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Lipid accumulation product

Liqun Jiang, Lijie Zhang, Changliang Nie, Haiyan Pei
Background: An economical strategy for producing microalgae as biofuel feedstock is driven by the freshwater and nutrients input. In this study, seawater was applied to limnetic algal cultivation and the behavior of algae in seawater media was observed including growth, lipid synthesis, and ultrastructure. To make seawater cater algae, a kind of wastewater, anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW), was used as nutrient sources. Results: Pure seawater cannot support the growth demand of freshwater microalga, due to high salinity and lack of nutrients...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiao-Man Sun, Lu-Jing Ren, Zhi-Qian Bi, Xiao-Jun Ji, Quan-Yu Zhao, Ling Jiang, He Huang
Background: Schizochytrium sp. is a marine microalga with great potential as a promising sustainable source of lipids rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This organism's lipid accumulation machinery can be induced by various stress conditions, but this stress induction usually comes at the expense of lower biomass in industrial fermentations. Moreover, oxidative damage induced by various environmental stresses can result in the peroxidation of lipids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, which causes unstable DHA production, but is often ignored in fermentation processes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Pranjul Mishra, Na-Rae Lee, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Minsuk Kim, Byung-Gee Kim, Dong-Yup Lee
BACKGROUND: Recently, there have been several attempts to produce long-chain dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in various microbial hosts. Of these, Yarrowia lipolytica has great potential due to its oleaginous characteristics and unique ability to utilize hydrophobic substrates. However, Y. lipolytica should be further engineered to make it more competitive: the current approaches are mostly intuitive and cumbersome, thus limiting its industrial application. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed model-guided metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of DCAs in Y...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Chien-Liang Fang, Yiwei Wang, Kevin H-Y Tsai, Hsin-I Chang
The dermis of human skin contains large numbers of fibroblasts that are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supporting skin integrity, elasticity and wound healing. Previously, an in vivo study demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts siting in the lower dermis are capable to convert into skin adipose layer and hence fibroblast lipogenesis may vary the structure and elasticity of dermis. In the present study, Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts were utilized as an in vitro model to study the lipogenesis via using adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Yoonha Kim, Bong-Gyu Mun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Hyun-Ho Kim, Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Imran, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the regulatory role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in rice and its effects on toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during short-term salinity stress. SA application (0.5 and 1.0 mM) during salinity-induced stress (100 mM NaCl) resulted in significantly longer shoot length and higher chlorophyll and biomass accumulation than with salinity stress alone. NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species production led to increased levels of lipid peroxidation in rice plants, which were significantly reduced following SA application...
2018: PloS One
Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Rena Ohya, Keiji Kondo, Yasuhisa Ano
Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liping Huang, Surapun Tepaamorndech, Catherine P Kirschke, John W Newman, William R Keyes, Theresa L Pedersen, Jureeporn Dumnil
ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. Znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male Znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to non-adipose tissues causes insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ye Sol Shin, Hong Il Choi, Jin Won Choi, Jeong Seop Lee, Young Joon Sung, Sang Jun Sim
Microalgae have been rising as a feedstock for biofuel in response to the energy crisis. Due to a high lipid content, composed of fatty acids favorable for the biodiesel production, microalgae are still being investigated as an alternative to biodiesel. Environmental factors and process conditions can alternate the quality and the quantity of lipid produced by microalgae, which can be critical for the overall production of biodiesel. To maximize both the lipid content and the biomass productivity, it is necessary to start with robust algal strains and optimal physio-chemical properties of the culture environment in combination with a novel culture system...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Somang Lee-Thacker, Yohan Choi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Takeshi Takarada, Yukio Yoneda, CheMyong Ko, Misung Jo
Core Binding Factor beta (CBFβ) is a non-DNA binding partner of all RUNX proteins and critical for transcription activity of CBF transcription factors (RUNXs/CBFβ). In the ovary, the expression of Runx1 and Runx2 is highly induced by the LH surge in ovulatory follicles, while Cbfb is constitutively expressed. To investigate the physiological significance of CBFs in the ovary, the present study generated two different conditional mutant mouse models in which granulosa cell expression of Cbfb and Runx2 was reduced by Cre recombinase driven by an Esr2 promoter...
March 15, 2018: Endocrinology
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Elizabeth A Mauldin, Debra Crumrine, Margret L Casal, Sekyoo Jeong, Lukáš Opálka, Katerina Vavrova, Yoshikazu Uchida, Kyungho Park, Brittany Craiglow, Keith A Choate, Kyong-Oh Shin, Yong-Moon Lee, Gary L Grove, Joan S Wakefield, Denis Khnykin, Peter M Elias
Mutations in several lipid synthetic enzymes that block fatty acid and ceramide production produce autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) and associated abnormalities in permeability barrier homeostasis. Yet, the basis for the phenotype in patients with NIPAL4 (ichthyin) mutations (among the most prevalent ARCI) remains unknown. Barrier function was abnormal in an index patient and in canines with homozygous NIPAL4 mutations, attributable to extensive membrane stripping, likely from detergent effects of nonesterified free FFA...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
María Huete-Ortega, Katarzyna Okurowska, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Matthew P Johnson, D James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Background: Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marilena Lepretti, Stefania Martucciello, Mario Alberto Burgos Aceves, Rosalba Putti, Lillà Lionetti
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been suggested to play a key role in insulin resistance development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid accumulation due to mitochondrial dysfunction seemed to be important mechanisms leading to cellular insulin resistance. Moreover, mitochondria are functionally and structurally linked to ER, which undergoes stress in conditions of chronic overnutrition, activating the unfolded protein response, which in turn activates the principal inflammatory pathways that impair insulin action...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
Yongteng Zhao, Dafei Li, Jun-Wei Xu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Huixian Ma, Xuya Yu
In this study, melatonin (MT) promoted lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 under nitrogen deficiency conditions. The lipid accumulation increased 1.22- and 1.36-fold compared with a nitrogen-starved medium and a normal BG-11 medium, respectively. The maximum lipid content was 51.38%. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the presence of melatonin was lower than that in the control group, likely because of the high antioxidant activities. The application of melatonin upregulated the gibberellin acid (GA) production and rbcL and accD expression levels but downregulated the abscisic acid (ABA) content and pepc expression levels...
March 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Melissa Conte, Josselin Lupette, Khawla Seddiki, Coline Meï, Lina J Dolch, Valerie Gros, Caroline Barette, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for the production of triacylglycerol (TAG) for a variety of potential applications, ranging from food and human health to biofuels and green chemistry. However, obtaining high TAG yields is challenging. A phenotypic assay for accumulation of oil droplets was developed to screen a library of 1,200 drugs, annotated with pharmacology information, to select compounds that trigger TAG accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum. Using this screen, we identified 34 molecules acting in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kieran N Kilcawley, Hope Faulkner, Holly J Clarke, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products...
March 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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