinic. Subjects and Methods We analyzed data collected on patients presenting to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Voice and Speech Laboratory over a 20-year period (1993-2013). The relative risk (RR) and 99% confidence interval (CI) of presentation were calculated for each occupational category in the greater Boston population using year-matched data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895231/software-related-recalls-of-health-information-technology-and-other-medical-devices-implications-for-fda-regulation-of-digital-health
#10
Jay G Ronquillo, Diana M Zuckerman
Policy Points: Medical software has become an increasingly critical component of health care, yet the regulation of these devices is inconsistent and controversial. No studies of medical devices and software assess the impact on patient safety of the FDA's current regulatory safeguards and new legislative changes to those standards. Our analysis quantifies the impact of software problems in regulated medical devices and indicates that current regulations are necessary but not sufficient for ensuring patient safety by identifying and eliminating dangerous defects in software currently on the market...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895229/crisis-and-change-the-making-of-a-french-fda
#11
Constance A Nathanson, Henri Bergeron
Policy Points: Introducing a recent special issue of The Lancet on the health system in France, Horton and Ceschia observe that "the dominance of English as the language of science and, increasingly, global health too often closes the door on the history and experiences of others."(1) In that spirit, this manuscript presents a detailed case study of public health policy transformation in France in the early 1990s. It casts light on processes of policy change in a political and cultural environment very different from that of the United States, showing how the public health policy process is shaped by multiple contingencies of history, ideology, and politics...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893073/challenges-faced-by-caregivers-of-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-mutale-municipality-selected-healthcare-facilities-vhembe-district-limpopo-province
#12
Rhudzani V Mafune, Rachel T Lebese, Livhuwani H Nemathaga
BACKGROUND: Children depend solely on caregivers who can be either parents or guardians for drug administration to enhance adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which might pose any number of challenges. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature...
August 28, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892528/determinants-of-market-exclusivity-for-prescription-drugs-in-the-united-states
#13
Aaron S Kesselheim, Michael S Sinha, Jerry Avorn
The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be sold...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890353/identifying-principles-for-effective-messages-about-chemicals-in-cigarette-smoke
#14
Seth M Noar, Dannielle E Kelley, Marcella H Boynton, Jennifer C Morgan, Marissa G Hall, Jennifer R Mendel, Kurt M Ribisl, Noel T Brewer
US law requires the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to disclose information on harmful and potentially harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke (i.e., constituents) to the public. To inform this effort, we sought to identify principles for creating constituent messages that effectively discourage smoking. Participants were an online convenience sample of 1148 US smokers ages 18+. We developed a library of 76 messages about constituents only and constituents plus contextualizing information (i.e., toxic products that also contain the chemical, health effects, or both)...
September 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885218/off-label-use-of-medicines-the-need-for-good-practice-guidelines
#15
Marc Dooms, James Killick
BACKGROUND: 'Off-label use' is the term used for the prescription and dispensing of a medicinal product for any indication, patient group, route of administration, dosage or treatment regimen other than that listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics. OBJECTIVE: In this article the authors present a brief overview of current practices of off-label use in Europe and the applicable European law and jurisprudence. They then go on to present a set of guidelines for best practice in off-label use which underlines the need for guidance on prescription to be firmly rooted in the need to ensure patient safety above all other concerns...
2017: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884212/routine-sildenafil-does-not-improve-clinical-outcomes-after-fontan-operation
#16
J Leslie Gaddis Collins, Mark A Law, Santiago Borasino, W Clinton Erwin, David C Cleveland, Jeffrey A Alten
Fontan operation can be complicated by persistent chest tube output (CTO) leading to prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Postoperative sildenafil administration has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in selected patients after Fontan. We initiated a practice change utilizing intravenous (IV) sildenafil in early postoperative period in all patients undergoing Fontan operation with aim to decrease LOS and CTO. Nineteen patients (February 2014-May 2016) received 0.35 mg/kg sildenafil IV (three doses) followed by enteral, 1 mg/kg every eight hours until hospital discharge...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874482/coping-with-concentration
#17
Thomas L Greaney
Provider market power is a powerful driver of high health care costs in the United States. Despite decades of antitrust litigation and regulatory interventions, the problem has worsened and threatens to undermine the benefits of market-based policies. A critical but neglected challenge for all health care reform proposals relying on market competition to address costs is finding effective tools to address the extant market power of dominant hospitals, hospital systems, and many specialty physician practices...
September 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870500/home-closure-as-a-weapon-in-the-dutch-war-on-drugs-does-judicial-review-function-as-a-safety-net
#18
L Michelle Bruijn, Michel Vols, Jan G Brouwer
BACKGROUND: A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where local authorities use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Citizens can invoke judicial review over these administrative interferences by claiming that such closure results in an unfair balance between purposes, means and consequences...
September 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869922/a-qualitative-study-of-experience-of-parents-of-adolescents-who-received-ect
#19
Sandeep Grover, Natarajan Varadharajan, Ajit Avasthi
AIM OF THIS STUDY: To evaluate the experience of parents of adolescents who received ECT for severe mental illness. METHODOLOGY: Using qualitative methods, 6 parents of 5 adolescents were interviewed by using a self-designed semi-structured interview after the completion of ECT course. The clinicians involved in the ECT procedure, i.e., seeking informed consent and administration of ECT were not aware about the study. All the interviews were recorded and the content was analysed and themes were generated...
August 31, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859052/trends-in-deaths-involving-heroin-and-synthetic-opioids-excluding-methadone-and-law-enforcement-drug-product-reports-by-census-region-united-states-2006-2015
#20
Julie K O'Donnell, R Matthew Gladden, Puja Seth
Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U...
September 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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