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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145120/enhanced-nitrogen-removal-from-piggery-wastewater-with-high-nh4-and-low-cod-tn-ratio-in-a-novel-upflow-microaerobic-biofilm-reactor
#1
Jia Meng, Jiuling Li, Jianzheng Li, Philip Antwi, Kaiwen Deng, Jun Nan, Pianpian Xu
To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria...
November 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145103/gold-chlorophyll-a-hybrid-nanoparticles-and-chlorophyll-a-cetyltrimethylammonium-chloride-self-assembled-suprastructures-as-novel-carriers-for-chlorophyll-a-delivery-in-water-medium-photoactivity-and-photostability
#2
Vito Rizzi, Davide Vurro, Tiziana Placido, Paola Fini, Andrea Petrella, Paola Semeraro, Pinalysa Cosma
The stability of Chlorophyll a in water during prolonged exposure, at room temperature, to a neon lamp has been investigated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. In addition, the Chlorophyll a (photo)stability evaluation in presence of suitable carriers has been performed in order to investigate its reactivity under the same conditions, for possible and future applications in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride was chosen to solubilize Chlorophyll a in water. While, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride-capped gold nanoparticles offer a great opportunity because combine the Chlorophyll a action, used as a photosensitizer in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy, with gold nanoparticles effect used in photothermal therapy...
November 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143845/pulse-laser-induced-fragmentation-of-carbon-quantum-dots-a-structural-analysis
#3
Han-Wei Chu, Ju-Yi Mao, Chia-Wen Lien, Pang-Hung Hsu, Yu-Jia Li, Jui-Yang Lai, Tai-Chia Chiu, Chih-Ching Huang
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years owing to their low cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility and strong fluorescence. They have been successfully employed in sensor, bio-imaging, and drug carrier applications. A complete understanding of their core-surface structure is essential for tuning their physical and chemical properties for various applications. Conventional characterizations of CQDs are conducted with electron microscopy or spectroscopy, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140831/relative-efficacies-of-hboc-201-and-polyheme-to-increase-oxygen-transport-compared-to-blood-and-crystalloids-2017-military-supplement
#4
Gregory P Dubé, Arkadiy N Pitman, Colin F Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: Because total hemoglobin in circulation ([THb]) is an established predictor of clinical outcomes in anemic individuals, the relative efficacies of resuscitation fluids to increase [THb] can be used to design better hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) clinical trials. METHODS: Expected efficacies of HBOC-201 (13 g Hb/dL) and packed RBCs (pRBCs, 24 g Hb/dL) to increase [THb] were calculated and interpreted in the context of SAEs in the HEM-0115 phase III clinical trial...
November 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140548/a-phase-ib-open-label-single-arm-study-to-assess-the-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-impact-on-humoral-sensitization-of-sanguinate-infusion-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#5
Bassam G Abu Jawdeh, E Steve Woodle, Abbie D Leino, Paul Brailey, Simon Tremblay, Tonya Dorst, Mouhamad H Abdallah, Amit Govil, Daniel Byczkowski, Hemant Misra, Abraham Abuchowski, Rita R Alloway
The endeavor to study desensitization in kidney transplantation hasn't been matched by an effort to investigate strategies to prevent sensitization. In this study (NCT02437422), we investigated the safety, impact on sensitization and pharmacokinetics of SANGUINATE (SG), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, as a potential alternative to packed red blood cells (PRBC) in transplant candidates with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ten ESRD subjects meeting inclusion/exclusion (I/E) criteria were planned to receive 3 weekly infusions of SG (320mg/Kg)...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139292/enhanced-electrical-properties-and-air-stability-of-amorphous-organic-thin-films-by-engineering-film-density
#6
Yu Esaki, Takeshi Komino, Toshinori Matsushima, Chihaya Adachi
The influences of film density and molecular orientation on the carrier conduction and air stability of vacuum-deposited amorphous organic films of N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (α-NPD) were investigated. The substrate temperature (Tsub) during vacuum deposition had different effects on the film density and molecular orientation of α-NPD. Film density was a concave function of Tsub; maximum density was attained at Tsub = 270-300 K (0.75-0.83 of the glass transition temperature)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138470/obesity-promoting-and-anti-thermogenic-effects-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-mice
#7
Akira Ishii, Goro Katsuura, Hirotaka Imamaki, Hiroyuki Kimura, Keita P Mori, Takashige Kuwabara, Masato Kasahara, Hideki Yokoi, Kousaku Ohinata, Tomoko Kawanishi, Junichi Tsuchida, Yuji Nakamoto, Kazuwa Nakao, Motoko Yanagita, Masashi Mukoyama, Kiyoshi Mori
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, lipocalin 2 or LCN2) is an iron carrier protein whose circulating level is increased by kidney injury, bacterial infection and obesity, but its metabolic consequence remains elusive. To study physiological role of LCN2 in energy homeostasis, we challenged female Lcn2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with high fat diet (HFD) or cold exposure. Under normal diet, physical constitutions of Lcn2 KO and WT mice were indistinguishable. During HFD treatment, Lcn2 KO mice exhibited larger brown adipose tissues (BAT), consumed more oxygen, ate more food and gained less body weights as compared to WT mice...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134224/substitution-of-re-7-into-camno3-an-efficient-free-electron-generation-dopant-for-tuning-of-thermoelectric-properties
#8
J Felix Shin, Hongjun Niu, Jonathan Alaria, John B Claridge, Matthew J Rosseinsky
Highly dense CaMn1-xRexO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) samples were prepared by solid-state synthesis. The effect of Re doping was assessed by the characterisation of crystal structure, oxygen content, and electrical and thermal transport properties. The oxidation state of the substituted Re was determined by X-ray absorption near edge spectra to be Re(7+), and led to expansion of the lattice and an increase in electron carrier concentration due to the formation of Mn(3+). The thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and the thermopower over a wide temperature range allowed identification of different conduction mechanisms: (1) below 110 K, 3D variable range hopping, (2) between 110 and 650 K, small polaron transport, and (3) above 650 K, activation of carriers over a mobility edge...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133868/from-harmful-microcystis-blooms-to-multi-functional-core-double-shell-microsphere-bio-hydrochar-materials
#9
Lei Bi, Gang Pan
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) induced by eutrophication is becoming a serious global environmental problem affecting public health and aquatic ecological sustainability. A novel strategy for the utilization of biomass from HABs was developed by converting the algae cells into hollow mesoporous bio-hydrochar microspheres via hydrothermal carbonization method. The hollow microspheres were used as microreactors and carriers for constructing CaO2 core-mesoporous shell-CaO2 shell microspheres (OCRMs). The CaO2 shells could quickly increase dissolved oxygen to extremely anaerobic water in the initial 40 min until the CaO2 shells were consumed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133806/effect-of-si-on-the-energy-band-gap-modulation-and-performance-of-silicon-indium-zinc-oxide-thin-film-transistors
#10
Jun Young Choi, Keun Heo, Kyung-Sang Cho, Sung Woo Hwang, JaeGwan Chung, Sangsig Kim, Byeong Hyeon Lee, Sang Yeol Lee
The band gap properties of amorphous SiInZnO (a-SIZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different Si concentrations have been studied. The electronic structures of the films, engineered by controlling the Si content, have been investigated through the changes of the band gap and band edge states. Carrier generation at oxygen vacancies can modify the band gap states of oxide thin films. Si suppresses the number of oxygen vacancies-which are carrier generation sites-so shifts the Fermi energy level away from the conduction band...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133095/carboxymethyl-dextran-based-hypoxia-responsive-nanoparticles-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#11
Soyoung Son, Vijayakameswara Rao, Hyewon Ko, Sol Shin, Jueun Jeon, Hwa Seung Han, Van Quy Nguyen, Thavasyappan Thambi, Yung Doug Suh, Jae Hyung Park
In an attempt to develop the hypoxia-responsive nanoparticles for cancer therapy, a polymer conjugate, consisting of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3), was prepared. The polymer conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticles (CMD-BHQ3 NPs) under aqueous conditions. The anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded in CMD-BHQ3 NPs to prepare DOX@CMD-BHQ3 NPs. The CMD-BHQ3 NPs released DOX in a sustained manner under physiological conditions, whereas the release rate of DOX remarkably increased under hypoxic conditions throughout the cleavage of the azo bond in BHQ3...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131959/computational-and-experimental-study-of-thermodynamics-of-the-reaction-of-titania-and-water-at-high-temperatures
#12
Quynhgiao N Nguyen, Charles W Bauschlicher, Dwight L Myers, Nathan S Jacobson, Elizabeth J Opila
The volatility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in water vapor-containing environments at elevated temperatures is studied with both quantum chemical composite methods and the experimental transpiration method. The geometry and harmonic vibrational frequencies of TiO(OH)2(g) and Ti(OH)4(g) were computed using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method with a perturbative correction for connected triple substitutions [CCSD(T)]. The B3LYP density functional theory was used to compute corrections to the harmonic approximations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127235/cardiac-performance-is-limited-by-oxygen-delivery-to-the-mitochondria-in-the-crystalloid-perfused-working-heart
#13
Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Raul Covian, Armel N Femnou, Brian Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Anastasia M Wengrowski, Kara Garrott, Stephanie French, Robert S Balaban, Matthew W Kay
The left ventricular (LV) working, crystalloid-perfused heart is used extensively to evaluate basic cardiac function, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Crystalloid-perfused hearts may be limited by oxygen delivery, as adding oxygen carriers increases myoglobin oxygenation and improves myocardial function. However, whether decreased myoglobin oxygen saturation impacts oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is unresolved since myoglobin has a much lower affinity for oxygen than cytochrome c oxidase (COX). In the present study, a laboratory-based synthesis of an affordable perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion was developed to increase perfusate oxygen-carrying capacity without impeding optical absorbance assessments...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125743/heterogeneous-rupturing-dendrimers
#14
Oliver C J Andrén, Aristi P Fernandes, Michael Malkoch
Utilizing macromolecular scaffolds as templates for the production of small molecules that are distinctively different to the original monomer feedstock has many potential uses. Herein, as a proof-of-concept, a family of dendrimers displaying internally queued disulfide bridges were synthesized, and exploited as flawless macromolecular templates that selectively rupture, into a set of monomeric mercaptans. Disassembly was accomplished in a reducing environment, using DTT as an external stimulus, and the thiol constituents were successfully isolated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125570/soft-template-synthesis-of-mesoporous-anatase-tio%C3%A2-nanospheres-and-its-enhanced-photoactivity
#15
Xiaojia Li, Mingming Zou, Yang Wang
Highly crystalline mesoporous anatase TiO₂ nanospheres with high surface area (higher than P25 and anatase TiO₂) are prepared by a soft-template method. Despite the high specific surface area, these samples have three times lower equilibrium adsorption (<2%) than Degussa P25. The rate constant of the mesoporous anatase TiO₂ (0.024 min(-1)) reported here is 364% higher than that of P25 (0.0066 min(-1)), for the same catalytic loading. The results of oxidation-extraction photometry using several reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers indicated that mesoporous anatase TiO₂ generates more ROS than P25 under UV-light irradiation...
November 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123680/hit-detection-in-serial-femtosecond-crystallography-using-x-ray-spectroscopy-of-plasma-emission
#16
H Olof Jönsson, Carl Caleman, Jakob Andreasson, Nicuşor Tîmneanu
Serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging and promising method for determining protein structures, making use of the ultrafast and bright X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers. The upcoming X-ray laser sources will produce well above 1000 pulses per second and will pose a new challenge: how to quickly determine successful crystal hits and avoid a high-rate data deluge. Proposed here is a hit-finding scheme based on detecting photons from plasma emission after the sample has been intercepted by the X-ray laser...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121617/ph-sensitive-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-chemo-photodynamic-combination-therapy
#17
Tingsheng Yan, Jinju Cheng, Zongjun Liu, Feng Cheng, Xinjing Wei, Jinmei He
In order to optimize the chemotherapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) and improve the photodynamic therapeutic effectiveness of rose bengal (RB), a mesoporous silica nanoparticle system was designed as the carrier of RB and DOX for chemo-photodynamic combination therapy. A pH-sensitive strategy has been exploited to enhance the delivery efficiency. Our results suggested that the production of singlet oxygen was independent of the release of RB while strongly influenced by the external DOX layer. This method showed several benefits, including accelerating cellular uptake of the payloads and enabling chemo-photodynamic combination therapy for synergistic cancer treatment...
November 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119629/carbon-heteroatom-bond-formation-by-an-ultrasonic-chemical-reaction-for-energy-storage-systems
#18
Hyun-Tak Kim, HyeonOh Shin, In-Yup Jeon, Masood Yousaf, Jaeyoon Baik, Hae-Won Cheong, Noejung Park, Jong-Beom Baek, Tae-Hyuk Kwon
The direct formation of CN and CO bonds from inert gases is essential for chemical/biological processes and energy storage systems. However, its application to carbon nanomaterials for improved energy storage remains technologically challenging. A simple and very fast method to form CN and CO bonds in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an ultrasonic chemical reaction is described. Electrodes of nitrogen- or oxygen-doped RGO (N-RGO or O-RGO, respectively) are fabricated via the fixation between N2 or O2 carrier gas molecules and ultrasonically activated RGO...
November 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117438/metallic-nano-composite-toxicity-evaluation-by-zebrafish-embryo-toxicity-test-with-identification-of-specific-exposure-biomarkers
#19
Roberta Pecoraro, Antonio Salvaggio, Fabio Marino, Gianfranco Di Caro, Fabiano Capparucci, Bianca Maria Lombardo, Giuseppina Messina, Elena Maria Scalisi, Maurizio Tummino, Francesco Loreto, Giusi D'Amante, Roberto Avola, Daniele Tibullo, Maria Violetta Brundo
Nanomaterials (NM) have different shapes and can be composed of different materials such as carbon, silicon, and some metals like gold, silver, and titanium. They are used as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, drug carriers in medicine, energy storage systems, and antifriction coatings. NM are the parent compounds of nanoparticles (NPs), which may be divided into two groups: fullerenes and engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). After crossing the cell membrane, NPs may be stored in vesicles, mitochondria, and additional organelles within epithelial cells...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116603/leigh-syndrome-in-individuals-bearing-m-9185t-c-mtatp6-variant-is-hyperventilation-a-factor-which-starts-its-development
#20
Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Rafał Rutyna, Elżbieta Czyżyk, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Dariusz Rokicki, Sylwia Stachowicz, Joanna Strzemecka, Wiesław Guz, Michał Gawroński, Aneta Kosierb, Joanna Ligas, Mateusz Puchala, Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Wojciech Dąbrowski, Elżbieta Ciara, Janusz B Książyk, Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS), subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy is caused by various genetic defects, including m.9185T>C MTATP6 variant. Mechanism of LS development remains unknown. We report on the acid-base status of three patients with m.9185T>C related LS. At the onset, it showed respiratory alkalosis, reflecting excessive respiration effort (hyperventilation with low pCO2). In patient 1, the deterioration occurred in temporal relation to passive oxygen therapy. To the contrary, on the recovery, she demonstrated a relatively low respiratory drive, suggesting that a "hypoventilation" might be beneficial for m...
November 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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