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Lipid accumulation product

Deepika Garg, Zaher Merhi
BACKGROUND: Women with PCOS have elevated levels of the harmful Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), which are highly reactive molecules formed after glycation of lipids and proteins. Additionally, AGEs accumulate in the ovaries of women with PCOS potentially contributing to the well-documented abnormal steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. MAIN BODY: A systematic review of articles and abstracts available in PubMed was conducted and presented in a systemic manner...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Daniel Jaeger, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Elina Oberländer, Robin Wördenweber, Julian Wichmann, Jan H Mussgnug, Thomas Huser, Olaf Kruse
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this study, both techniques were applied to the oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium neglectum, a biotechnologically promising microalga resistant to commonly applied lipid staining techniques...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Eva E Rufino-Palomares, Nieves Fernández-Gallego, M Carmen Ortuño-Costela, Fernando J Reyes-Zurita, Juan Peragón, Leticia García-Salguero, Khalida Mokhtari, Pedro P Medina, José A Lupiáñez
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a set of pathologies among which stand out the obesity, which is related to the lipid droplet accumulation and changes to cellular morphology regulated by several molecules and transcription factors. Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural product with demonstrated pharmacological functions including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-oxidation, among others. PURPOSE: Here we report the effects of MA on the adipogenesis process in 3T3-L1 cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Daniel Zysset, Benjamin Weber, Silvia Rihs, Jennifer Brasseit, Stefan Freigang, Carsten Riether, Yara Banz, Adelheid Cerwenka, Cedric Simillion, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Adrian F Ochsenbein, Leslie Saurer, Christoph Mueller
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses, but its significance in non-infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TREM-1 promotes cardiovascular disease by exacerbating atherosclerosis. TREM-1 is expressed in advanced human atheromas and is highly upregulated under dyslipidemic conditions on circulating and on lesion-infiltrating myeloid cells in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. TREM-1 strongly contributes to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced monocytosis and synergizes with HFCD serum-derived factors to promote pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and foam cell formation of human monocyte/macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Steven Zhao, AnnMarie Torres, Ryan A Henry, Sophie Trefely, Martina Wallace, Joyce V Lee, Alessandro Carrer, Arjun Sengupta, Sydney L Campbell, Yin-Ming Kuo, Alexander J Frey, Noah Meurs, John M Viola, Ian A Blair, Aalim M Weljie, Christian M Metallo, Nathaniel W Snyder, Andrew J Andrews, Kathryn E Wellen
Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here, we show that, upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and histone acetylation...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Mariana Certal, Adriana Vinhas, Aurora Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria Adelina Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Nucleotides released during heart injury affect myocardium electrophysiology and remodelling through P2 purinoceptors activation in cardiac myofibroblasts. ATP and UTP endorse [Ca(2) +]i accumulation and growth of DDR-2/a-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts from adult rat ventricles via P2Y4 and P2Y2 receptors activation, respectively. Ventricular myofibroblasts also express ADP-sensitive P2Yi, P2Yi2 and P2Yi3 receptors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and western blot analysis, but little information exists on ADP effects in these cells...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tao Zheng, Xincai Hao, Qibin Wang, Li Chen, Si Jin, Fang Bian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Albert R Jones Iv, Tova Meshulam, Marcus F Oliveira, Nathan Burritt, Barbara E Corkey
BACKGROUND: Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes. METHODS: Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1...
2016: PloS One
Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Emilia Vendelova, Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Karina Rodrigues Lorenzatto, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Thomas Mueller, Jyotishman Veepaschit, Clemens Grimm, Klaus Brehm, Gabriela Hrčková, Manfred B Lutz, Henrique B Ferreira, Justin Komguep Nono
Accumulating evidences have assigned a central role to parasite-derived proteins in immunomodulation. Here, we report on the proteomic identification and characterization of immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products from the metacestode larva (tetrathyridium) of the tapeworm Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae). We demonstrate that ES products but not larval homogenates inhibit the stimuli-driven release of the pro-inflammatory, Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Luca Zuliani, Nicola Frison, Aleksandra Jelic, Francesco Fatone, David Bolzonella, Matteo Ballottari
Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO₂, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lina Yao, Hui Shen, Nan Wang, Jaspaul Tatlay, Liang Li, Tin Wee Tan, Yuan Kun Lee
Microalgal neutral lipids (mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs)), feasible substrates for biofuel, are typically accumulated during the stationary growth phase. To make microalgal biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels, generating strains that trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase is a promising biological approach. The regulatory mechanisms to trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase (TAEP) are important to be uncovered for advancing economic feasibility...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Concha Domingo, Eric Lalanne, María M Catalá, Eva Pla, Juan L Reig-Valiente, Manuel Talón
Salinity is a complex trait that affects growth and productivity in many crops, including rice. Mutation induction, a useful tool to generate salt tolerant plants, enables the analysis of plants with similar genetic background, facilitating the understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work, we generated three salt tolerant mutant lines by irradiation of a salt-sensitive cultivar plants and screened M2 plants at seedling stage in the presence of high salinity. These three lines, SaT20, SaS62, and SaT58, showed different responses to salinity, but exhibited similar phenotype to wild type plants, except SaT20 that displayed shorter height when grown in the absence of salt...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arnab Kumar De, Narottam Dey, Malay Kumar Adak
In the present experiment a pteridophytic species Azolla and an angiospermic species Vernonia were evaluated on the basis of cellular reactivity for herbicidal action through ongoing concentrations. Initially, both the species recorded a significant activity of IAA-oxidase as mark of IAA metabolism with herbicidal sensitivity. Still, Vernonia species were more affected on 2,4-D mediated auxin catabolism. The loss of auxin concentrations on the tissues by 2,4-D reaction was also reflected on growth parameters including relative growth rate and chlorophyll biosynthesis...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Yueshui Zhao, Xue Gu, Ningyan Zhang, Mikhail G Kolonin, Zhiqiang An, Kai Sun
Endotrophin is a cleavage product of collagen 6 (Col6) in adipose tissue (AT). Previously, we demonstrated that endotrophin serves as a costimulator to trigger fibrosis and inflammation within the unhealthy AT milieu. However, how endotrophin affects lipid storage and breakdown in AT and how different cell types in AT respond to endotrophin stimulation remain unknown. In the current study, by using a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible mouse model, we observed significant upregulation of adipogenic genes in the WAT of endotrophin Tg mice...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pavlo Bohutskyi, Steven Chow, Ben Ketter, Coral Fung Shek, Dean Yacar, Yuting Tang, Mark Zivojnovich, Michael J Betenbaugh, Edward J Bouwer
An integrated system was implemented for water phytoremediation and biofuel production through sequential cultivation of filamentous algae followed by cultivation of lipid-producing microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Natural poly-culture of filamentous algae was grown in agricultural stormwater using the Algal Turf Scrubber®, harvested and subjected for lipid extraction and/or methane production using anaerobic digestion (AD). While filamentous algae lipid content was too low for feasible biodiesel production (<2%), both whole biomass and lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA) yielded ∼0...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
L D Zhu, Z H Li, E Hiltunen
In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae...
2016: BioMed Research International
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