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Neural plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351512/physiology-of-astroglia
#2
Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in development and aging. Astrocytes are tightly integrated into neural networks and act within the context of neural tissue; astrocytes control homeostasis of the CNS at all levels of organization from molecular to the whole organ...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348927/improved-cognitive-performance-and-event-related-potential-changes-following-working-memory-training-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, David W Shucard
Background: Few studies of cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have targeted working memory specifically. Objective: We examined the effects of n-back working memory training on cognitive performance and brain function in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with MS (n = 12) and healthy controls (HC; n = 12) underwent 20 sessions of n-back working memory training. Before and after training (pre- and posttest) cognitive event-related potential (ERP) measures were obtained during a 3-back task...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348834/activity-strengths-of-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-are-correlated-with-transgenerational-inheritance-of-learning-ability
#4
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346771/rapid-turnover-of-cortical-ncam1-regulates-synaptic-reorganization-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Hyoung-Gon Ko, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Dong Ik Park, SukJae Joshua Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Su-Eon Sim, Jaehoon Shim, Ji-Il Kim, Siyong Kim, Tae-Hyeok Choi, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, Pojeong Park, Somi Kim, Jeehaeh Do, Jihye Park, Md Ariful Islam, Hyun Jeong Kim, Christoph W Turck, Graham L Collingridge, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Peripheral nerve injury can induce pathological conditions that lead to persistent sensitized nociception. Although there is evidence that plastic changes in the cortex contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we find that activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) induced by peripheral nerve injury increases the turnover of specific synaptic proteins in a persistent manner. We demonstrate that neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is one of the molecules involved and show that it mediates spine reorganization and contributes to the behavioral sensitization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346102/impedance-measures-during-in-vitro-cochlear-implantation-predict-array-positioning
#7
Christopher Kenneth Giardina, Elliot Samuel Krause, Kanthaiah Koka, Douglas Carl Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE: Improper electrode placement during cochlear implant (CI) insertion can adversely affect speech perception outcomes. However, the intraoperative methods to determine positioning are limited. Because measures of electrode impedance can be made quickly, the goal of this study was to assess the relationship between CI impedance and proximity to adjacent structures. METHODS: An Advanced Bionics CI array was inserted into a clear, plastic cochlea one electrode contact at a time in a saline bath (nine trials)...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343607/behavioural-tactic-predicts-preoptic-hypothalamic-gene-expression-more-strongly-than-developmental-morph-in-fish-with-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#8
Joel A Tripp, Ni Y Feng, Andrew H Bass
Reproductive success relies on the coordination of social behaviours, such as territory defence, courtship and mating. Species with extreme variation in reproductive tactics are useful models for identifying the neural mechanisms underlying social behaviour plasticity. The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is a teleost fish with two male reproductive morphs that follow widely divergent developmental trajectories and display alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Type I males defend territories, court females and provide paternal care, but will resort to cuckoldry if they cannot maintain a territory...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342400/a-unifying-framework-of-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-neural-populations
#9
Johannes Leugering, Gordon Pipa
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by constant statistical properties, the systematic relationship between its input and output processes determines the computation carried out by a population. When these statistical characteristics unexpectedly change, the population needs to adapt to its new environment if it is to maintain stable operation...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#10
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339724/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-controls-neural-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-cocaine
#11
Erin S Calipari, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Marine Salery, Nicholas L Mervosh, Joseph A Landry, Scott J Russo, Yasmin L Hurd, Eric J Nestler, Drew D Kiraly
Cocaine addiction is characterized by dysfunction in reward-related brain circuits, leading to maladaptive motivation to seek and take the drug. There are currently no clinically available pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction. Through a broad screen of innate immune mediators, we identify granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a potent mediator of cocaine-induced adaptations. Here we report that G-CSF potentiates cocaine-induced increases in neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338873/opioid-and-psychostimulant-plasticity-targeting-overlap-in-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Matthew Hearing, Nicholas Graziane, Yan Dong, Mark J Thomas
Commonalities in addictive behavior, such as craving, stimuli-driven drug seeking, and a high propensity for relapse following abstinence, have pushed for a unified theory of addiction that encompasses most abused substances. This unitary theory has recently been challenged - citing distinctions in structural neural plasticity, biochemical signaling, and neural circuitry to argue that addiction to opioids and psychostimulants is behaviorally and neurobiologically distinct. Recent more selective examination of drug-induced plasticity has highlighted that these two drug classes promote an overall reward circuitry signaling overlap through modifying excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens - a key constituent of the reward system...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336026/youth-s-conceptions-of-adolescence-predict-longitudinal-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-activation-and-risk-taking-during-adolescence
#13
Yang Qu, Eva M Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H Telzer
The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage  = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335819/nmda-receptor-glun2-subtypes-control-epileptiform-events-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Pradeep Punnakkal, Deity Dominic
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Subtype-specific role of NMDAR in neural disorders is an emerging area. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in NMDARs are a cause for epilepsy. Hippocampus is a known focal point for epilepsy. In hippocampus, expression of the NMDAR subtypes GluN1/GluN2A and GluN1/GluN2B is temporally regulated. However, the pharmacological significance of these subtypes is not well understood in epileptic context/models. To investigate this, epilepsy was induced in hippocampal slices by the application of artificial cerebrospinal fluid that contained high potassium but no magnesium...
January 15, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335430/transspinal-direct-current-stimulation-produces-persistent-plasticity-in-human-motor-pathways
#15
Lynda M Murray, Behdad Tahayori, Maria Knikou
The spinal cord is an integration center for descending, ascending, and segmental neural signals. Noninvasive transspinal stimulation may thus constitute an effective method for concomitant modulation of local and distal neural circuits. In this study, we established changes in cortical excitability and input/output function of corticospinal and spinal neural circuits before, at 0-15 and at 30-45 minutes after cathodal, anodal, and sham transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to the thoracic region in healthy individuals...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335248/fast-neurogenesis-from-carotid-body-quiescent-neuroblasts-accelerates-adaptation-to-hypoxia
#16
Verónica Sobrino, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Valentina Annese, José López-Barneo, Ricardo Pardal
Unlike other neural peripheral organs, the adult carotid body (CB) has a remarkable structural plasticity, as it grows during acclimatization to hypoxia. The CB contains neural stem cells that can differentiate into oxygen-sensitive glomus cells. However, an extended view is that, unlike other catecholaminergic cells of the same lineage (sympathetic neurons or chromaffin cells), glomus cells can divide and thus contribute to CB hypertrophy. Here, we show that O2-sensitive mature glomus cells are post-mitotic...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329316/electroencephalography-power-and-coherence-changes-with-age-and-motor-skill-development-across-the-first-half-year-of-life
#17
Ran Xiao, Joanne Shida-Tokeshi, Douglas L Vanderbilt, Beth A Smith
Existing research in infants has correlated electroencephalography (EEG) measures of power and coherence to cognitive development and to locomotor experience, but only in infants older than 5 months of age. Our goal was to explore the relationship between EEG measures of power and coherence and motor skill development in younger infants who are developing reaching skill. Twenty-one infants with typical development between 38 and 203 days of age participated. Longitudinal EEG recording sessions were recorded in monthly increments, with 3-5 sessions acquired for 19 participants and 1 session for 2 participants, resulting in 71 sessions in total...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328958/stdp-based-spiking-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-object-recognition
#18
Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh, Mohammad Ganjtabesh, Simon J Thorpe, Timothée Masquelier
Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers...
December 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#19
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#20
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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