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Lipid accumulation product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230173/a-novel-physiological-role-for-cardiac-myoglobin-in-lipid-metabolism
#1
Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Sonja Esfeld, Cristina Coman, Robert Ahrends, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Ulrich Flögel, Tienush Rassaf, Matthias Totzeck
Continuous contractile activity of the heart is essential and the required energy is mostly provided by fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Myocardial lipid accumulation can lead to pathological responses, however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The role of myoglobin in dioxygen binding in cardiomyocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle has widely been appreciated. Our recent work established myoglobin as a protector of cardiac function in hypoxia and disease states. We here unravel a novel role of cardiac myoglobin in governing FA metabolism to ensure the physiological energy production through β-oxidation, preventing myocardial lipid accumulation and preserving cardiac functions...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229255/nordic-walking-training-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-in-association-with-a-drop-in-body-iron-stores-in-elderly-women
#2
Jakub Kortas, Agnieszka Kuchta, Krzysztof Prusik, Katarzyna Prusik, Ewa Ziemann, Sandra Labudda, Agnieszka Ćwiklińska, Ewa Wieczorek, Maciej Jankowski, Jedrzej Antosiewicz
Excess body iron accumulation and oxidative stress has been associated with ageing. Regular exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and induce some changes in iron metabolism. However, the effects of exercise on both of these parameters have been poorly investigated. In our study, 35 elderly women participated in 12 weeks of Nordic walking (NW) training (three times a week). We demonstrated that the training caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde advanced oxidation protein products-markers of oxidative stress but had no effects on paraoxonase 1 activity...
February 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228470/a-conditional-mutant-of-the-fatty-acid-synthase-unveils-unexpected-cross-talks-in-mycobacterial-lipid-metabolism
#3
Matías Cabruja, Sonia Mondino, Yi Ting Tsai, Julia Lara, Hugo Gramajo, Gabriela Gago
Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222675/identification-and-characterization-of-an-efficient-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-dgat1-gene-from-the-microalga-chlorella-ellipsoidea
#4
Xuejie Guo, Chengming Fan, Yuhong Chen, Jingqiao Wang, Weibo Yin, Richard R C Wang, Zanmin Hu
BACKGROUND: Oil in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) is quantitatively the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme for TAG accumulation. Chlorella, a unicellular eukaryotic green alga, has attracted much attention as a potential feedstock for renewable energy production. However, the function of DGAT1 in Chlorella has not been reported. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, EC 2...
February 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222349/aldo-keto-reductase-1-akr1-protect-cellular-enzymes-from-salt-stress-by-detoxifying-reactive-cytotoxic-compounds
#5
Ramu S Vemanna, K C Babitha, Jayant K Solanki, V Amarnatha Reddy, S K Sarangi, M Udayakumar
Cytotoxic compounds like reactive carbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG), melandialdehyde (MDA), besides the ROS accumulate significantly at higher levels under salinity stress conditions and affect lipids and proteins that inhibit plant growth and productivity. The detoxification of these cytotoxic compounds by overexpression of NADPH-dependent Aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme enhances the salinity stress tolerance in tobacco. The PsAKR1 overexpression plants showed higher survival and chlorophyll content and reduced MDA, H2O2, and MG levels under NaCl stress...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220353/exploitation-of-genus-rhodosporidium-for-microbial-lipid-production
#6
REVIEW
Jingyang Xu, Dehua Liu
Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218992/differently-localized-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferases-crucial-for-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-in-the-oleaginous-alga-nannochloropsis
#7
Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Production of renewable bioenergy will be necessary to meet rising global fossil fuel demands. Members of the marine microalgae genus Nannochloropsis produce large amounts of oils (triacylglycerols; TAGs), and this genus is regarded as one of the most promising for biodiesel production. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis have provided a foundation for understanding its oleaginous trait, but the mechanism underlying oil accumulation remains to be clarified. Here we report Nannochloropsis knockout strains of four extraplastidic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT1-4), which catalyze a major de novo biosynthetic step of TAGs and membrane lipids...
February 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217743/regulation-of-nitrogen-metabolism-by-gata-zinc-finger-transcription-factors-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#8
Kyle R Pomraning, Erin L Bredeweg, Scott E Baker
Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism in Y...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214444/the-boosted-biomass-and-lipid-accumulation-in-chlorella-vulgaris-by-supplementation-of-synthetic-phytohormone-analogs
#9
Tingting Liu, Fei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
This study attempted at maximizing biomass and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris by supplementation of natural abscisic acid (ABA) or synthetic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) hormone analogs. Amongst three tested additives, NAA-treatment performed remarkable promoting effect on cell growth and lipid biosynthesis. The favorable lipid productivity (418.6mg/L/d) of NAA-treated cells showed 1.48 and 2.24 times more than that of 2,4-D and ABA. NAA-treatment also positively modified the proportions of saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and monounsaturated fatty acids (C18:1) which were prone to high-quality biofuels-making...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214337/palmitate-induces-mitochondrial-superoxide-generation-and-activates-ampk-in-podocytes
#10
Eugene Lee, Jin Choi, Hyun Soon Lee
Studies have shown that high levels of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. Palmitic acid (PA) is the predominant circulating saturated FFA, yet its role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not clear. Recently, one study suggested that mitochondrial superoxide production is related to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in diabetic mice kidneys. To elucidate the link between PA and oxidative stress and AMPK activity in DN, we compared the cultured murine podocytes exposed to PA and oleic acid (OA)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213136/systematic-development-of-a-two-stage-fed-batch-process-for-lipid-accumulation-in-rhodotorula-glutinis
#11
Eric Lorenz, Dennis Runge, Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Maximilian Schmacht, Ulf Stahl, Martin Senz
The application of oleaginous yeast cells as feed supplement, for instance in aqua culture, can be a meaningful alternative for fish meal and oil additives. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch process split into growth and lipogenesis phase was systematically developed to enrich the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Rh-00301 with high amounts of lipids at industrial relevant biomasses. Thereby, the different carbon sources glucose, sucrose and glycerol were investigated concerning their abilities to serve as a suited raw material for growth and/or lipid accumulation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213091/convergence-of-hepcidin-deficiency-systemic-iron-overloading-heme-accumulation-and-rev-erb%C3%AE-%C3%AE-activation-in-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-elicited-hepatotoxicity
#12
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Mathew P Kirby, Gena Markous, Jason Matthews, Timothy R Zacharewski
Persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists elicit dose-dependent hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice. Iron (Fe) promotes AhR-mediated oxidative stress by catalyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further characterize the role of Fe in AhR-mediated hepatotoxicity, male C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 0.01-30μg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) every 4days for 28days. Duodenal epithelial and hepatic RNA-Seq data were integrated with hepatic AhR ChIP-Seq, capillary electrophoresis protein measurements, and clinical chemistry analyses...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209485/effects-of-clozapine-on-adipokine-secretions-productions-and-lipid-droplets-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#13
Tomomi Tsubai, Akira Yoshimi, Yoji Hamada, Makoto Nakao, Hiroshi Arima, Yutaka Oiso, Yukihiro Noda
Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205069/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thp-1-macrophages-exposed-to-lipoprotein-hydrolysis-products-generated-by-lipoprotein-lipase
#14
Narmadaa Thyagarajan, Jenika D Marshall, Arthur T Pickett, Clemens Schumacher, Yanbo Yang, Sherri L Christian, Robert J Brown
Macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) induces lipid accumulation and promotes atherosclerosis. However, the effects of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on macrophage-derived foam cell formation are not clearly understood. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptomic response to hydrolysis products via microarray analyses on RNA isolated from human THP-1 macrophages incubated with total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. The expression of 183 transcripts was significantly upregulated and 133 transcripts were significantly downregulated...
February 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201826/adiposity-indexes-as-phenotype-specific-markers-of-preclinical-metabolic-alterations-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Fernanda Missio Mario, Scheila Karen Graff, Poli Mara Spritzer
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women of reproductive age. 2 PCOS phenotypes (classic and ovulatory) are currently recognized as the most prevalent, with important differences in terms of cardiometabolic features. We studied the performance of different adiposity indexes to predict preclinical metabolic alterations and cardiovascular risk in 234 women with PCOS (173 with classic and 61 with ovulatory PCOS) and 129 controls. Performance of waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, conicity index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index was assessed based on HOMA-IR ≥ 3...
February 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197827/phloretin-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-improves-metabolic-homeostasis
#16
Sary Alsanea, Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet...
February 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194424/a-mathematical-model-of-neutral-lipid-content-in-terms-of-initial-nitrogen-concentration-and-validation-in-coelastrum-sp-ha-1-and-application-in-chlorella-sorokiniana
#17
Zhenhua Yang, Yue Zhao, Zhiyong Liu, Chenfeng Liu, Zhipeng Hu, Yuyong Hou
Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194177/fatty-liver-index-and-lipid-accumulation-product-can-predict-metabolic-syndrome-in-subjects-without-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Yuan-Lung Cheng, Yuan-Jen Wang, Keng-Hsin Lan, Teh-Ia Huo, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chien-Wei Su, Wei-Yao Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin, Fa-Yauh Lee, Jaw-Ching Wu, Shou-Dong Lee
Background. Fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189121/myriocin-treatment-affects-lipid-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats-with-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetes
#19
Krzysztof Kurek, Marta Garbowska, Dominika M Ziembicka, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Jakub Rogowski, Adrian Chabowski, Jan Górski, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to assess the effect(s) of de novo ceramide synthesis inhibition on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of type 1 diabetic rats. The latter seems to be of vital importance, since previous works have shown its positive influence on lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the case of its counterpart - type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS/METHODS: The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: C - control, M - myriocin (ceramide de novo synthesis inhibitor), D - diabetes (induced by streptozotocin injections); D+M - diabetes+myriocin...
May 9, 2016: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188274/spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-key-lipid-species-in-brassica-napus-seeds
#20
Helen K Woodfield, Drew Sturtevant, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Eberhard Munz, Irina A Guschina, Kent D Chapman, John L Harwood
The regulation of lipid synthesis in oil seeds is still not fully understood. Oilseed rape is the third most productive vegetable oil crop on the global market. Therefore, increasing our understanding of lipid accumulation in oilseed rape seeds is of great economic, as well as intellectual, importance. Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation - mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that allows the mapping of metabolites directly onto intact biological tissues, giving a spatial context to metabolism...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
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