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Neural plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227907/understanding-the-role-of-astrocytic-gaba-in-simulated-neural-networks
#1
Kerstin Lenk, Eero Raisanen, Jari A K Hyttinen, Kerstin Lenk, Eero Raisanen, Jari A K Hyttinen, Kerstin Lenk, Jari Ak Hyttinen, Eero Raisanen
Astrocytes actively influence the behavior of the surrounding neuronal network including changes of the synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. These dynamics are altered in diseases like Alzheimer's, where the release of the gliotransmitter GABA is increased by affected, so called reactive astrocytes. In this paper, we aim to simulate a neural network with altered astrocytic GABA release. Therefore, we use our developed neuron-astrocyte model, called INEXA, which includes astrocyte controlled tripartite synapses and the astrocyte-astrocyte interaction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227164/dynamical-information-encoding-in-neural-adaptation
#2
Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Si Wu, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Yuanyuan Mi, Wenhao Zhang, Luozheng Li
Adaptation refers to the general phenomenon that a neural system dynamically adjusts its response property according to the statistics of external inputs. In response to a prolonged constant stimulation, neuronal firing rates always first increase dramatically at the onset of the stimulation; and afterwards, they decrease rapidly to a low level close to background activity. This attenuation of neural activity seems to be contradictory to our experience that we can still sense the stimulus after the neural system is adapted...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227163/maximum-correntropy-based-attention-gated-reinforcement-learning-designed-for-brain-machine-interface
#3
Hongbao Li, Fang Wang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose C Principe, Hongbao Li, Fang Wang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose C Principe, Yiwen Wang, Jose C Principe, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Hongbao Li, Fang Wang
Reinforcement learning is an effective algorithm for brain machine interfaces (BMIs) which interprets the mapping between neural activities with plasticity and the kinematics. Exploring large state-action space is difficulty when the complicated BMIs needs to assign credits over both time and space. For BMIs attention gated reinforcement learning (AGREL) has been developed to classify multi-actions for spatial credit assignment task with better efficiency. However, the outliers existing in the neural signals still make interpret the neural-action mapping difficult...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226820/monte-carlo-validation-of-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-identification-from-spiking-activity
#4
Brian S Robinson, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Brian S Robinson, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Brian S Robinson, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
As increasingly complex non-stationary models become possible to be identified from neural data, rigorous validation approaches must be developed to rule out overfitting and the potential to identify features by chance. Specifically, identification of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) from recorded spontaneous in vivo spike timing is a potentially powerful tool to quantify activity-dependent plasticity. In previous work, we presented a methodology to perform this STDP identification from spike timing alone and successfully identified a generative model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226818/stochastic-modeling-of-spontaneous-bursting-activity-to-simulate-neural-responses-of-in-vitro-networks-on-multielectrode-arrays
#5
Gaetano Valenza, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Wanke, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Wanke, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Wanke, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
The study of neuronal bursting activity, observed in cell-culture, is physiologically important because is correlated with synaptic transmission, plasticity, and information processing. However, besides strong ethical issues related to the use of animal models, there are many limitations due to experimental setup and neural signaling acquisition. In this study, we propose a stochastic modeling approach to simulate neural dynamics observed in networks of neocortical neurons from an ex vivo normal mouse. Specifically, we devised a stochastic version of the Izhichevich's model of cortical neurons, and simulated a network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons also accounting for cell signaling delays...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226812/identification-of-time-varying-neural-dynamics-from-spiking-activities-using-chebyshev-polynomials
#6
Song Xu, Yang Li, Xudong Wang, Rosa H M Chan, Song Xu, Yang Li, Xudong Wang, Rosa H M Chan, Xudong Wang, Rosa H M Chan, Song Xu, Yang Li
Neural plasticity, elicited by processes such as development and learning, is an important biological attribute which can be viewed as a time-varying property of the nervous system. In this paper, we investigated the novel use of Chebyshev polynomials to estimate the changes in model parameters efficiently for time-varying dynamical systems with binary inputs and outputs. A forward orthogonal least square (FOLS) algorithm selected the significant model terms. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed algorithm identified the system changes more accurately in comparison with adaptive filter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222502/subclinical-doses-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-modulators-prevent-alterations-in-memory-and-synaptic-alterations-in-memory-and-synaptic-%C3%AE
#8
Karla Salgado-Puga, Javier Rodríguez-Colorado, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Fernando Peña-Ortega
In addition to coupling cell metabolism and excitability, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are involved in neural function and plasticity. Moreover, alterations in KATP activity and expression have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and during amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced pathology. Thus, we tested whether KATP modulators can influence Aβ-induced deleterious effects on memory, hippocampal network function, and plasticity. We found that treating animals with subclinical doses (those that did not change glycemia) of a KATP blocker (Tolbutamide) or a KATP opener (Diazoxide) differentially restrained Aβ-induced memory deficit, hippocampal network activity inhibition, and long-term synaptic plasticity unbalance (i...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220070/neural-correlates-of-mirror-visual-feedback-induced-performance-improvements-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#9
Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219985/activity-induced-synaptic-structural-modifications-by-an-activator-of-integrin-signaling-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#10
Joo Yeun Lee, Junhua Geng, Juhyun Lee, Andrew R Wang, Karen T Chang
Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled, Shv, regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#11
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217813/-vegf-enhances-reconstruction-of-neurovascular-units-in-the-brain-after-injury
#12
Zhi-Guang Pan, Ying Mao, Feng-Yan Sun
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was originally recognized as a substance predominantly with vascular permeability and angiogenesis. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that VEGF is expressed in the neurons of the developing and adult brains. Functional investigation demonstrated that VEGF shows several important effects on the neuronal development and physiological function. For example, VEGF accelerates the development of neurons and neural dendritic and axon growth. Besides, VEGF directly and acutely regulates the functions of multiple ion channels of the neuron membrane and changes neural excitability...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216088/sex-differences-in-the-neuro-immune-consequences-of-stress-focus-on-depression-and-anxiety
#13
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215282/how-does-experience-shape-early-development-considering-the-role-of-top-down-mechanisms
#14
L L Emberson
Perceptual development requires infants to adapt their perceptual systems to the structures and statistical information of their environment. In this way, perceptual development is not only important in its own right, but is a case study for behavioral and neural plasticity-powerful mechanisms that have the potential to support developmental change in numerous domains starting early in life. While it is widely assumed that perceptual development is a bottom-up process, where simple exposure to sensory input modifies perceptual representations starting early in the perceptual system, there are several critical phenomena in this literature that cannot be explained with an exclusively bottom-up model...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214579/motor-training-and-the-combination-of-action-observation-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-reciprocally-interfere-with-the-plastic-changes-induced-in-primary-motor-cortex-excitability
#15
Ambra Bisio, Laura Avanzino, Monica Biggio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
AO-PNS is a stimulation protocol combining action observation (AO) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to induce plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) (increased excitability). Another method to increase M1 excitability is motor training. The combination of two protocols, which individually induce long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in overlapping neural circuits, results in a transitory occlusion or reverse of this phenomenon. This study aimed to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AO-PNS by testing whether AO-PNS and motor training induced LTP-like plasticity in, at least partially, overlapping neural networks...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#16
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208338/synchronization-and-long-time-memory-in-neural-networks-with-inhibitory-hubs-and-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Elena Bertolotti, Raffaella Burioni, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani
We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons f_{I} and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on f_{I}, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199192/convergence-of-neurotransmissions-at-synapse-on-ieg-regulation-in-nucleus
#18
Mamoru Fukuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
There is no doubt that synaptic activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting changes in neural functions, including learning and memory. Consequently, dysregulation of IEG expression has been involved in the conditions of neural and psychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction. This has mainly been demonstrated using genetically modified animal models and neuropharmacological analyses. The regulatory mechanisms of IEG expression have been investigated recently and have re-emphasized the role of IEG expression in plasticity-related processes as well as elucidating molecular mechanisms and drug targets for neurological and psychiatric disorders...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197343/chronic-social-defeat-stress-modulates-dendritic-spines-structural-plasticity-in-adult-mouse-frontal-association-cortex
#19
Yu Shu, Tonghui Xu
Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197197/fine-motor-skill-training-enhances-functional-plasticity-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Jian Liu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Wei-Wei Xia, Jian Dong, Mao-Guang Yang, Jian-Hang Jiao
Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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