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Rima Salah
Today millions of children are trapped in situations of war, conflict, violence and displacement. Science shows that violence has a detrimental effect on the development of young children. It, also, heralds in a new era, with opportunities to contribute to sustaining peace and prevention of violence, through investment in early childhood development. The commentary argues that we have every opportunity to make a transformative shift and raise the voice of science to join the voice of "we the peoples.....
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Charlotte F Cole, June H Lee, Abigail Bucuvalas, Yasemin Sırali
Children's media have the capacity to prepare young learners to develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need to contribute to a more peaceful world. Research suggests international coproductions of Sesame Street and other children's media efforts are linked to positive impact on how viewers perceive themselves and their own cultures, as well as how they perceive others. Creating such media, however, relies on a commitment to a complex development process where the educational needs of children are considered alongside intra- and intergroup dynamics and political realities...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Emile G Bruneau, Mina Cikara, Rebecca Saxe
Empathic failures are common in hostile intergroup contexts; repairing empathy is therefore a major focus of peacebuilding efforts. However, it is unclear which aspect of empathy is most relevant to intergroup conflict. Although trait empathic concern predicts prosociality in interpersonal settings, we hypothesized that the best predictor of meaningful intergroup attitudes and behaviors might not be the general capacity for empathy (i.e., trait empathy), but the difference in empathy felt for the in-group versus the out-group, or "parochial empathy...
November 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
Adrienne Lemon, Mélanie Pinet
Capturing unintended impacts has been a persistent struggle in all fields of international development, and the field of peacebuilding is no exception. However, because peacebuilding focuses on relationships in complex contexts, the field of peacebuilding has, by necessity, made efforts towards finding practical ways to reflect upon both the intended and unintended effects of this work. To explore what lessons can be learned from the peacebuilding field, this study examines the evaluations of Search for Common Ground, a peacebuilding organisation working in over 35 countries across the world...
September 23, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
Todd Sandler
This article takes stock of some of the important contributions to the study of peacekeeping (PK). Two key topics stand out: peacekeeping burden sharing and mission effectiveness. For burden sharing, the theoretical foundation is the private provision of public goods and joint products. Implications for burden sharing differ whether financial or troop contributions are being shared, with the latter driven by jointly produced country-specific benefits. Financial burden sharing can also differ between United Nations (UN)-led and non-UN-led peacekeeping operations, wherein country-specific benefits are especially important for the latter...
October 2017: Journal of Conflict Resolution
Ross Duncan, Mieke Lopes Cardozo
This paper explores the possibilities and challenges for ethno-religious reconciliation through secondary school education in post-war Sri Lanka, with a specific focus on the Muslim and Tamil communities in the Northern city of Jaffna. In doing so, we position our paper within the growing field of 'education, conflict and emergencies' of which there has been a growing body of literature discussing this contentious relationship. The paper draws from an interdisciplinary and critical theoretical framework that aims to analyse the role of education for peacebuilding, through a multi-scalar application of four interconnected dimensions of social justice: redistribution, recognition, representation and reconciliation (or 4 R's, Novelli, Lopes Cardozo and Smith, 2015)...
March 2017: Research in Comparative and International Education
Randall Puljek-Shank, Willemijn Verkoren
Civil society (CS) strengthening is central to peacebuilding policies for divided, post-war societies. However, it has been criticized for creating internationalized organizations without local backing, unable to represent citizens' interests. Based on in-depth empirical research in Bosnia-Herzegovina, this article focuses on the legitimacy of CS organizations (CSOs). It explores why legitimacy for donors rarely accompanies legitimacy for local actors. We hypothesized that whilst donors avoid supporting mono-ethnic organizations, seen as problematic for peacebuilding, 'ethnicness' may provide local legitimacy...
June 2017: Cooperation and Conflict
Alexandre Roulin, Mansour Abu Rashid, Baruch Spiegel, Motti Charter, Amélie N Dreiss, Yossi Leshem
Humanity is facing a biodiversity crisis. To solve environmental problems, we bring people from Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority to the same table. Conservation efforts are beneficial for all communities and facilitate constructive dialog across divides in conflict zones. This pleads for the integration of nature conservation into peacebuilding interventions.
May 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Kyle G Ratner, Lindsay B Katona
Global health professionals regularly conduct healthcare trainings, such as first aid courses, in disadvantaged communities across the world. Many of these communities lack healthcare infrastructure because of war and political conflict. The authors draw on their experience conducting a first aid course in South Sudan to provide a perspective on how healthcare trainings for people with no medical background can be used to bridge ethnic, political, and religious differences. They argue that a necessary step for turning a healthcare training into a vehicle for peacebuilding is to bring people from different communities to the same physical space to learn the course material together...
2016: Conflict and Health
Michelle Maiese
Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Richard Mallett, Rachel Slater
In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions--from job creation to microfinance--this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations...
April 2016: Disasters
Amra Delić, Mevludin Hasanović, Esmina Avdibegović, Aleksandar Dimitrijević, Camellia Hancheva, Carmen Scher, Tatjana Stefanović-Stanojević, Annette Streeck-Fischer, Andreas Hamburger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to examine the implications for healing in a contemporary Balkan post-war context, and to provide a bridge-building model of trauma transformation, reconciliation and recovery through academic reconstruction and cross-border dialogue. Post-war societies are marked by the effects of massive, large group traumatization, and if not properly dealt with, long-term rehabilitation and social recovery cannot be expected. Unprocessed cumulative trauma that has become deeply embedded in the collective memory of the Balkan peoples over centuries, "chosen trauma", its trans-generational transmission and periodical reactivations across the Balkan have often been addressed in recent literature, in ethno-psychology, psychoanalysis, psychiatry, sociology and anthropology...
2014: Acta Medica Academica
Roger Mac Ginty
Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced...
February 2013: Evaluation and Program Planning
Tobias Denskus
Monitoring and evaluating international peacebuilding efforts have become more sophisticated over the past years, but still relies on managerial approaches that often do not capture the complexity of war, peace and the grey areas in between. The article argues that organizations should embrace qualitative approaches more widely and introduces ethnographic vignettes as one example to explain the complexity of post-conflict situations. By understanding the personal dimension, the life- and work-styles of international peacebuilders, the current evaluation discourse can become more meaningful-both for organizational learning and sustainable peace efforts on the ground...
February 2012: Evaluation and Program Planning
Jonathan Goodhand, Mark Sedra
It is unclear how international donors' stated commitment to ownership and partnership 'translates' in fragile state or 'post-conflict' settings. The very notion of ownership is violently contested in Afghanistan and donors have to negotiate with, and choose between, multiple state and non-state interlocutors. The developmentalist principles outlined in the 2005 Paris Declaration may carry little meaning in such contexts and their application can have paradoxical effects that impede the emergence of broad-based ownership...
January 2010: Disasters
Jenny H Peterson
Strengthening the 'Rule of Law' (RoL) has emerged as a key requirement in the reconstruction of conflict-affected states. No longer simply a philosophical ideal, RoL now exists as a tangible set of policies created and implemented by international actors, to which conflict-affected states are expected to conform. Masked in the neutral, apolitical rhetoric of blind and objective justice, RoL programming is in fact a political tool within the larger liberal peacebuilding project. Its employment as such mutes its potential contribution to constructing a positive peace as it often creates new socio-political tensions and distorts accountability structures...
January 2010: Disasters
Daniel J Christie, Barbara S Tint, Richard V Wagner, Deborah DuNann Winter
Although the literature in peace psychology has been growing rapidly, many American psychologists are unaware of how conflict is resolved and peace is conceptualized and achieved. This article reviews the long history and broadening scope of peace psychology and introduces a model of peace that is useful for organizing the literature. The model suggests that peace can be facilitated at four different points of intervention. The authors discuss relationships between positive and negative peace, structural and direct violence, and peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peacebuilding...
September 2008: American Psychologist
Harvey Skinner, Ziad Abdeen, Hani Abdeen, Phil Aber, Mohammad Al-Masri, Joseph Attias, Karen B Avraham, Rivka Carmi, Catherine Chalin, Ziad El Nasser, Manaf Hijazi, Rema Othman Jebara, Moien Kanaan, Hillel Pratt, Firas Raad, Yehudah Roth, A Paul Williams, Arnold Noyek
This article describes a positive experience in building Arab and Israeli cooperation through health initiatives. Over the past 10 years Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian health professionals have worked together through the Canada International Scientific Exchange Program (CISEPO). In the initial project, nearly 17,000 Arab and Israeli newborn babies were tested for early detection of hearing loss, an important health issue for the region. The network has grown to address additional needs, including mother-child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and youth health...
April 2, 2005: Lancet
Vance Culbert
Donors that provide aid to the Wanni region of Sri Lanka, which is controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), are promoting initiatives that seek to advance the national peace process. Under the rubric of post-conflict reconstruction, the actions of political forces and structural factors have led to the prioritisation of two different approaches to peace-building: community capacity-building projects; and support for the 'peace dividend'. Both of these approaches face challenges. Cooperation with civil society actors is extremely difficult due to intimidation by the LTTE political authority and the authoritarian nature of its control...
March 2005: Disasters
Daniel J Flannery, Alexander T Vazsonyi, Albert K Liau, Shenyang Guo, Kenneth E Powell, Henry Atha, Wendy Vesterdal, Dennis Embry
PeaceBuilders is a universal, elementary-school-based violence prevention program that attempts to alter the climate of a school by teaching students and staff simple rules and activities aimed at improving child social competence and reducing aggressive behavior. Eight matched schools (N > 4,000 students in Grades K-5) were randomly assigned to either immediate postbaseline intervention (PBI) or to a delayed intervention 1 year later (PBD). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze results from assessments in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years...
March 2003: Developmental Psychology
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