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Lipid accumulation product

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938495/polyphenol-enriched-fractions-of-cyclopia-intermedia-selectively-affect-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
Babalwa U Jack, Christiaan J Malherbe, Elize L Willenburg, Dalene de Beer, Barbara Huisamen, Elizabeth Joubert, Christo J F Muller, Johan Louw, Carmen Pheiffer
Cyclopia species are increasingly investigated as sources of phenolic compounds with potential as therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that a crude polyphenol-enriched organic fraction (CPEF) of Cyclopia intermedia, currently forming the bulk of commercial production, decreased lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited body weight gain in obese db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a more effective product and/or one with higher specificity could be obtained by fractionation of the CPEF by purposely increasing xanthone and benzophenone levels...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#2
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936730/exosomes-nanocarriers-of-biological-messages
#3
Alice Conigliaro, Simona Fontana, Stefania Raimondo, Riccardo Alessandro
Cell-cell communication is crucial to maintain homeostasis in multicellular organism. Cells communicate each other by direct contact or by releasing factors that, soluble or packaged in membrane vesicles, can reach different regions of the organism. To date numerous studies highlighted the existence of several types of extracellular vesicles that, differing for dimension, origin and contents, play a role in physiological and/or pathological processes. Among extracellular vesicles, exosomes are emerging as efficient players to modulate target cells phenotype and as new non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tools in multiple diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936200/the-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatus-enhances-salt-stress-tolerance-metabolite-accumulation-and-improves-forage-quality-in-perennial-ryegrass
#4
Xiaoning Li, Shijuan Han, Guangyang Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Erick Amombo, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is an important forage grass with high yield and superior quality in temperate regions which is widely used in parks, sport field, and other places. However, perennial ryegrass is moderately tolerant to salinity stress compared to other commercial cultivars and salt stress reduces their growth and productivity. Aspergillus aculeatus has been documented to participate in alleviating damage induced by salinity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933563/effects-of-exogenously-applied-salicylic-acid-and-putrescine-alone-and-in-combination-with-rhizobacteria-on-the-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals-and-chickpea-growth-in-sandy-soil
#6
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano
The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933361/lysosomal-storage-disorders-and-malignancy
#7
REVIEW
Gregory M Pastores, Derralynn A Hughes
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are infrequent to rare conditions caused by mutations that lead to a disruption in the usual sequential degradation of macromolecules or their transit within the cell. Gaucher disease (GD), a lipidosis, is among the most common LSD, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 among the Caucasian, non-Jewish population. Studies have indicated an increased frequency of polyclonal and monoclonal gammopathy among patients with GD. It has been shown that two major sphingolipids that accumulate in GD, namely, β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells...
February 27, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929006/a-comparison-of-the-morphological-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-and-chlorella-zofingiensis-cultured-under-photoautotrophic-and-mixotrophic-conditions
#8
Siti Nor Ani Azaman, Norio Nagao, Fatimah M Yusoff, Sheau Wei Tan, Swee Keong Yeap
The responses of two species of microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlorella zofingiensis, were compared regarding their morphological and biochemical properties under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. These microalgae were cultured under both conditions, and their crude ethanolic extracts were examined for their pigment and total phenolic contents. In addition, the microalgae's antioxidant activities were determined using a DPPH radical scavenging assay and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927883/retinol-saturase-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Xiao-Yan Pang, Suya Wang, Michael J Jurczak, Gerald I Shulman, Alexander R Moise
Retinol saturase (RetSat) catalyzes the saturation of double bonds of all-trans-retinol leading to the production of dihydroretinoid metabolites. Beside its role in retinoid metabolism, there is evidence that RetSat modulates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays critical roles in adipogenesis and the accumulation of lipids. Here, we explore the relationship between RetSat, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress using in vitro and in vivo models with altered expression of RetSat. Our results reveal that RetSat is a potent modulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924015/no-mediates-nitrite-sensing-and-adaptation-and-triggers-a-remodeling-of-lipids
#10
Lina J Dolch, Josselin Lupette, Guillaume Tourcier, Mariette Bedhomme, Séverine Collin, Leonardo Magneschi, Melissa Conte, Khawla Seddiki, Christelle Richard, Erwan Corre, Laurent Fourage, Frédéric Laeuffer, Robert Richards, Michael Reith, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Patrick McGinn, Eric Marechal
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intermediate of the nitrogen cycle, an industrial pollutant and a marker of climate change. NO also acts as a gaseous transmitter in a variety of biological processes. The impact of environmental NO needs to be addressed. In diatoms, a dominant phylum in phytoplankton, NO was reported to mediate programmed cell death (PCD) in response to diatom derived polyunsaturated aldehydes. Here, using the Phaeodactylum Pt1 strain, 2E,4E-decadienal supplied in the micromolar concentration range led to a non-specific cell toxicity...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923880/impact-of-liver-fat-on-the-differential-partitioning-of-hepatic-triacylglycerol-into-vldl-subclasses-on-high-and-low-sugar-diets
#11
A Margot Umpleby, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Barbara Fielding, Xuefei Li, Andrea Marino, Najlaa Alsini, Cheryl Isherwood, Nicola Jackson, Aryati Ahmad, Michael Stolinski, Julie Anne Lovegrove, Sigurd Johnsen, Jeewaka Mendis, John Wright, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Roman Hovorka, Jimmy Bell, Louise E Thomas, Gary Frost, Bruce Arthur Griffin
Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD (n=11) and low liver fat 'controls' (n= 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921786/lipid-production-and-characterization-by-mortierella-umbelopsis-isabellina-cultivated-on-lignocellulosic-sugars
#12
Chryssavgi Gardeli, Maria Athenaki, Evangelos Xenopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Apostolis A Koutinas, George Aggelis, Seraphim Papanikolaou
AIMS: To study and characterize the lipids produced by Mortierella (Umbelopsis) isabellina, during its growth on mixtures of glucose and xylose. METHODS AND RESULTS: Glucose and xylose were utilized as carbon sources, solely or in blends, under nitrogen limited conditions, in batch-flask trials (initial sugars at 80 g l(-1) ). Significant lipid production (maximum lipid 17.8 g l(-1) ; lipid in DCW 61.0% w/w; lipid on glucose consumed 0.23 g g(-1) ) occurred on glucose employed solely, while glucose concentration in the growth medium was conversely correlated with lipid accumulation...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919755/synthetic-high-density-lipoprotein-nanodisks-for-targeted-withalongolide-delivery-to-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#13
Rui Kuai, Chitra Subramanian, Peter T White, Barbara N Timmermann, James J Moon, Mark S Cohen, Anna Schwendeman
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy and has a 5-year survival rate of <35%. ACC cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone production, and this requirement is met via expression on the cell surface of a high level of SRB1, responsible for the uptake of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), which carry and transport cholesterol in vivo. Here, we describe how this natural lipid carrier function of SRB1 can be utilized to improve the tumor-targeted delivery of a novel natural product derivative - withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (WGA-TA) - which has shown potent antitumor efficacy, but poor aqueous solubility...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919632/cd36-in-chronic-kidney-disease-novel-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Xiaochun Yang, Daryl M Okamura, Xifeng Lu, Yaxi Chen, John Moorhead, Zac Varghese, Xiong Z Ruan
CD36 (also known as scavenger receptor B2) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the binding and cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids, oxidized lipids and phospholipids, advanced oxidation protein products, thrombospondin and advanced glycation end products, and has roles in lipid accumulation, inflammatory signalling, energy reprogramming, apoptosis and kidney fibrosis. Renal CD36 is mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells, and is markedly upregulated in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#15
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917932/rewiring-neutral-lipids-production-for-the-de-novo-synthesis-of-wax-esters-in-rhodococcus-opacus-pd630
#16
Mariana P Lanfranconi, Héctor M Alvarez
Rhodococcus opacus PD630 accumulates significant amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG), but is not able to de novo synthesize wax esters (WE) from structural unrelated carbon sources, such as gluconate. In this study, strain PD630 was engineered to produce WE by heterologous expression of maqu_2220 gene, which encodes a fatty acyl-CoA reductase for the production of fatty alcohols in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Recombinant cells produced ca. 46% of WE and 54% of TAG (of total WE+TAG) from gluconate compared with the wild type, which produced 100% of TAG...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916263/autophagy-dependent-generation-of-free-fatty-acids-is-critical-for-normal-neutrophil-differentiation
#17
Thomas Riffelmacher, Alexander Clarke, Felix C Richter, Amanda Stranks, Sumeet Pandey, Sara Danielli, Philip Hublitz, Zhanru Yu, Errin Johnson, Tobias Schwerd, James McCullagh, Holm Uhlig, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Anna Katharina Simon
Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during granulopoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we have shown that metabolism and autophagy are developmentally programmed and essential for neutrophil differentiation in vivo...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912552/under-ice-availability-of-phytoplankton-lipids-is-key-to-freshwater-zooplankton-winter-survival
#18
Guillaume Grosbois, Heather Mariash, Tobias Schneider, Milla Rautio
Shortening winter ice-cover duration in lakes highlights an urgent need for research focused on under-ice ecosystem dynamics and their contributions to whole-ecosystem processes. Low temperature, reduced light and consequent changes in autotrophic and heterotrophic resources alter the diet for long-lived consumers, with consequences on their metabolism in winter. We show in a survival experiment that the copepod Leptodiaptomus minutus in a boreal lake does not survive five months under the ice without food...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910323/comparative-proteomic-analyses-reveal-the-proteome-response-to-short-term-drought-in-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum
#19
Ling Pan, Zhongfu Yang, Jianping Wang, Pengxi Wang, Xiao Ma, Meiliang Zhou, Ji Li, Nie Gang, Guangyan Feng, Junming Zhao, Xinquan Zhang
Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905119/jasmonic-acid-induced-tolerance-to-root-knot-nematodes-in-tomato-plants-through-altered-photosynthetic-and-antioxidative-defense-mechanisms
#20
Shagun Bali, Parminder Kaur, Anket Sharma, Puja Ohri, Renu Bhardwaj, M N Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage to cultivated crops globally. Management of nematode population is a major concern as chemicals used as nematicides have negative impact on the environment. Natural plant products can be safely used for the control of nematodes. Among various plant metabolites, plant hormones play an essential role in developmental and physiological processes and also assist the plants to encounter stressful conditions. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on the growth, pigments, polyphenols, antioxidants, osmolytes, and organic acids under nematode infection in tomato seedlings...
September 13, 2017: Protoplasma
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