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Lipid accumulation product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734036/-epicatechin-regulates-blood-lipids-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-%C3%A2
#1
Hui Cheng, Na Xu, Wenxia Zhao, Jingjing Su, Mengru Liang, Zhongwen Xie, Xianli Wu, Qinglin Li
SCOPE: (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea and a variety of other plant foods. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A hyperlipidemic rat model was induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. EC was then administrated to the animals by gavage at doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 12 weeks. Simvastatin was included as a positive control...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733329/the-antifungal-activity-of-the-peptide-periplanetasin-2-derived-from-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#2
JiEun Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
The cockroach, which is a household insect, is an established model organism in research. Periplanetasin-2, derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, exerted potent antifungal effect against pathogenic fungi without causing hemolysis. Periplanetasin-2 induced oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Periplanetasin-2 also caused apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, exerted in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, we investigated the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism of periplanetasin-2 in Candida albicans After treatment with periplanetasin-2, we observed mitochondrial depolarization and calcium accumulation...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731568/a-strong-hybrid-fatty-acid-inducible-transcriptional-sensor-built-from-yarrowia-lipolytica-upstream-activating-and-regulatory-sequences
#3
Murtaza Shabbir-Hussain, Ian Wheeldon, Mark A Blenner
The engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica to accumulate lipids with high titers and productivities has been enabled with a handful of constitutive promoters for pathway engineering. However, the development of promoters that are both strong and lipid responsive could greatly benefit the bioproduction efficiency of lipid-derived oleochemicals in oleaginous yeast. in this study, we sought to engineer a fatty acid regulated hybrid promoter for use in Y. lipolytica. We identified a 200 bp upstream regulatory sequence in the peroxisomal acyl CoA oxidase 2 (POX2) promoter...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729862/rad51-interacts-with-non-structural-3-protein-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-regulates-viral-production
#4
Kidong Son, Tram T T Nguyen, Jae-Woong Choi, Long V Pham, Trang T D Luong, Yun-Sook Lim, Soon B Hwang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease affecting over 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection with HCV progresses to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV exploits host cellular factors for viral propagation. To investigate the cellular factors required for HCV propagation, we screened a siRNA library targeting human cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV-infected cells. In the present study, we selected and characterized a gene encoding Rad51...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727234/kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-that-accumulates-with-age-induces-bone-loss
#5
Mona El Refaey, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Sadanand Fulzele, Eileen J Kennedy, Wendy B Bollag, Mohammed Elsalanty, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Nathaniel G Bendzunas, Xing-Ming Shi, Jianrui Xu, William D Hill, Maribeth H Johnson, Monte Hunter, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Age-dependent bone loss occurs in humans and in several animal species, including rodents. The underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, although an age-associated increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species has been frequently implicated. We previously reported that aromatic amino acids function as antioxidants and are anabolic for bone and that they may potentially play a protective role in an aging environment. We hypothesized that upon oxidation the aromatic amino acids would not only lose their anabolic effects but also potentially become a catabolic byproduct...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727021/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-the-effects-of-poor-maternal-nutrition-during-gestation-on-offspring-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism
#6
M L Hoffman, S A Reed, S M Pillai, A K Jones, K K McFadden, S A Zinn, K E Govoni
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725267/heterologous-co-expression-of-a-yeast-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-scdga1-and-a-plant-oleosin-atoleo3-as-an-efficient-tool-for-enhancing-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-the-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#7
Nodumo Nokulunga Zulu, Jennifer Popko, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Pablo Tarazona, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are promising alternate and renewable sources for producing valuable products such as biofuel and essential fatty acids. Although this is the case, there are still challenges impeding on the effective commercial production of microalgal products. For instance, their product yield is still too low. Therefore, this study was oriented towards enhancing triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (strain Pt4). To achieve this, a type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from yeast (ScDGA1) and the lipid droplet (LD) stabilizing oleosin protein 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtOLEO3) were expressed in Pt4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725265/two-bifunctional-enzymes-from-the-marine-protist-thraustochytrium-roseum-biochemical-characterization-of-wax-ester-synthase-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-activity-catalyzing-wax-ester-and-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#8
Nannan Zhang, Zejing Mao, Ling Luo, Xia Wan, Fenghong Huang, Yangmin Gong
BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721743/responses-of-human-hepatoma-hepg2-cells-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#9
Francisco Filipak Neto, Ludiana Cardoso da Silva, Samuel Liebel, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro
The nanotechnology has revolutionized the global market with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) occupying a prominent position due to their remarkable anti-bacterial properties. However, there is no data about the adverse and toxic effects of associations of AgNP and ubiquitous compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In the current study, we investigated the responses of HepG2 cells to realistic concentrations of AgNP (0.09, 0.9 and 9 ng ml(-1)) and mixture of PAH (30 and 300 ng ml(-1)), separately and in association...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720155/effect-of-slaughter-age-and-feeding-system-on-the-neutral-and-polar-lipid-composition-of-horse-meat
#10
X Belaunzaran, P Lavín, A R Mantecón, J K G Kramer, N Aldai
This study was undertaken to provide a thorough analysis of the neutral lipid (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fractions of horse meat that included the content and distribution of acyl and alkenyl moieties in foals under different rearing conditions. Two groups of crossbred horses were studied; the first group was selected from suckling foals produced under grazing conditions and slaughtered at 4 months of age (n=8), and the second group was selected from concentrate-finished foals and slaughtered at 12 months of age (n=7)...
July 19, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#11
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717022/response-of-co2-starved-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-to-light-intensity-transition
#12
Parisa Heydarizadeh, Wafâa Boureba, Morteza Zahedi, Bing Huang, Brigitte Moreau, Ewa Lukomska, Aurélie Couzinet-Mossion, Gaëtane Wielgosz-Collin, Véronique Martin-Jézéquel, Gaël Bougaran, Justine Marchand, Benoît Schoefs
In this study, we investigated the responses of Phaeodactylum tricornutum cells acclimated to 300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density to an increase (1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) or decrease (30 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) in photon flux densities. The light shift occurred abruptly after 5 days of growth and the acclimation to new conditions was followed during the next 6 days at the physiological and molecular levels. The molecular data reflect a rearrangement of carbon metabolism towards the production of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and/or pyruvate...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717018/structure-and-properties-of-oil-bodies-in-diatoms
#13
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Maeda, Daisuke Nojima, Tomoko Yoshino, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols in spherical organelles called oil bodies when exposed to nutrient deprivation conditions. Oil body biology in diatoms has attracted significant attention due to the complexity of the intracellular organelles and the unique combination of genes generated by the evolutionary history of secondary endosymbiosis. The demand for biofuel production has further increased the interest in and importance of a better understanding of oil body biology in diatoms, because it could provide targets for genetic engineering to further enhance their promising lipid accumulation...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713373/15-deoxy-delta-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-inhibits-lung-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-distinct-murine-models-of-asthma
#14
Diego S Coutinho, Edna A Anjos-Valotta, Caio V M F do Nascimento, Ana Lucia A Pires, Marcelo H Napimoga, Vinícius F Carvalho, Rafael C Torres, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins
15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has been described as an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator in several in vitro and in vivo studies, but its effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of 15d-PGJ2 based on distinct murine models of allergic asthma triggered by either ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite extract (HDM). Characteristics of lung inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), mucus exacerbation, and lung remodeling in sensitized A/J mice treated or not with 15d-PGJ2 were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711832/biodegradation-of-phenol-via-meta-cleavage-pathway-triggers-de-novo-tag-biosynthesis-pathway-in-oleaginous-yeast
#15
Alok Patel, Km Sartaj, Neha Arora, Vikas Pruthi, Parul A Pruthi
Phenol is reported to be one of the most toxic environmental pollutants present in the discharge of various industrial effluents causing a serious threat to the existing biome. Biodegradation of phenol by oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 was found to degrade 1000mg/l phenol. The pathways for phenol degradation by both ortho and meta-cleavage were proposed by the identification of metabolites and enzymatic assays of ring cleavage enzymes in the cell extracts. Results suggest that this oleaginous yeast degrade phenol via meta-cleavage pathway and accumulates a high quantity of lipid content (64...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#16
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#17
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711245/feeding-of-palm-oil-fatty-acids-or-rapeseed-oil-throughout-lactation-effects-on-energy-status-body-composition-and-milk-production-in-norwegian-dairy-goats
#18
M Eknæs, Y Chilliard, K Hove, R A Inglingstad, L Bernard, H Volden
The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710946/photosynthetic-parameters-and-redox-homeostasis-of-artemisia-santonica-l-under-conditions-of-elton-region
#19
Olga Rozentsvet, Anatoly Kosobryukhov, Ilya Zakhozhiy, Galina Tabalenkova, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova
Structural and functional parameters and redox homeostasis in leaves of Artemisia santonica L. under environment conditions of Elton lake (the southeast region of the European part of Russia) were measured. The highest photosynthetic apparatus (PA) activity in A. santonica leaves on CO2 gas exchange as well as the highest content of green pigments was observed in the morning. Maximum share of violaxanthin cycle key pigments - zeaxanthin (Zx) and antheraxanthin (Ax) was observed in the afternoon and decreased in the evening...
July 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710551/advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-focus-on-high-molecular-weight-ages
#20
REVIEW
Dorien Deluyker, Lize Evens, Virginie Bito
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a group of proteins and lipids becoming glycated and oxidized after persistent contact with reducing sugars or short-chain aldehydes with amino group and/or high degree of oxidative stress. The accumulation of AGEs in the body is a natural process that occurs with senescence, when the turnover rate of proteins is reduced. However, increased circulating AGEs have been described to arise at early lifetime and are associated with adverse outcome and survival, in particular in settings of cardiovascular diseases...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
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