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Administrative Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338662/legal-barriers-to-access-abortion-services-through-a-human-rights-lens-the-uruguayan-experience
#1
Lucía Berro Pizzarossa
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) has increasingly gained importance in the field of international human rights law. The work of the United Nations (UN) bodies, in particular the recently adopted General Comment 22 (GC 22), has been instrumental in signalling the importance of the SRH legal framework and in setting clear guidelines to steer countries into enacting/modifying/repealing national laws in order to comply with their international obligations vis-à-vis SRH. Although within the region Uruguay is regarded as a pioneer in terms of women's status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of challenges...
December 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333873/survey-regarding-the-05-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-for-driving-in-the-united-states
#2
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board ("NTSB") proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration ("BAC") illegal limit from .08 g/dL to .05 g/dL (also referred to as the ".08 law" and "the .05 limit," respectively). In March of 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the .05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329891/medical-use-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-containing-products-regulations-in-europe-and-north-america
#3
REVIEW
Ran Abuhasira, Liat Shbiro, Yuval Landschaft
In 1937, the United States of America criminalized the use of cannabis and as a result its use decreased rapidly. In recent decades, there is a growing interest in the wide range of medical uses of cannabis and its constituents; however, the laws and regulations are substantially different between countries. Laws differentiate between raw herbal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and cannabinoid-based medicines. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve the use of herbal cannabis or its extracts...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320289/legal-and-administrative-feasibility-of-a-federal-junk-food-and-sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax-to-improve-diet
#4
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Parke Wilde, Yue Huang, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate legal and administrative feasibility of a federal "junk" food (including sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs]) tax to improve diet. METHODS: To assess food definitions and administration models, we systematically searched (1) PubMed (through May 15, 2017) for articles defining foods subject to taxes, and legal and legislative databases as well as online for (2) US federal, state, and tribal junk food tax bills and laws (January 1, 2012-February 28, 2017); SSB taxes (January 1, 2014-February 28, 2017); and international junk food tax laws (as of February 28, 2017); and (3) federal taxing mechanisms and administrative methods (as of February 28, 2017)...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317112/cannabinoid-disposition-after-human-intraperitoneal-use-an-insight-into-intraperitoneal-pharmacokinetic-properties-in-metastatic-cancer
#5
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Shuzhen Song, Nadia Solowij, Stephanie E Reuter, Jennifer Schneider, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311440/understanding-the-administrative-regulation-on-occupational-health-and-trend-in-china
#6
Zhijun Zhou
With the immense economic growth and social development, China has gained worldwide attention. With the quick growth of industrialization, several international professionals are gaining interest in occupational management system and in the role of the Chinese Government in protecting the worker's health. The Law on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and the Work Safety Law are the two most important laws in China, which highlight the responsibilities of the employer, employee, governmental agencies, authorized occupational health service agency, and other stakeholders...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303150/cigarette-smoking-and-glaucoma-in-the-united-states-population
#7
S M Law, X Lu, F Yu, V Tseng, S K Law, A L Coleman
PurposeTo evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and glaucoma in the United States population.Patients and methodsUS civilian, non-institutionalized population from 2005 to 2008 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that were ≥40 years of age with visual fields and optic disc photographs were included. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the association between glaucoma and smoking history, while controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, household income, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and hypertension...
January 5, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302171/hiv-sex-work-and-law-enforcement-in-china
#8
Tingting Shen, Joanne Csete
HIV prevalence in China is low in the general population but higher among certain key affected populations, including sex workers. Providing and purchasing sexual services are administrative offenses. Police engage in humiliating and repressive practices against sex workers. A study reported here based on the experience of over 500 sex workers highlights that the human rights abuses that sex workers face at the hands of the police directly undermine the country's HIV response toward sex workers. An important element of this phenomenon is the police's use of condoms as evidence of sex work, which impedes sex workers' possession and use of condoms...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290674/regulatory-change-versus-legislation-impacting-health-care-decisions-and-delivery
#9
F Randy Vogenberg, Mary Smart
Despite the president's urging, congressional efforts to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) have been repeatedly unsuccessful. The authors explore key actions taken by the administration and department heads that have resulted in delayed enforcement of the PPACA and relaxation of the law.
January 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284458/menthol-cigarettes-and-the-public-health-standard-a-systematic-review
#10
Andrea C Villanti, Lauren K Collins, Raymond S Niaura, Stacey Y Gagosian, David B Abrams
BACKGROUND: Although menthol was not banned under the Tobacco Control Act, the law made it clear that this did not prevent the Food and Drug Administration from issuing a product standard to ban menthol to protect public health. The purpose of this review was to update the evidence synthesis regarding the role of menthol in initiation, dependence and cessation. METHODS: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes via a PubMed search through May 9, 2017...
December 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282423/establishment-of-medical-education-upon-internalization-of-virtue-ethics-bridging-the-gap-between-theory-and-practice
#11
Mansoureh Madani, Bagher Larijani, Ensieh Madani, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh
During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258437/informal-care-relationships-and-residential-aged-care-recommendations-evidence-from-administrative-data
#12
Jeromey B Temple, Marijan Jukic, Briony Dow
BACKGROUND: The Australian government recognises the importance of informal care to enable ageing in place. Yet, few multivariable studies have examined aspects of informal care that alter the probability of entry to residential care in Australia. Existing Australian and international studies show differing effects of informal care on entry to residential care. METHODS: We utilise unique administrative data on aged care assessments collected from 2010 to 2013, consisting of 280,000 persons aged 65 and over...
December 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248391/the-impact-of-a-parental-notification-requirement-on-illinois-minors-access-to-and-decision-making-around-abortion
#13
Lauren J Ralph, Erin King, Elise Belusa, Diana Greene Foster, Claire D Brindis, M Antonia Biggs
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the impact of a parental notification (PN) requirement on the frequency, timing, and out-of-state travel of minors seeking abortion, as well as changes in who minors involve in their decision, support received, and decision certainty. METHODS: We analyzed administrative and medical records of 1,577 women obtaining an abortion before and after implementation of a PN requirement at one Illinois facility. Using multivariate regression within a difference-in-differences framework, we quantified changes in the number and timing of women seeking care, frequency of parental awareness and support, travel from out-of-state, decision certainty, and anticipated coping among minors 17 years and below compared with young adults (YAs) aged 18-20 years...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242087/complications-with-use-of-misoprostol-for-abortion-in-madagascar-between-ease-of-access-and-lack-of-information
#14
Dolorès Pourette, Chiarella Mattern, Rila Ratovoson, Patricia Raharimalala
OBJECTIVES: To learn what complications some women experienced in Madagascar following use of misoprostol for abortion and what treatment they received post-misoprostol use. STUDY DESIGN: This was a qualitative study in 2015-16 among women who had experienced complications after use of misoprostol, with or without additional methods, for abortion, what information they received before use, what dosage and regimens they used, what complications they experienced and what treatment they received post-use...
December 11, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240728/state-laws-regarding-indoor-public-use-retail-sales-and-prices-of-electronic-cigarettes-u-s-states-guam-puerto-rico-and-u-s-virgin-islands-september-30-2017
#15
Kristy Marynak, Brandon Kenemer, Brian A King, Michael A Tynan, Allison MacNeil, Elizabeth Reimels
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most frequently used tobacco product among U.S. youths, and past 30-day e-cigarette use is more prevalent among high school students than among adults (1,2). E-cigarettes typically deliver nicotine, and the U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that nicotine exposure during adolescence can cause addiction and can harm the developing adolescent brain (2). Through authority granted by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibits e-cigarette sales to minors, free samples, and vending machine sales, except in adult-only facilities (3)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230697/knowing-anticipating-even-facilitating-but-still-not-intending-another-challenge-to-double-effect-reasoning
#16
S Duckett
A recent administrative law decision in Victoria, Australia, applied double effect reasoning in a novel way. Double effect reasoning has hitherto been used to legitimate treatments which may shorten life but where the intent of treatment is pain relief. The situation reviewed by the Victorian tribunal went further, supporting actions where a doctor agrees to provide pentobarbitone (Nembutal) to a patient at some time in the future if the patient feels at that time that his pain is unbearable and he wants to end his life...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229713/patterns-of-physician-retirement-and-pre-retirement-activity-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Lindsay Hedden, M Ruth Lavergne, Kimberlyn M McGrail, Michael R Law, Lucy Cheng, Megan A Ahuja, Morris L Barer
BACKGROUND: Knowing when physicians retire and how they practise in the pre-retirement years is important information for health human resource planning. We identified patterns of retirement for physicians in British Columbia and the determinants of when and how physicians retire. METHODS: For this population-based retrospective cohort study, we used administrative data to examine activity levels and to identify retirements among BC's practising physicians. We included all physicians who were at least 50 years of age as of March 2006 and who had received payments for clinical services in at least 1 year between 2005/06 and 2011/12...
December 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228966/estimating-the-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-from-under-reported-age-dependent-compulsorily-notification-databases
#18
Marcos Amaku, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini, Eleazar Chaib, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, David Greenhalgh, Luis Fernandez Lopez, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: National or local laws, norms or regulations (sometimes and in some countries) require medical providers to report notifiable diseases to public health authorities. Reporting, however, is almost always incomplete. This is due to a variety of reasons, ranging from not recognizing the diseased to failures in the technical or administrative steps leading to the final official register in the disease notification system. The reported fraction varies from 9 to 99% and is strongly associated with the disease being reported...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224409/intellectual-property-considerations-for-molecular-diagnostic-development-with-emphasis-on-companion-diagnostics
#19
Harry Glorikian, Richard Jeremy Warburg, Kelly Moore, Jennifer Malinowski
The development of molecular diagnostics is a complex endeavor, with multiple regulatory pathways to consider and numerous approaches to development and commercialization. Companion diagnostics, devices which are "essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding drug or diagnostic product" (see U.S. Food & Drug Administration, In Vitro Diagnostics - Companion Diagnostics, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services(2016), available at https://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/invitrodiagnostics/ucm407297...
December 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222044/the-effects-of-assurances-of-voluntary-compliance-on-retail-sales-to-minors-in-the-united-states-2015-2016
#20
Hongying Dai, Delwyn Catley
Multiple state attorneys generals have entered assurances of voluntary compliance (AVCs) with numerous national retail chains as an application of consumer protection laws to help prevent tobacco sales to minors. Little is known about the effectiveness of AVCs in reducing the violations of tobacco retailers for underage sales. We collected inspection data involving minors (n=53,832) on tobacco retailers in 2015 and 2016 from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) compliance check database. Inspections on 13 national retail chains were classified into four categories: gas stations from oil companies, convenience stores, pharmacy stores, and supermarkets...
December 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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