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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923142/cobalt-nanoparticles-nitrogen-doped-graphene-with-high-nitrogen-doping-efficiency-as-noble-metal-free-electrocatalysts-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#1
Jingwen Liang, Mehboob Hassan, Dongsheng Zhu, Liping Guo, Xiangjie Bo
Nitrogen-doped graphene (N/GR) has been considered as active metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the nitrogen (N) doping efficiency is very low and only few N atoms are doped into the framework of GR. To boost the N doping efficiency, in this work, a confined pyrolysis method with high N doping efficiency is used for the preparation of cobalt nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped GR (Co/N/GR). Under the protection of SiO2, the inorganic ligand NH3 in cobalt amine complex ([Co(NH3)6](3+)) is trapped in the confined space and then can be effectively doped into the framework of GR without the introduction of any carbon residues...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922895/a-systematized-strategy-in-corrective-rhinoplasty-for-the-asian-deviated-nose
#2
Yong-Ha Kim, Chang Young Jung, Kyu Jin Chung, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Gon Kim
BACKGROUND: A deviated nose is a common deformity encountered in rhinoplasty. Over the past several decades, a variety of rhinoplasty techniques have been described focusing on the classification of bony and cartilaginous deviation. Nevertheless, corrective rhinoplasty is still a challenging procedure even for experienced surgeons because of the high recurrence rate of deviation. In attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, the author systematized the complex procedures by using a single technique regardless of the classification of a deviation...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922856/health-profiles-and-associated-service-use-among-adults-with-hiv-and-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#3
Yona Lunsky, Anna Durbin, Hilary K Brown, Symron Bansal, Marina Heifetz, Tony Antoniou
OBJECTIVE (S): Due to the commonly held notion that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have low risk of HIV acquisition, we compared the prevalence of HIV infection among people with and without IDD. We also examined health status and health service use among the HIV-infected group. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using linked administrative health and social services databases. METHODS: We compared HIV prevalence between Ontario adults with IDD (n=64,008) and a 20% random sample of Ontario adults without IDD...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922845/continued-under-recognition-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-after-the-berlin-definition-what-is-the-solution
#4
John G Laffey, Tài Pham, Giacomo Bellani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Timely recognition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may allow for more prompt management and less exacerbation of lung injury. However, the absence of a diagnostic test for ARDS means that the diagnosis of ARDS requires clinician recognition in what is usually a complicated and evolving illness. We review data concerning the extent of recognition of ARDS in the era of the Berlin definition of ARDS. RECENT FINDINGS: ARDS continues to be under-recognized - even in the era of the more recent 'Berlin' definition, and significant delay in its recognition is common...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922828/a-new-method-of-estimation-of-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-aquatic-biota
#5
Yang Li, Jiangguo Li, Huijuan Wang, Aijun Wang
In order to develop the basis of an approach, through which we can comprehend the relationships of radiation exposures and dose, and dose and radiological effects, large numbers of dosimetric data are required. It is complex to estimate the dosimetry involved due to enormous variability of organism shapes, masses, and their natural habitats. This paper aims to develop an empirical equation, which correlates dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) with organism volume V, density ρ, source energy E and curve fitting coefficients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922722/topiramate-versus-carbamazepine-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#6
REVIEW
Sarah J Nolan, Maria Sudell, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy, the majority of which may be able to achieve remission with a single antiepileptic drug (AED).The correct choice of first-line antiepileptic therapy for individuals with newly diagnosed seizures is of great importance...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#7
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#8
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921384/a-robust-molecular-catalyst-generated-in-situ-for-photo-and-electrochemical-water-oxidation
#9
Hussein A Younus, Nazir Ahmad, Adeel H Chughtai, Matthias Vandichel, Michael Busch, Kristof Van Hecke, Mekhman Yusubov, Shaoxian Song, Francis Verpoort
Water splitting is the key step towards artificial photosystems for solar energy conversion and storage in the form of chemical bonding. The oxidation of water is the bottle-neck of this process that hampers its practical utility and hence efficient, robust, and also easy to make catalytic systems based on cheap and earth abundant materials are of exceptional importance. Here, we present an in-situ generated cobalt catalyst [Co(II)(TCA)2(H2O)2] (TCA = 1-Mesityl-1,2,3-1H-triazole-4-carboxylate) efficiently conducting photochemical water oxidation at near-neutral conditions...
December 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#10
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921198/-metabolic-surgery-or-conservative-measures-as-therapy-of-obese-type%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-diabetics
#11
REVIEW
Udo Jahn, Thomas Schubert, Sibylle Schlepp, Heinz Jürgen Deuber
After bariatric surgery there are some favourable effects on comorbidities of obesity as glucose and lipid metabolism besides weight loss. Therefore surgical measures targeting at improvement of such metabolic disorders especially diabetes type 2 has been called "metabolic surgery". The complexity of its underlying metabolic mechanisms is not yet clear, but restriction of energy and weight loss (maintenance) seem to be the cornerstones.Risks of these procedures which are drawn of the established methods of bariatric surgery are reported to be relatively low in qualified centers...
December 5, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920903/toward-clean-suspended-cvd-graphene
#12
Alexander Yulaev, Guangjun Cheng, Angela R Hight Walker, Ivan V Vlassiouk, Alline Myers, Marina S Leite, Andrei Kolmakov
The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using Pt catalyst and activated carbon...
2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920897/impact-of-biopolymer-matrices-on-relaxometric-properties-of-contrast-agents
#13
Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Maria Russo, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
Properties of water molecules at the interface between contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging and macromolecules could have a valuable impact on the effectiveness of metal chelates. Recent studies, indeed, demonstrated that polymer architectures could influence CAs' relaxivity by modifying the correlation times of the metal chelate. However, an understanding of the physico-chemical properties of polymer/CA systems is necessary to improve the efficiency of clinically used CAs, still exhibiting low relaxivity...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920891/working-principle-and-application-of-magnetic-separation-for-biomedical-diagnostic-at-high-and-low-field-gradients
#14
REVIEW
Sim Siong Leong, Swee Pin Yeap, JitKang Lim
Magnetic separation is a versatile technique used in sample preparation for diagnostic purpose. For such application, an external magnetic field is applied to drive the separation of target entity (e.g. bacteria, viruses, parasites and cancer cells) from a complex raw sample in order to ease the subsequent task(s) for disease diagnosis. This separation process not only can be achieved via the utilization of high magnetic field gradient, but also, in most cases, low magnetic field gradient with magnitude less than 100 T m(-1) is equally feasible...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920806/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-a-review-of-clinical-appearance-and-metabolic-pattern
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Beltrami, Gabriele Ristori, Guido Scoccianti, Angela Tamburini, Rodolfo Capanna
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an inherited genetic condition characterized by the presence of multiple exostoses (osteochondromas). MHE is a relatively rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly caused by loss of function mutations in two genes: exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2). These genes are linked to heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis, but the specific molecular mechanism leading to the disruption of the cartilage structure and the consequent exostoses formation is still not resolved. The aim of this paper is to encounter the main aspects of HME reviewing the literature, in order to improve clinical features and evolution, and the metabolic-pathogenetic mechanisms underlying...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920222/rethinking-the-measurement-of-adversity-moving-toward-second-generation-research-on-adverse-childhood-experiences
#16
Joshua P Mersky, Colleen E Janczewski, James Topitzes
Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has unified the study of interrelated risks and generated insights into the origins of disorder and disease. Ten indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction are widely accepted as ACEs, but further progress requires a more systematic approach to conceptualizing and measuring ACEs. Using data from a diverse, low-income sample of women who received home visiting services in Wisconsin (N = 1,241), this study assessed the prevalence of and interrelations among 10 conventional ACEs and 7 potential ACEs: family financial problems, food insecurity, homelessness, parental absence, parent/sibling death, bullying, and violent crime...
December 5, 2016: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920203/a-highly-active-isoform-of-lentivirus-restriction-factor-samhd1-in-mouse
#17
Nicolin Bloch, Sabine Gläsker, Poojitha Sitaram, Henning Hofmann, Caitlin N Shepard, Megan L Schultz, Baek Kim, Nathaniel R Landau
The triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in nondividing myeloid cells by depleting the dNTP pool, preventing reverse transcription. SAMHD1 is also reported to have ribonuclease activity that degrades the virus genomic RNA. Human SAMHD1 is regulated by phosphorylation of its carboxy-terminus at T592, which abrogates its antiviral function yet has only a small effect on its phosphohydrolase activity. In the mouse, SAMHD1 is expressed as two isoforms (ISF1 and ISF2) that differ at the carboxy-terminus due to alternative splicing of the last coding exon...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919931/low-mt-co1-in-monocytes-and-microvesicles-is-associated-with-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Katarzyna Bloch, Pieter Baatsen, Peter Sinnaeve, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase (COX) IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Impaired COX gene expression is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but whether it is directly related to the incidence of cardiovascular events is unknown. We investigated whether COX gene expression in monocytes is predictive for cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients. To avoid monocyte isolation from fresh blood, we then aimed to validate our findings in monocyte-derived microvesicles isolated from plasma...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919816/surface-rearrangement-of-adsorbed-egcg-mucin-complexes-on-hydrophilic-surfaces
#20
J McColl, R Horvath, G E Yakubov, J J Ramsden
The kinetic adsorption-desorption behaviour of porcine gastric mucin in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was investigated using high-resolution kinetic optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Comparison with dynamic light scattering results from EGCG-mucin mixtures indicates that discrete particles are formed whose size increases with increasing EGCG:mucin ratio. These particles are deduced to be the adsorbing entities, which fuse on the surface to form complex surface layers...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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