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Neural plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441759/synaptic-homeostasis-and-its-immunological-disturbance-in-neuromuscular-junction-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Masaharu Takamori
In the neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clustering, trans-synaptic communication and synaptic stabilization are modulated by the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. The synaptic functions are based presynaptically on the active zone architecture, synaptic vesicle proteins, Ca(2+) channels and synaptic vesicle recycling. Postsynaptically, they are based on rapsyn-anchored nAChR clusters, localized sensitivity to ACh, and synaptic stabilization via linkage to the extracellular matrix so as to be precisely opposed to the nerve terminal...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440309/glypican-2-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-predict-the-status-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#2
S Lugert, T Kremer, R Jagasia, A Herrmann, S Aigner, C Giachino, I Mendez-David, A M Gardier, J P Carralot, H Meistermann, A Augustin, M D Saxe, J Lamerz, G Duran-Pacheco, A Ducret, V Taylor, D J David, C Czech
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain plasticity through which new neurons are generated throughout life. Despite its important roles in cognition and emotion and its modulation in various preclinical disease models, the functional importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in human health has not been revealed because of a lack of tools for monitoring adult neurogenesis in vivo. Therefore, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen to identify novel proteins expressed during neuronal differentiation using a human neural stem cell model, and we identified the proteoglycan Glypican-2 (Gpc2) as a putative secreted marker of immature neurons...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439226/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-pf-2545920-enhances-hippocampal-excitability-and-seizure-activity-involving-the-upregulation-of-glua1-and-nr2a-in-post-synaptic-densities
#3
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Fangshuo Zheng, Shanshan Lu, Yun Li, Yan Xiong, Qin Yang, Yong Yang, Pengfei Fu, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Phosphodiesterase regulates the homeostasis of cAMP and cGMP, which increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits and/or decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Abnormally, synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain leads to seizures. A phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor PF-2545920 has recently attracted attention as a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that PF-2545920 plays an important role in status epilepticus (SE) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#4
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involve changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436834/active-auditory-experience-in-infancy-promotes-brain-plasticity-in-theta-and-gamma-oscillations
#5
Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A Benasich
Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC)...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#6
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433456/cytokine-alterations-and-cognitive-impairment-in-major-depressive-disorder-from-putative-mechanisms-to-novel-treatment-targets
#7
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Jan Aleksander Beszłej, Kamila Kotowicz, Monika Szewczuk-Bogusławska, Jerzy Samochowiec, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Dorota Frydecka
Overwhelming evidence indicates the involvement of immune-inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Peripheral cytokine alterations serve as one of most consistently reported indices of subthreshold inflammatory state observed in MDD. Although cytokines cannot pass directly through the blood-brain barrier, a number of transport mechanisms have been reported. In addition, peripheral cytokines may impact central nervous system via downstream effectors of their biological activity...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431369/the-temporal-paradox-of-hebbian-learning-and-homeostatic-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Friedemann Zenke, Wulfram Gerstner, Surya Ganguli
Hebbian plasticity, a synaptic mechanism which detects and amplifies co-activity between neurons, is considered a key ingredient underlying learning and memory in the brain. However, Hebbian plasticity alone is unstable, leading to runaway neuronal activity, and therefore requires stabilization by additional compensatory processes. Traditionally, a diversity of homeostatic plasticity phenomena found in neural circuits is thought to play this role. However, recent modelling work suggests that the slow evolution of homeostatic plasticity, as observed in experiments, is insufficient to prevent instabilities originating from Hebbian plasticity...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431184/congener-specific-disposition-of-chiral-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-lactating-mice-and-their-offspring-implications-for-pcb-developmental-neurotoxicity
#9
Izabela Kania-Korwel, Tracy Lukasiewicz, Christopher D Barnhart, Marianna Stamou, Haeun Chung, Kevin M Kelly, Stelvio Bandiera, Pamela J Lein, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of two environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8 weeks old) were fed daily, beginning two weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3...
April 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427937/reactivity-of-anti-hnk-1-antibodies-to-branched-o-mannose-glycans-associated-with-demyelination
#10
Kanoko Sakuda, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Katsunori Tanaka, Ken Ogiwara, Tatsuya Segawa, Yoshiaki Hagiwara, Ichiro Matsuo, Haruko Ogawa, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Shinobu Kitazume
Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope, a highly-expressed glycan in the nervous system, is critical for normal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. HNK-1 epitope modifies N-glycans on several neural glycoproteins, and also modifies O-mannosyl glycans. A branching enzyme for O-mannosyl glycans (GnT-IX, Core M2 synthase) exhibits brain-specific expression, and the product core M2 glycans are also limited to the brain. In a previous study, we showed that cuprizone-induced demyelination increased HNK-1-capped core M2 glycan expression, while GnT-IX deficiency ameliorated demyelination, suggesting that these glycans could be useful diagnostic markers for demyelination status and act as therapeutic targets...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425506/oncogenic-activity-of-sox1-in-glioblastoma
#11
Idoia Garcia, Juncal Aldaregia, Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Paula Aldaz, Leire Moreno-Cugnon, Sergio Torres-Bayona, Estefania Carrasco-Garcia, Laura Garros-Regulez, Larraitz Egaña, Angel Rubio, Steven Pollard, Milena Stevanovic, Nicolas Sampron, Ander Matheu
Glioblastoma remains the most common and deadliest type of brain tumor and contains a population of self-renewing, highly tumorigenic glioma stem cells (GSCs), which contributes to tumor initiation and treatment resistance. Developmental programs participating in tissue development and homeostasis re-emerge in GSCs, supporting the development and progression of glioblastoma. SOX1 plays an important role in neural development and neural progenitor pool maintenance. Its impact on glioblastoma remains largely unknown...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423311/physiological-plasticity-of-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-in-the-adult-mammalian-carotid-body
#12
Valentina Annese, Elena Navarro-Guerrero, Ismael Rodríguez-Prieto, Ricardo Pardal
Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-time-scales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#13
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420954/multiple-kernel-based-region-importance-learning-for-neural-classification-of-gait-states-from-eeg-signals
#15
Yuhang Zhang, Saurabh Prasad, Atilla Kilicarslan, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
With the development of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) systems, people with motor disabilities are able to control external devices to help them restore movement abilities. Longitudinal validation of these systems is critical not only to assess long-term performance reliability but also to investigate adaptations in electrocortical patterns due to learning to use the BMI system. In this paper, we decode the patterns of user's intended gait states (e.g., stop, walk, turn left, and turn right) from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals and simultaneously learn the relative importance of different brain areas by using the multiple kernel learning (MKL) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419975/animal-models-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-prospects-for-circuit-intervention
#16
REVIEW
Tobias Kaiser, Yang Zhou, Guoping Feng
Monogenic animal models for psychiatric diseases have enabled researchers to dissect the relationship between certain candidate genes, neural circuit abnormalities, and behavioral phenotypes along development. Early reports of phenotypic reversal after genetic restoration in mouse models sparked hope that genetic defects do not damage circuits irreversibly in early-onset disorders. However, further studies have suggested that only some circuits exhibit this plasticity, while many others require proper gene function during development...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414333/dynamic-hidden-states-underlying-working-memory-guided-behavior
#17
Michael J Wolff, Janina Jochim, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark G Stokes
Recent theoretical models propose that working memory is mediated by rapid transitions in 'activity-silent' neural states (for example, short-term synaptic plasticity). According to the dynamic coding framework, such hidden state transitions flexibly configure memory networks for memory-guided behavior and dissolve them equally fast to allow forgetting. We developed a perturbation approach to measure mnemonic hidden states in an electroencephalogram. By 'pinging' the brain during maintenance, we show that memory-item-specific information is decodable from the impulse response, even in the absence of attention and lingering delay activity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414299/an-indirect-route-to-repetitive-actions
#18
David M Lovinger
It is increasingly evident that there is a genetic contribution to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other neural disorders involving excessive repetition of action sequences. Among the implicated genes in these disorders are those encoding postsynaptic scaffolding proteins with roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Several mouse models harboring synonymous mutations have shown alterations in synaptic transmission within the striatum, which has key roles in controlling actions and action sequences...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414121/neural-derived-estradiol-regulates-brain-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
In addition to be an ovarian hormone, estradiol is a neurosteroid synthesized by neural cells. The brain is a steroidogenic tissue that metabolizes testosterone to estradiol. The last step in the synthesis of estradiol is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which is widely expressed in the brain of male and female animals and humans. Studies that have manipulated the expression or the activity of aromatase have revealed that brain-derived estradiol acts as a neuromodulator and regulates different forms of brain plasticity in male and female animals...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414095/crosstalk-control-and-limits-of-physiological-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-activity-for-cell-viability-and-neurite-stability-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#20
Vicki Waetzig, Milana Belzer, Wiebke Haeusgen, Ruwen Boehm, Ingolf Cascorbi, Thomas Herdegen
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are important mediators of cell viability and structural integrity in postmitotic neurons, which is required for maintaining synaptic connections and neural plasticity. In the present study, we chose differentiated PC12 cells as a well-characterised neuronal model system to selectively examine the regulation of basal JNK activity by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. We detected a complex interaction between the kinases to prevent cell death and neurite loss...
April 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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