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Behavioral epigenetic, drug abuse.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863698/striatal-h3k27-acetylation-linked-to-glutamatergic-gene-dysregulation-in-human-heroin-abusers-holds-promise-as-therapeutic-target
#1
Gabor Egervari, Joseph Landry, James Callens, John F Fullard, Panos Roussos, Eva Keller, Yasmin L Hurd
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse and overdose reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, despite significant advances in animal and in vitro models, little knowledge has been directly accrued regarding the neurobiology of the opiate-addicted human brain. METHODS: We used postmortem human brain specimens from a homogeneous European Caucasian population of heroin users for transcriptional and epigenetic profiling, as well as direct assessment of chromatin accessibility in the striatum, a brain region central to reward and emotion...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786595/cocaine-mediated-downregulation-of-microglial-mir-124-expression-involves-promoter-dna-methylation
#2
Ming-Lei Guo, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ke Liao, Yeon Hee Kook, Fang Niu, Shannon E Callen, Shilpa Buch
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of reward-related behavior in cocaine self-administration rodents. Cocaine, one of most commonly abused drugs, has been shown to activate microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine-mediated microglial activation remain poorly understood. microRNAs (miRs), belonging to a class of small noncoding RNA superfamily have been shown to modulate the activation status of microglia. miR-124, one of the microglia-enriched miRs, functions as an anti-inflammatory regulator that maintains microglia in a quiescent state...
October 27, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780992/epigenetic-modifications-alcoholic-brain-and-potential-drug-targets
#3
REVIEW
Ashok Jangra, Chandra Shaker Sriram, Suryanarayan Pandey, Priyansha Choubey, Prabha Rajput, Babita Saroha, Babul Kumar Bezbaruah, Mangala Lahkar
Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype...
October 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312406/interactions-between-early-life-stress-nucleus-accumbens-mecp2-expression-and-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-male-rats
#4
Candace R Lewis, Ryan M Bastle, Tawny B Manning, Sarah M Himes, Paulette Fennig, Phoebe R Conrad, Jenna Colwell, Broc A Pagni, Lyndsay A Hess, Caitlin G Matekel, Jason M Newbern, M Foster Olive
Early life stress (ELS) is highly related to the development of psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, including substance use disorders. A recent body of literature suggests that long-lasting changes in the epigenome may be a mechanism by which experiences early in life can alter neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. In this study, we replicate our previous findings that ELS, in the form of prolonged maternal separation, increases adult methamphetamine self-administration (SA) in male rats as compared with handled controls...
November 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306674/morphine-induced-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-vta-is-reversed-by-hdac-inhibition
#5
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Haifa Kassis, Shawn Gouty, Matthieu Dacher, Ryan D Shepard, Brian M Cox, Fereshteh S Nugent
Dopamine (DA) dysfunction originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) occurs as a result of synaptic abnormalities following consumption of drugs of abuse and underlies behavioral plasticity associated with drug abuse. Drugs of abuse can cause changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms in the brain that underlie some of the lasting neuroplasticity and behavior associated with addiction. Here we investigated the function of histone acetylation and histone deacetylase (HDAC)2 in the VTA in recovery of morphine-induced synaptic modifications following a single in vivo exposure to morphine...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303265/micrornas-modulate-interactions-between-stress-and-risk-for-cocaine-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Menahem B Doura, Ellen M Unterwald
Exposure to stress increases vulnerability to drug abuse, as well as relapse liability in addicted individuals. Chronic drug use alters stress response in a manner that increases drug seeking behaviors and relapse. Drug exposure and withdrawal have been shown to alter stress responses, and corticosteroid mediators of stress have been shown to impact addiction-related brain function and drug-seeking behavior. Despite the documented interplay between stress and substance abuse, the mechanisms by which stress exposure and drug seeking interact remain largely unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194425/childhood-maltreatment-in-the-migraine-patient
#7
REVIEW
Gretchen E Tietjen, Dawn C Buse, Stuart A Collins
Maltreatment during childhood increases vulnerability to a host of health disorders, including migraine. Putative mechanisms linking maltreatment and migraine include stress-induced dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as well as disruption of other stress-mediating homeostatic systems, including those involving endocannabinoids, monoamine neurotransmitters, oxytocin, and inflammation. Prolonged elevation of glucocorticoids alters the neural architecture of the limbic system, resulting in the structural as well as functional changes described in both maltreatment and in migraine...
July 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835513/addiction-treatment-in-america-after-money-or-aftercare
#8
David Miller, Merlene Miller, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo
There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call "Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)". While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use "aftercare" to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822362/emerging-targets-for-addiction-neuropharmacology-from-mechanisms-to-therapeutics
#9
Massimo Ubaldi, Nazzareno Cannella, Roberto Ciccocioppo
Drug abuse represents a considerable burden of disease and has enormous economic impacts on societies. Over the years, few medications have been developed for clinical use. Their utilization is endowed with several limitations, including partial efficacy or significant side effects. On the other hand, the successful advancement of these compounds provides an important proof of concept for the feasibility of drug development programs in addiction. In recent years, a wealth of information has been generated on the psychological mechanisms, genetic or epigenetic predisposing factors, and neurobiological adaptations induced by drug consumption that interact with each other to contribute to disease progression...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26623203/hypersexuality-addiction-and-withdrawal-phenomenology-neurogenetics-and-epigenetics
#10
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
Hypersexuality has been defined as abnormally increased sexual activity. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that this non-paraphilic condition consists of "excessive" sexual behaviors and disorders accompanied by personal distress and social and medical morbidity. It is a very controversial and political topic in terms of how best to categorize it as similar or not similar to addictive behaviors including substance abuse. Hypersexual disorder is conceptualized as a non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with impulsivity...
2015: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26251766/hypersexuality-addiction-and-withdrawal-phenomenology-neurogenetics-and-epigenetics
#11
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
Hypersexuality is now part of the DSM-V and has been defined as abnormally increased sexual activity. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that this non-paraphilic condition consists of "excessive" sexual behaviors and disorders accompanied by personal distress and social and medical morbidity. Hypersexual disorder is conceptualized as primarily a non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with impulsivity. Pathophysiological perspectives include dysregulation of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction, and sexual compulsivity...
July 2015: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26092039/the-quinoline-compound-s4-effectively-antagonizes-alcohol-intake-in-mice-possible-association-with-the-histone-h3-modifications
#12
Tuhin Suvro Banerjee, Abhijit Hazra, Nirup Bikash Mondal, Sumantra Das
Opioidergic system plays an important role in controlling alcohol seeking behavior. We have previously shown that a quinoline compound, S4 (2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino)-N-phenyl acetamide), having dual affinity for µ- and κ-opioid receptors, could successfully inhibit withdrawal symptoms in mice rendered dependent on morphine. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to determine the potential of S4 in attenuating voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring (AP) mice and the mechanism thereof. The study was conducted in different mice strains initially screened for AP and alcohol-avoiding (AA) behavior...
August 2015: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26070754/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-psychostimulant-induced-addiction
#13
REVIEW
Anti Kalda, Alexander Zharkovsky
Psychostimulant-induced addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse in vulnerable individuals. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting alterations in gene expression, particularly within the brain's reward regions, may contribute significantly to the addiction phenotype. An increasing number of works over the past decade have demonstrated the important role of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse (including psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine) in animal models of drug addiction...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26063926/methyl-supplementation-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-behaviors-and-cocaine-induced-c-fos-activation-in-a-dna-methylation-dependent-manner
#14
Katherine N Wright, Fiona Hollis, Florian Duclot, Amanda M Dossat, Caroline E Strong, T Chase Francis, Roger Mercer, Jian Feng, David M Dietz, Mary Kay Lobo, Eric J Nestler, Mohamed Kabbaj
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, regulate responsiveness to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, but relatively little is known about the regulation of addictive-like behaviors by DNA methylation. To investigate the influence of DNA methylation on the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and on drug-seeking behavior, rats receiving methyl supplementation via chronic l-methionine (MET) underwent either a sensitization regimen of intermittent cocaine injections or intravenous self-administration of cocaine, followed by cue-induced and drug-primed reinstatement...
June 10, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26044905/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-reveals-epigenetic-changes-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-associated-with-cross-generational-effects-of-adolescent-thc-exposure
#15
Corey T Watson, Henrietta Szutorisz, Paras Garg, Qammarah Martin, Joseph A Landry, Andrew J Sharp, Yasmin L Hurd
Drug exposure during critical periods of development is known to have lasting effects, increasing one's risk for developing mental health disorders. Emerging evidence has also indicated the possibility for drug exposure to even impact subsequent generations. Our previous work demonstrated that adolescent exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), in a Long-Evans rat model affects reward-related behavior and gene regulation in the subsequent (F1) generation unexposed to the drug...
December 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26018031/nicotine-and-the-adolescent-brain
#16
REVIEW
Menglu Yuan, Sarah J Cross, Sandra E Loughlin, Frances M Leslie
Adolescence encompasses a sensitive developmental period of enhanced clinical vulnerability to nicotine, tobacco, and e-cigarettes. While there are sociocultural influences, data at preclinical and clinical levels indicate that this adolescent sensitivity has strong neurobiological underpinnings. Although definitions of adolescence vary, the hallmark of this period is a profound reorganization of brain regions necessary for mature cognitive and executive function, working memory, reward processing, emotional regulation, and motivated behavior...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25993323/recent-developments-in-epigenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Marpadga A Reddy, Rama Natarajan
The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases...
August 2015: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25974314/neurogenetics-and-gene-therapy-for-reward-deficiency-syndrome-are-we-going-to-the-promised-land
#18
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Peter K Thanos, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo, Marlene Oscar-Berman, James Fratantonio, Zsolt Demotrovics, Mark S Gold
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a substantial health issue with limited treatment options approved by the FDA and as such currently available. The advent of neuroimaging techniques that link neurochemical and neurogenetic mechanisms to the reward circuitry brain function provides a framework for potential genomic-based therapies. AREAS COVERED: Through candidate and genome-wide association studies approaches, many gene polymorphisms and clusters have been implicated in drug, food and behavioral dependence linked by the common rubric reward deficiency syndrome (RDS)...
July 2015: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25958763/-epigenetics-and-drug-addiction-a-focus-on-mecp2-and-on-histone-acetylation
#19
REVIEW
Jean Zwiller
Chronic drug exposure alters gene expression in the brain, which is believed to underlie compulsive drug seeking and drug taking behavior. Recent evidence shows that drug-induced long-term neuroadaptations in the brain are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. By remodeling chromatin, this type of regulation contributes to drug-induced synaptic plasticity that translates into behavioral modifications. How drug-induced alterations in DNA methylation regulate gene expression is reviewed here, with a focus on MeCP2, a protein binding methylated DNA...
April 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25919973/neurogenetic-and-epigenetic-correlates-of-adolescent-predisposition-to-and-risk-for-addictive-behaviors-as-a-function-of-prefrontal-cortex-dysregulation
#20
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, David E Smith, A Kenison Roy, Zsolt Demetrovics, Frans J Cronjé, John Femino, Gozde Agan, James L Fratantonio, Subhash C Pandey, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population...
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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