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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351373/a-facile-space-confined-solid-phase-sulfurization-strategy-for-growth-of-high-quality-ultrathin-molybdenum-disulfide-single-crystals
#1
Dawei Li, Zhiyong Xiao, Sai Mu, Fei Wang, Ying Liu, Jingfeng Song, Xi Huang, Lijia Jiang, Jun Xiao, Lei Liu, Stephen Ducharme, Bai Cui, Xia Hong, Lan Jiang, Jean-Francois Silvain, Yongfeng Lu
Single-crystal transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and TMD-based hetero-junctions have recently attracted significant research and industrial interest owing to their intriguing optical and electrical properties. However, the lack of a simple, low-cost, environmentally friendly, synthetic method and a poor understanding of the growth mechanism post a huge challenge to implementing TMDs in practical applications. In this work, we developed a novel approach for direct formation of high-quality, monolayer and few-layer MoS2 single crystal domains via a single-step rapid thermal processing of a sandwiched reactor with sulfur and molybdenum (Mo) film in a confined reaction space...
January 19, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347210/eigenvector-centrality-for-geometric-and-topological-characterization-of-porous-media
#2
Joaquin Jimenez-Martinez, Christian F A Negre
Solving flow and transport through complex geometries such as porous media is computationally difficult. Such calculations usually involve the solution of a system of discretized differential equations, which could lead to extreme computational cost depending on the size of the domain and the accuracy of the model. Geometric simplifications like pore networks, where the pores are represented by nodes and the pore throats by edges connecting pores, have been proposed. These models, despite their ability to preserve the connectivity of the medium, have difficulties capturing preferential paths (high velocity) and stagnation zones (low velocity), as they do not consider the specific relations between nodes...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346617/riboswitching-with-ciprofloxacin-development-and-characterization-of-a-novel-rna-regulator
#3
Florian Groher, Cristina Bofill-Bosch, Christopher Schneider, Johannes Braun, Sven Jager, Katharina Geißler, Kay Hamacher, Beatrix Suess
RNA molecules play important and diverse regulatory roles in the cell. Inspired by this natural versatility, RNA devices are increasingly important for many synthetic biology applications, e.g. optimizing engineered metabolic pathways, gene therapeutics or building up complex logical units. A major advantage of RNA is the possibility of de novo design of RNA-based sensing domains via an in vitro selection process (SELEX). Here, we describe development of a novel ciprofloxacin-responsive riboswitch by in vitro selection and next-generation sequencing-guided cellular screening...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340725/decision-making-in-management-of-the-complex-trauma-patient-changing-the-mindset-of-the-non-trauma-surgeon
#4
Linda Sonesson, Kenneth Boffard, Lars Lundberg, Martin Rydmark, Klas Karlgren
BACKGROUND: European surgeons are frequently subspecialized and trained primarily in elective surgical techniques. As trauma leaders, they may occasionally have to deal with complex polytrauma, advanced management techniques, differing priorities, and the need for multidisciplinary care. There is a lack of expertise, experience, and a low trauma volume, as well as a lack of research, with limited support as to the decision-making and teaching challenges present. We studied what experienced trauma experts describe as the challenges that are specific to the advanced surgical decision-making required, whether civilian, humanitarian, or military...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338498/from-clinical-remission-to-residual-disease-activity-in-spondyloarthritis-and-its-potential-treatment-implications
#5
Fabio Massimo Perrotta, Antonia De Socio, Silvia Scriffignano, Ennio Lubrano
Remission or low disease activity should be the target of therapy in spondyloarthritis (SpA). Due to the complexity of the disease, several composite indices that assess all disease domains were proposed to define a status of low disease activity/remission in both axial and peripheral SpA. With the introduction, in the past years, of effective biologic and targeted synthetic treatments aimed at inhibiting key cytokines and intracellular pathways, the goal of clinical remission has become an achievable target in these conditions...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337532/biotemplated-morpho-butterfly-wings-for-tunable-structurally-colored-photocatalysts
#6
Robin E Rodríguez, Sneha P Agarwal, Shun An, Eric Kazyak, Debashree Das, Wen Shang, Rachael Skye, Tao Deng, Neil P Dasgupta
Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly wings contain naturally occurring hierarchical nanostructures that produce structural coloration. The high aspect ratio and surface area of these wings make them attractive nanostructured templates for applications in solar energy and photocatalysis. However, biomimetic approaches to replicate their complex structural features and integrate functional materials into their three-dimensional framework are highly limited in precision and scalability. Herein, a biotemplating approach is presented that precisely replicates Morpho nanostructures by depositing nanocrystalline ZnO coatings onto wings via low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD)...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320679/effect-of-h-bond-donor-lipids-on-phosphatidylinositol-3-4-5-trisphosphate-ionization-and-clustering
#7
Zachary T Graber, Joseph Thomas, Emily Johnson, Arne Gericke, Edgar E Kooijman
The phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), is a key signaling lipid in the inner leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, regulating diverse signaling pathways including cell growth and migration. In this study we investigate the impact of the hydrogen-bond donor lipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) on the charge and phase behavior of PI(3,4,5)P3. PE and PI can interact with PI(3,4,5)P3 through hydrogen-bond formation, leading to altered ionization behavior and charge distribution within the PI(3,4,5)P3 headgroup...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320672/position-statement-a-clinical-approach-to-the-management-of-adult-non-neurogenic-overactive-bladder
#8
Eric Chung, Dominic Lee, Johan Gani, Michael Gillman, Christopher Maher, Janelle Brennan, Lydia Johns Putra, Laura Ahmad, Lewis Lw Chan
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent medical condition that has an adverse impact on various health-related quality-of-life domains, including a significant psychosocial and financial burden. This position statement, formulated by members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand and the UroGynaecological Society of Australasia, summarises the current recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies in patients with non-neurogenic OAB, and guides clinicians in the decision-making process for managing the condition using evidence-based medicine...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320478/an-extracellular-network-of-arabidopsis-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-kinases
#9
Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, G Adam Mott, Katarzyna Parys, Martin Stegmann, Timothy C Howton, Mehdi Layeghifard, Jana Neuhold, Anita Lehner, Jixiang Kong, Karin Grünwald, Natascha Weinberger, Santosh B Satbhai, Dominik Mayer, Wolfgang Busch, Mathias Madalinski, Peggy Stolt-Bergner, Nicholas J Provart, M Shahid Mukhtar, Cyril Zipfel, Darrell Desveaux, David S Guttman, Youssef Belkhadir
The cells of multicellular organisms receive extracellular signals using surface receptors. The extracellular domains (ECDs) of cell surface receptors function as interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of receptor activation. Understanding how interactions between ECDs produce signal-competent receptor complexes is challenging because of their low biochemical tractability. In plants, the discovery of ECD interactions is complicated by the massive expansion of receptor families, which creates tremendous potential for changeover in receptor interactions...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316027/somatic-mutations-activating-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-concomitant-with-ras-pathway-mutations-in-juvenile-myelomonocytic-leukemia-patients
#10
A Coppe, L Nogara, M S Pizzuto, A Cani, S Cesaro, R Masetti, F Locatelli, G Te Kronnie, G Basso, S Bortoluzzi, S Bresolin
The WAS gene product is expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm of hematopoietic cells and constitutional genetic abrogation of WASP leads to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). Moreover, mutational activation of WASP has been associated with X-linked neutropenia (XLN). Although studies reported that patients with constitutional WAS mutations affecting functional WASP expression may present Juvenile MyeloMonocytic Lukemia (JMML)-like features, confounding differential diagnosis above all in the co-presence of mutated RAS, an activating somatic mutation of WASP has not been previously described in JMML patients...
January 7, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305433/pinx1-and-tert-are-required-for-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-airway-smooth-muscle-chemokine-gene-expression
#11
Karl Deacon, Alan J Knox
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells contribute to asthmatic lung pathology with chemokine hypersecretion and increased ASM cell mass. With little recent progress in the development of asthma therapies, a greater understanding of lung inflammation mechanisms has become a priority. Chemokine gene expression in ASM cells is dependent upon NF-κB transcription factor activity. The telomerase/shelterin complex maintains chromosomal telomere ends during cell division. Telomerase is a possible cofactor for NF-κB activity, but its role in NF-κB activity in airway tissue inflammation is not known...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304273/effect-of-temperature-and-hydration-level-on-purple-membrane-dynamics-studied-using-broadband-dielectric-spectroscopy-from-sub-ghz-to-thz-regions
#12
Naoki Yamamoto, Shota Ito, Masahiro Nakanishi, Eri Chatani, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori, Keisuke Tominaga
To investigate the effects of temperature and hydration on the dynamics of purple membrane (PM), we measured the broadband complex dielectric spectra from 0.5 GHz to 2.3 THz using a vector network analyzer and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy from 233 to 293 K. In the lower temperature region down to 83 K, the complex dielectric spectra in the THz region were also obtained. The complex dielectric spectra were analyzed through curve fitting using several model functions. We found that the hydrated states of one relaxational mode, which was assigned as the coupled motion of water molecules with the PM surface, began to overlap with the THz region at approximately 230 K...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300012/one-pot-growth-of-two-dimensional-lateral-heterostructures-via-sequential-edge-epitaxy
#13
Prasana K Sahoo, Shahriar Memaran, Yan Xin, Luis Balicas, Humberto R Gutiérrez
Two-dimensional heterojunctions of transition-metal dichalcogenides have great potential for application in low-power, high-performance and flexible electro-optical devices, such as tunnelling transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and photovoltaic cells. Although complex heterostructures have been fabricated via the van der Waals stacking of different two-dimensional materials, the in situ fabrication of high-quality lateral heterostructures with multiple junctions remains a challenge. Transition-metal-dichalcogenide lateral heterostructures have been synthesized via single-step, two-step or multi-step growth processes...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296958/characterizing-the-o-glycosylation-landscape-of-human-plasma-platelets-and-endothelial-cells
#14
Sarah L King, Hiren J Joshi, Katrine T Schjoldager, Adnan Halim, Thomas D Madsen, Morten H Dziegiel, Anders Woetmann, Sergey Y Vakhrushev, Hans H Wandall
The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis, and is critical to the maintenance of vascular integrity. Multiple studies indicate that glycans play important roles in the hemostatic system; however, most investigations have focused on N-glycans because of the complexity of O-glycan analysis. Here we performed the first systematic analysis of native-O-glycosylation using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS to determine the precise location of O-glycans in human plasma, platelets, and endothelial cells, which coordinately regulate hemostasis...
February 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284122/application-of-elastin-based-nanoparticles-displaying-antibody-binding-domains-for-a-homogeneous-immunoassay
#15
Tsutomu Sugihara, Masayasu Mie, Eiry Kobatake
Nanoparticles are small size-controlled particles from 1 to 100 nm diameters and characterized by their structure, base material and functional units displayed on their surfaces. In this study, protein-based nanoparticles composed of a hydrophobic elastin-like peptide unit, a hydrophilic aspartic acid-rich peptide unit and displaying antibody binding domains on their surfaces, were designed and genetically synthesized. The constituent fusion proteins, termed ELP-D-C, were found to exist in monomeric form (ELP-D-C/monomer) at low temperature...
December 25, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281196/effects-of-prolonged-and-repeated-immersions-on-heart-rate-variability-and-complexity-in-military-divers
#16
Nathaniel T Berry, Laurie Wideman, Christopher K Rhea, Jeffrey D Labban, Ki H Chon, Barbara E Shykoff, Jay Harran, John P Florian
BACKGROUND: The influence of prolonged and repeated water immersions on heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity was examined in 10 U.S. Navy divers who completed six-hour resting dives on five consecutive days. Pre-dive and during-dive measures were recorded daily. METHODS: Dependent variables of interest were average heart rate (HR), time-domain measures of HRV [root mean square of successive differences of the normal RR (NN) interval (RMSSD), standard deviation of the NN interval (SDNN)], frequency-domain measures of HRV [low-frequency power spectral density (psd) (LFpsd), low-frequency normalized (LFnu), high-frequency psd (HFpsd), high-frequency normalized (HFnu), low-frequency/ high-frequency ratio (LF/HF)], and non-linear dynamics of HRV [approximate entropy (ApEn)]...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279395/structural-and-molecular-basis-of-mismatch-correction-and-ribavirin-excision-from-coronavirus-rna
#17
François Ferron, Lorenzo Subissi, Ana Theresa Silveira De Morais, Nhung Thi Tuyet Le, Marion Sevajol, Laure Gluais, Etienne Decroly, Clemens Vonrhein, Gérard Bricogne, Bruno Canard, Isabelle Imbert
Coronaviruses (CoVs) stand out among RNA viruses because of their unusually large genomes (∼30 kb) associated with low mutation rates. CoVs code for nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme carrying RNA cap guanine N7-methyltransferase (MTase) and 3'-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN) activities. ExoN excises nucleotide mismatches at the RNA 3'-end in vitro, and its inactivation in vivo jeopardizes viral genetic stability. Here, we demonstrate for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV an RNA synthesis and proofreading pathway through association of nsp14 with the low-fidelity nsp12 viral RNA polymerase...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277294/structural-basis-of-enhanced-crystallizability-induced-by-a-molecular-chaperone-for-antibody-antigen-binding-fragments
#18
June Ereño-Orbea, Taylor Sicard, Hong Cui, Jacob Carson, Pim Hermans, Jean-Philippe Julien
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) constitute one of the largest groups of drugs to treat cancers and immune disorders, and are guiding the design of vaccines against infectious diseases. Fragments antigen-binding (Fabs) have been preferred over mAbs for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes due to their relatively low flexibility. Nonetheless, Fabs often remain challenging to crystallize because of the surface characteristics of complementary determining regions and the residual flexibility in the hinge region between the variable and constant domains...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259668/what-contributes-to-an-effective-mannose-recognition-domain
#19
REVIEW
Christoph P Sager, Deniz Eriş, Martin Smieško, Rachel Hevey, Beat Ernst
In general, carbohydrate-lectin interactions are characterized by high specificity but also low affinity. The main reason for the low affinities are desolvation costs, due to the numerous hydroxy groups present on the ligand, together with the typically polar surface of the binding sites. Nonetheless, nature has evolved strategies to overcome this hurdle, most prominently in relation to carbohydrate-lectin interactions of the innate immune system but also in bacterial adhesion, a process key for the bacterium's survival...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259188/reservoir-computing-using-dynamic-memristors-for-temporal-information-processing
#20
Chao Du, Fuxi Cai, Mohammed A Zidan, Wen Ma, Seung Hwan Lee, Wei D Lu
Reservoir computing systems utilize dynamic reservoirs having short-term memory to project features from the temporal inputs into a high-dimensional feature space. A readout function layer can then effectively analyze the projected features for tasks, such as classification and time-series analysis. The system can efficiently compute complex and temporal data with low-training cost, since only the readout function needs to be trained. Here we experimentally implement a reservoir computing system using a dynamic memristor array...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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