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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643452/emerging-nanotechnology-and-advanced-materials-for-cancer-radiation-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Guosheng Song, Liang Cheng, Yu Chao, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Radiation therapy (RT) including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and internal radioisotope therapy (RIT) has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, owing to the low radiation absorption of tumors, high doses of ionizing radiations are often needed during RT, leading to severe damages to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Meanwhile, the RT efficacies are limited by different mechanisms, among which the tumor hypoxia-associated radiation resistance is a well-known one, as there exists hypoxia inside most solid tumors while oxygen is essential to enhance radiation-induced DNA damages...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640294/space-confined-synthesis-of-multilayer-cu-n-doped-graphene-nanosheets-for-efficient-oxygen-electroreduction
#3
Yangyang Ni, Zhengyan Chen, Fantao Kong, Yu Qiao, Aiguo Kong, Yongkui Shan
Cu-based carbon electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction are difficult to compare with the corresponding Fe- or Co-based electrocatalytic materials, owing to their insufficient catalytic activity and stability. Herein, as an impressive Cu-based electrocatalyst, a multilayer Cu-N-doped graphene sheet (Cu-N-GR) is directly synthesized by the thermal conversion of copper(ii) 2,2'-bipyridine in the confined space of lamellar montmorillonites. The open layered morphology of Cu-N-GR materials facilitated the exposure of more active centers and enhanced the flexibility and mobility of charge carriers...
June 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640066/the-evolution-of-oxygen-carrier-solutions-for-machine-perfusion
#4
Paulo A Fontes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635079/oxygen-vacancy-mediated-photocatalysis-of-biocl-reactivity-selectivity-and-perspective
#5
Hao Li, Jie Li, Zhihui Ai, Falong Jia, Lizhi Zhang
Semiconductor photocatalysis is a trustworthy approach to harvest clean solar light for energy conversions, while state-of-the-art catalytic efficiencies are unsatisfactory because of the finite light response and/or robust charge carriers' recombination. Along with the development of modern material characterization techniques and electronic-structure computations, oxygen vacancies (OVs) on real photocatalysts surface, even in infinitesimal concentration, are found to play a more decisive role in determining the kinetics, energetics and mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions...
June 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632267/ultrahigh-broadband-photoresponse-of-sno2-nanoparticle-thin-film-sio2-p-si-heterojunction
#6
Cuicui Ling, Tianchao Guo, Wenbo Lu, Ya Xiong, Lei Zhu, Qingzhong Xue
The SnO2/Si heterojunction possesses a large band offset and it is easy to control the transportation of carriers in the SnO2/Si heterojunction to realize high-response broadband detection. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the SnO2 nanoparticle thin film/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction for photodetectors. It is demonstrated that this heterojunction shows a stable, repeatable and broadband photoresponse from 365 nm to 980 nm. Meanwhile, the responsivity of the device approaches a high value in the range of 0...
June 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629056/antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-potentials-of-biosynthesized-colloidal-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-for-a-fortified-cold-cream-formulation-a-potent-nanocosmeceutical-application
#7
Sonia S, Linda Jeeva Kumari H, Ruckmani K, Sivakumar M
Nanocosmeceuticals are promising applications of nanotechnology in personal care industries. Zinc oxide is an inorganic material that is non-toxic and skin compatible with self-cleansing and microbicidal properties. Herein, exploitation of colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONps) as potent biomaterial for a topical formulation of cosmetic and dermatological significance is employed. ZnONps were green synthesized using environmentally benign Adhatoda vasica leaf extract and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628303/folate-and-heptamethine-cyanine-modified-chitosan-based-nanotheranostics-for-tumor-targeted-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-and-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Yingying Zhang, Tingting Lv, Huijuan Zhang, Xiaodong Xie, Ziying Li, Haijun Chen, Yu Gao
Folate (FA) and heptamethine cyanine (Cy7)-modified chitosan (CF7) was synthesized by click chemistry and its self-assembled nanoparticles (CF7Ns) were developed for tumor-specific imaging and photodynamic therapy. The characterization spectrum confirmed CF7 had a good FA and Cy7 conjugation efficacy. The diameter of CF7Ns measured by DLS was about 291.6 nm and the morphology observed with AFM showed filamentous clusters of particles. The results of targeting ability of CF7Ns demonstrated enhanced targeting behaviors of CF7Ns compared with non-FA-modified nanoparticles C7Ns in FA receptor-positive HeLa cells...
June 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625985/periplasmic-nicotine-dehydrogenase-ndhab-utilizes-pseudoazurin-as-its-physiological-electron-acceptor-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#9
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 can grow with nicotine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a novel hybrid of the pyridine pathway and the pyrollidine pathway. Characterization of the enzymes involved in the hybrid pathway is important for understanding its biochemical mechanism. Here we report that the molybdenum-containing nicotine dehydrogenase (NdhAB), which catalyzes the initial step of nicotine degradation, is located in the periplasm of strain S33, while the 6-hydroxynicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxypseudooxynicoine oxidase are in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624784/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-determines-cell-stemness-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells
#10
Xiaoli Li, Gaoyang Han, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Zhirui Fan, Yaqing Li, Yasai Ji, Jing Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Mantas Grigalavicius, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the "Warburg Effect", in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624212/light-triggerable-liposomes-for-enhanced-endolysosomal-escape-and-gene-silencing-in-pc12-cells
#11
Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng, Ewa M Goldys
Liposomes are an effective gene and/or drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here, we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP) loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP). This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT). LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorporating PAC1R antisense oligonucleotides inside the lipVP cavity...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622582/porous-mn-doped-g-c3n4-photocatalysts-for-enhanced-synergetic-degradation-under-visible-light-illumination
#12
Ji-Chao Wang, Cheng-Xing Cui, Ying Li, Lu Liu, Yu-Ping Zhang, Weina Shi
Photocatalytic degradation by semiconductors is an ideal way to solve the environmental problem. Here, the porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst was synthesized by the calcination-refluxing method. The as-prepared g-C3N4 exhibits the high activity of photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation ( > 400nm) in the mixed system of Cr(VI) and organic pollutants. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Cr(VI) reduction was increased from 9.5% to 76.5%, while that of Rhodamine B(RhB) degradation was enhanced from 15...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613274/experimental-neutron-scattering-evidence-for-proton-polaron-in-hydrated-metal-oxide-proton-conductors
#13
Artur Braun, Qianli Chen
Hydration of oxygen-deficient metal oxides causes filling of oxygen vacancies and formation of hydroxyl groups with interstitial structural protons, rotating around the oxygen in localized motion. Thermal activation from 500 to 800 K triggers delocalization of the protons by jumping to adjacent oxygen ions, constituting proton conductivity. We report quantitative analyses of proton and lattice dynamics by neutron-scattering data, which reveal the interaction of protons with the crystal lattice and proton-phonon coupling...
June 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608583/effects-of-dissolved-carbon-dioxide-on-the-integrity-of-the-rumen-epithelium-an-agent-in-the-development-of-ruminal-acidosis
#14
R Rackwitz, G Gäbel
The carbon dioxide released and dissolved in rumen fluid may easily permeate across the epithelial cell membrane. Thus, we hypothesized that CO2 may act as proton carrier and induce epithelial damage under acidotic conditions. Ovine ruminal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions. The serosal buffer solution had a constant pH of 7.4 and was gassed either with 100% oxygen or with carbogen (95% O2 /5% CO2 ). The mucosal solution was gassed with either 100% oxygen or 100% carbon dioxide...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601310/hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-promote-systemic-hyperfibrinolysis-that-is-both-dependent-and-independent-of-plasmin
#15
Alexander P Morton, Ernest E Moore, Hunter B Moore, Eduardo Gonzalez, Michael P Chapman, Erik Peltz, Anirban Banerjee, Christopher Silliman
BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinolysis plays an integral role in the genesis of trauma-induced coagulopathy. Recent data demonstrate that red blood cell lysis promotes fibrinolysis; however, the mechanism is unclear. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been developed for resuscitation and have been associated with coagulopathy. We hypothesize that replacement of whole blood (WB) using an HBOC results in a coagulopathy because of the presence of free hemoglobin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: WB was sampled from healthy donors (n = 6)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598171/exotic-physics-and-chemistry-of-two-dimensional-phosphorus-phosphorene
#16
Chandra Chowdhury, Ayan Datta
Phosphorene, the monolayer form of black phosphorus, is the most recent addition to graphene-like van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) systems. Due to its several interesting properties, namely its tunable direct band gap, high carrier mobility, and unique in-plane anisotropy, it has emerged as a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Phosphorene (Pn) reveals a much richer phase diagram than graphene, and it comprises the two forms namely the stapler-clip like (black Pn, α form) and chairlike (blue Pn, β form) structures...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596081/vitamin-k2-improves-developmental-competency-and-cryo-tolerance-of-in-vitro-derived-ovine-blastocyst
#17
Fatemeh Sefid, S Ostadhosseini, S M Hosseini, F Ghazvini Zadegan, M Pezhman, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
Vitamin K2 (VK2), acts as an electron carrier in mitochondria and thereby effects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. This study evaluates role of VK2 on in vitro developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine embryos. Initially the optimal and beneficial concentration of VK2 on compaction and blastocyst formation rates was defined (0.1 μM). Subsequently, it was shown that 0.1 μM VK2, at blastocyst stage, reduces H2O2 production, increase the expression of mitochondrial related gene and improved embryos quality...
June 5, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594015/new-amidinate-complexes-of-indium-iii-promising-cvd-precursors-for-transparent-and-conductive-in2o3-thin-films
#18
M Gebhard, M Hellwig, A Kroll, D Rogalla, M Winter, B Mallick, A Ludwig, M Wiesing, A D Wieck, G Grundmeier, A Devi
For the first time, synthesis of two new amidinate-ligand comprising heteroleptic indium complexes, namely [InCl(amd)2] (1) and [InMe(amd)2] (2), via salt-metathesis and their detailed characterization is reported. For comparison, the earlier reported homoleptic tris-amidinate [In(amd)3] (3) was also synthesized and analyzed in detail especially with respect to the thermal properties and molecular crystal structure analysis which are reported here for the first time. From nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), all three compounds were found to be monomeric with C2 (compound 1 and 2) and C3 symmetry (compound 3)...
June 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590114/analysis-of-nano-precipitates-in-a-na-doped-pbte-srte-thermoelectric-material-with-a-high-figure-of-merit
#19
Yoon-Jun Kim, Li-Dong Zhao, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, David N Seidman
The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of bulk thermoelectric materials depends mainly on the transport properties of charge carriers and heat carrying phonons. PbTe-4 mol.% SrTe doped with 2 mol.% Na (Pb0.94Na0.02Sr0.04Te) is a nanostructured material system, which exhibits a ZT higher than 2. A precipitate size distribution (PSD) of SrTe precipitates is believed to play a key role. This raises the question of whether its performance is limited by precipitate coarsening (Ostwald ripening) at elevated temperatures...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590063/highly-stable-three-dimensional-porous-nickel-iron-nitride-nanosheets-for-full-water-splitting-at-high-current-densities
#20
Feng Yan, Yue Wang, Kaiyue Li, Chunling Zhu, Peng Gao, Chunyan Li, Xitian Zhang, Yu-Jin Chen
A noble-metal-free and high-efficient bifunctional catalyst for overall water splitting is greatly desirable to generate clean and sustainable energy carrier such as hydrogen, but remains enormous challenges. Herein, we design and grow the porous interconnected iron-nickel nitride nanosheets on the carbon fiber cloth (FeNi-N/CFC) combing a facile electrodeposition method and in situ nitrogenization process. The as-synthesized FeNi-N/CFC with a low mass loading of 0.25 mg cm-2 exhibits excellent catalytic activities for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with 20 mA cm-2 at overpotential (η) of 232 mV and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with 10 mA cm-2 at η = 106 mV...
June 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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