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Low complexity

Arthur Aronson
The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid...
March 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Lisa M Tuttle, Derek Pacheco, Linda Warfield, Jie Luo, Jeff Ranish, Steven Hahn, Rachel E Klevit
Transcription activation domains (ADs) are inherently disordered proteins that often target multiple coactivator complexes, but the specificity of these interactions is not understood. Efficient transcription activation by yeast Gcn4 requires its tandem ADs and four activator-binding domains (ABDs) on its target, the Mediator subunit Med15. Multiple ABDs are a common feature of coactivator complexes. We find that the large Gcn4-Med15 complex is heterogeneous and contains nearly all possible AD-ABD interactions...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Martin Köhler, Christoph Neff, Camilo Perez, Cyrill Brunner, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Gisbert Schneider, Kaspar P Locher, Renato Zenobi
The application of nanobodies as binding partners for structure stabilization in protein x-ray crystallography is taking an increasingly important role in structural biology. However, the addition of nanobodies to the crystallization matrices might complicate the optimization of the crystallization process, which is why analytical techniques to screen and characterize suitable nanobodies are useful. Here, we show how chemical cross-linking combined with high-mass matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry can be employed as a fast screening technique to determine binding specificities of intact nanobody•membrane protein complexes...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Julius A Edson, Dominique Ingato, Shirley Wu, Bianca Lee, Young Jik Kwon
Despite its promises for biomedical applications, the lack of solubility in a physiological solution, the limited molecular interactions with nucleic acids due to the rigid backbone, and the inefficient intracellular release limits the use of chitosan, a natural cationic polysaccharide, for gene delivery. In this study, a flexible, aqueous-soluble aminoethoxy branch was conjugated to the primary hydroxyl group of chitosan via an acid-cleavable ketal linkage, resulting in acid-transforming chitosan (ATC) with greatly increased aqueous solubility, improved siRNA complexation, and degradability in response to an acidic pH...
March 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Ingegerd Johansson, Anders Esberg, Linda Eriksson, Simon Haworth, Pernilla Lif Holgerson
Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination...
2018: PloS One
Wolfgang Buckel, Rudolf K Thauer
There are two types of electron bifurcation (EB), either quinone- or flavin-based (QBEB/FBEB), that involve reduction of a quinone or flavin by a two-electron transfer and two reoxidations by a high- and low-potential one-electron acceptor with a reactive semiquinone intermediate. In QBEB, the reduced low-potential acceptor (cytochrome b) is exclusively used to generate ΔμH+ . In FBEB, the "energy-rich" low-potential reduced ferredoxin or flavodoxin has dual function. It can give rise to ΔμH+ /Na+ via a ferredoxin:NAD reductase (Rnf) or ferredoxin:proton reductase (Ech) or conducts difficult reductions such as CO2 to CO...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Talisa E de Carlo, Gregg T Kokame, Kyle N Kaneko, Rebecca Lian, James C Lai, Raymond Wee
PURPOSE: Determine sensitivity and specificity of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) diagnosis with structural en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of eyes diagnosed with PCV by indocyanine green angiography with review of diagnostic testing with structural en face OCT and OCTA by a trained reader. Structural en face OCT, cross-sectional OCT angiograms alone, and OCTA in its entirety were reviewed blinded to the findings of indocyanine green angiography and each other to determine if they could demonstrate the PCV complex...
March 20, 2018: Retina
Caitlin S Brown, Wesley R Zemrak, Kaitlin J Dyer, Stephen Rolfe
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become an important advancement for patients with end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist devices come with the risk of stroke and pump thrombosis, and to mitigate these risks, anticoagulation is given to these patients. With anticoagulation comes increased bleeding risk, and urgent reversal may be necessary. Reports have shown that the risk of thrombosis with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) does exist, especially in patients with baseline risk factors for thrombosis...
March 20, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yimy Amarillo, Angela Isabel Tissone, German Mato, Marcela S Nadal
Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (< 4 Hz), which are the physiological oscillations during N-REM sleep, or pathological ones during idiopathic epilepsy. The pacemaker activity of TC neurons depends on the expression of several subthreshold conductances, which are modulated in a behaviorally dependent manner. Here we show that up-regulation of the small and neglected inward rectifier potassium current IKir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ming Zheng, Fang-Yuan Chen, Jia-Nan Tian, Qing-Jiang Pan
To provide deep insight into cation-cation interactions (CCIs) involving hexavalent actinyl species that are major components in spent nuclear fuel and pose important implications for the effective removal of radiotoxic pollutants in the environment, a series of homo- and heterobimetallic actinide complexes supported by cyclopentadienyl (Cp) and polypyrrolic macrocycle (H4 L) ligands were systematically investigated using relativistic density functional theory. The metal sort in both parts of (THF)(H2 L)(OAnVI O) and (An')III Cp3 from U to Np to Pu, as well as the substituent bonding to Cp from electron-donating Me to H to electron-withdrawing Cl, SiH3 , and SiMe3 , was changed...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Huifang Liu, Fei Zhao, Choong Eun Jin, Bonhan Koo, Eun Yeong Lee, Linlin Zhong, KyuSik Yun, Yong Shin
Nucleic acid-based diagnostics are widely used for clinical applications due to their powerful recognition of biomolecule properties. Isolation and purification of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA in the diagnostic system have been severely hampered in point-of-care testing because of low recovery yields, degradation of nucleic acids due to the use of chaotropic detergent and high temperature, and the requirement of large instruments such as centrifuges and thermal controllers. Here, we report a novel large instrument- and detergent-free assay via binary nanomaterial for ultrasensitive nucleic acid isolation and detection from cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic)...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
S Varchanis, Y Dimakopoulos, C Wagner, J Tsamopoulos
Blood plasma has been considered a Newtonian fluid for decades. Recent experiments (Brust et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013, 110) revealed that blood plasma has a pronounced viscoelastic behavior. This claim was based on purely elastic effects observed in the collapse of a thin plasma filament and the fast flow of plasma inside a contraction-expansion microchannel. However, due to the fact that plasma is a solution with very low viscosity, conventional rotational rheometers are not able to stretch the proteins effectively and thus, provide information about the viscoelastic properties of plasma...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Jing Sun, Wenhui Zhou, Haibo Yang, Xue Zhen, Longfei Ma, Dirk Williams, Xudong Sun, Ming-Fei Lang
The development of flexible and transparent devices requires completely transparent and flexible circuits (TFCs). To overcome the disadvantages of the previously reported TFCs that are partially transparent, lacking pattern control, or labor consuming, we achieve true TFCs via a facile process with precise pattern control, exhibiting concurrent high transparency, conductivity, flexibility, stretchability, and robustness. A highly transparent and flexible conductive film is first made through spin coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and demonstrates simultaneous high transparency (90...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ibrahim Y Ahmet, Michael S Hill, Paul R Raithby, Andrew L Johnson
A family of tin(ii) guanidinate complexes of the general form [{RNC(NMe2)NR}2Sn] (R = iPr (6), Cy (7), Tol (9) and Dipp (10)) and [{tBuNC(NMe2)NtBu}Sn{NMe2}] (8) have been synthesised and isolated from the reaction of tin(ii) bis-dimethylamide and a series of carbodiimides (1-5). The cyclic poly-chalcogenide compounds [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn{Chx}] (Ch = S, x = 4 (11); Ch = Se, x = 4 (12), and Ch = S, x = 6 (13)) with {SnChx} rings were prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental sulfur and selenium to the heteroleptic stannylene complex [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn] (7) in THF at room temperature...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jan Streuff, Daniel Himmel, Sara L Younas
The computational investigation of a titanium-catalysed reductive radical-radical coupling is reported. The results match the conclusions from an earlier experimental study and enable a further interpretation of the previously observed complex reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the interplay between neutral and cationic reaction pathways in titanium(iii)-catalysed reactions is investigated for the first time. The results show that hydrochloride additives and reaction byproducts play an important role in the respective equilibria...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, David P Johns, John A Burgess, Bruce R Thompson, Adrian J Lowe, James Markos, Stephen S Morrison, Christine F McDonald, Richard Wood-Baker, Cecilie Svanes, Paul S Thomas, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population. METHODS: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced...
March 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Olivier Pourret, David Houben
The ability of biochar to immobilize metals relies on the amount of functional groups at its surface but the contribution of each functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic) to metal bonding is poorly known. Using a new approach based on previous works on rare earth element (REE) interactions with humic substances, we aim at elucidating the relative contribution of these binding sites to metal sorption under various conditions (i.e. pH and ionic strengths, IS). Using batch experiments, REE sorption onto biochar was analyzed from pH 3 to 9 and IS 10-1 mol/L to 10-3 mol/L...
February 2018: Heliyon
M Breida, S Alami Younssi, A Bouazizi, B Achiou, M Ouammou, M El Rhazi
In the framework of understanding the transport mechanism that governs the filtration of NO3 - solution through a γ -Al2 O3 membrane with a nominal pore size of 5 nm at low ultrafiltration, a series of various types of nitrate solutions and operating conditions were investigated. The effect of filtration parameters such as pH, applied pressure and NO3 - concentration on the selectivity and permeability of the membrane were studied using binary solutions (KNO3 , NaNO3 , Ca(NO3 )2 and Mg(NO3 )2 ) and ternary solutions ((NaNO3 + KNO3 ), (NaNO3 + Ca(NO3 )2 ) and (Mg(NO3 )2 + Ca(NO3 )2 )...
January 2018: Heliyon
Jörn Grensemann
Routine use of cardiac output (CO) monitoring became available with the introduction of the pulmonary artery catheter into clinical practice. Since then, several systems have been developed that allow for a less-invasive CO monitoring. The so-called "non-calibrated pulse contour systems" (PCS) estimate CO based on pulse contour analysis of the arterial waveform, as determined by means of an arterial catheter without additional calibration. The transformation of the arterial waveform signal as a pressure measurement to a CO as a volume per time parameter requires a concise knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the arterial vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Paul P Jung, Zhi Zhang, Nicole Paczia, Christian Jaeger, Tomasz Ignac, Patrick May, Carole L Linster
Aging is a complex trait of broad scientific interest, especially because of its intrinsic link with common human diseases. Pioneering work on aging-related mechanisms has been made in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , mainly through the use of deletion collections isogenic to the S288c reference strain. In this study, using a recently published high-throughput approach, we quantified chronological life span (CLS) within a collection of 58 natural strains across seven different conditions. We observed a broad aging variability suggesting the implication of diverse genetic and environmental factors in chronological aging control...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
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