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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340406/clarifying-the-high-on-off-ratio-mechanism-of-nanowire-uv-photodetector-by-characterizing-surface-barrier-height
#1
Gaoda Li, Leixin Meng, Xiaofei Zhu, Weihao Gao, Yong Qin, Liwei Chen
The response of semiconductor nanowire UV sensors represented by ZnO nanowire UV sensor is usually explained by the adsorption and desorption of oxygen molecules, but with the great increase of these sensors' on/off ratio in recent years, this explanation is inadequate and the inner mechanism for the large on/off ratio urgently needs to be explored. Here, the distribution of carrier concentration in a ZnO nanowire is found to be determined as a function of the radius of the nanowire, using a calibrated surface photovoltage method and space charge model...
January 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339605/enhancing-nitrogen-removal-efficiency-in-a-dyestuff-wastewater-treatment-plant-with-the-iffas-process-the-pilot-scale-and-full-scale-studies
#2
Yanjun Mao, Xie Quan, Huimin Zhao, Yaobin Zhang, Shuo Chen, Tao Liu
The activated sludge (AS) process is widely applied in dyestuff wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the nitrogen removal efficiency is relatively low and the effluent does not meet the indirect discharge standards before being discharged into the industrial park's WWTP. Hence it is necessary to upgrade the WWTP with more advanced technologies. Moving bed biofilm processes with suspended carriers in an aerobic tank are promising methods due to enhanced nitrification and denitrification. Herein, a pilot-scale integrated free-floating biofilm and activated sludge (IFFAS) process was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs)...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339571/infrared-photoconductivity-and-photovoltaic-response-from-nanoscale-domains-of-pbs-alloyed-with-thorium-and-oxygen
#3
Neta Arad-Vosk, Rotem Beach, Amichai Ron, Tzvi Tzvi Templeman, Yuval Golan, Gabby Sarusi, Amir Sa'ar
Thin films of lead sulfide alloyed with thorium and oxygen were deposited on GaAs substrates and processed to produce a photo-diode structure. Structural, optical and electrical characterizations indicate the presence of small nanoscale domains that are characterized by dense packaging, high quality interfaces and a blue-shift of the energy bandgap toward the short wavelength infrared range of the spectrum. Photocurrent spectroscopy revealed a considerable photo-conductivity that is correlated with excitation of carriers in the nanoscale domains of lead sulfide alloyed with thorium and oxygen...
January 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333956/high-efficiency-treatment-of-pta-wastewater-using-a-biogas-jet-assisted-anaerobic-fluidized-bed-reactor
#4
Wei Zhang, Yangyang Feng, Yingwen Chen, Peiwen Li, Shemin Zhu, Shubao Shen
In this paper, a new type of biogas jet assisted anaerobic fluidized bed reactor loaded with a polypropylene (PP) carrier, has been proposed. There was a clear improvement in the fluidized state due to the biogas assisted input when the gas/water ratio was set at 1:3 with a suitable carrier loading of 60%. When the circulating water flow is 30 L/min assisted with biogas 10 L/min, the mixing time shortens from 26 s to 18 s. The performance of anaerobic biodegradation on wastewater treatment was improved largely...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330944/improvement-of-islet-function-and-survival-by-integration-of-perfluorodecalin-into-microcapsules-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
Sang-Ho Lee, Heon-Seok Park, Yeoree Yang, Eun-Young Lee, Ji-Won Kim, Gilson Khang, Kun-Ho Yoon
Hypoxic injury of islets is a major obstacle for encapsulated islet transplantation into the peritoneal cavity. To improve oxygen delivery to encapsulated islets, we integrated 20% of the oxygen carrier material, perfluorodecalin (PFD), in alginate capsules mixed with islets (PFD-alginate). Integration of PFD clearly improved islet viability and decreased reactive oxygen species production compared to islets encapsulated with alginate only (alginate) and naked islets exposed to hypoxia in vitro. In PFD-alginate capsules, HIF-1α expression was minimal, and insulin expression was well maintained...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330894/structure-function-and-evolution-of-the-hemerythrin-like-domain-superfamily
#6
Claudia Alvarez-Carreño, Vikram Alva, Arturo Becerra, Antonio Lazcano
Hemerythrin-like proteins have generally been studied for their ability to reversibly bind oxygen through their binuclear non-heme iron centers. However, in recent years, it has become increasingly evident that some members of the hemerythrin-like superfamily also participate in many other biological processes. For instance, the binuclear non-heme iron site of YtfE, a hemerythrin-like protein involved in the repair of iron centers in Escherichia coli, catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide, and the human F-box/LRR-repeat protein 5, which contains a hemerythrin-like domain, is involved in intracellular iron homeostasis...
January 13, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323913/nanoparticles-with-cd44-targeting-and-ros-triggering-property-as-effective-in-vivo-antigen-delivery-system
#7
Xiaoyu Liang, Xuanling Li, Jianwei Duan, Youlu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Liyun Pang, Deling Kong, Bing Song, Chen Li, Jing Yang
Currently, development of subunit vaccine based on recombinant antigens or peptides has gradually become an important alternative option for traditional vaccine. However, induction of potent immune response with desired efficacy remains a major challenge. The nanoparticle-based antigen delivery system has been considered a potential carrier system to improve the efficacy of subunit vaccine. In the present study, we have designed an immune-stimulatory delivery system by conjugating three-armed PLGA to PEG via the peroxalate ester bond which is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a major reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319310/oxygen-vacancy-mediated-exciton-dissociation-in-biobr-for-boosting-charge-carrier-involved-molecular-oxygen-activation
#8
Hui Wang, Dingyu Yong, Shichuan Chen, Shenlong Jiang, Xiaodong Zhang, Wei Shao, Qun Zhang, Wensheng Yan, Bicai Pan, Yi Xie
Excitonic effects mediated by Coulomb interactions between photogenerated electrons and holes play crucial roles in photoinduced processes of semiconductors. In term of photocatalysis, however, efforts have seldom been devoted to the relevant aspects. As for the catalysts with giant excitonic effects, the co-existing, competitive exciton generation serves as a key obstacle to the yield of free charge carriers, and hence transformation of excitons into free carriers would be beneficial for optimizing the charge-carrier-involved photocatalytic processes...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316667/uv-vis-induced-degradation-of-phenol-over-magnetic-photocatalysts-modified-with-pt-pd-cu-and-au-nanoparticles
#9
Izabela Wysocka, Ewa Kowalska, Konrad Trzciński, Marcin Łapiński, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Anna Zielińska-Jurek
The combination of TiO₂ photocatalyst and magnetic oxide nanoparticles enhances the separation and recoverable properties of nanosized TiO₂ photocatalyst. Metal-modified (Me = Pd, Au, Pt, Cu) TiO₂/SiO₂@Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites were prepared by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method. All prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Mott-Schottky analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL)...
January 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316272/oxygen-reduction-reaction-for-generating-h2o2-via-piezo-catalytic-process-over-biocl
#10
Wenzhong Wang, Dengkui Shao, Ling Zhang, Songmei Sun
Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for generating H2O2 via green pathways have gained much attention in recent years. Herein, we introduce a piezo-catalytic approach to obtain H2O2 over BiOCl via ORR pathway. The piezoelectric response of BiOCl was directly characterized by piezoresponse force microscope (PFM). The BiOCl exhibits efficient catalytic performance for generating H2O2 (28 µmol/h ) only from O2 and H2O, which is above the average level of H2O2 produced by solar-to-chemical process. A piezo-catalytic mechanism was proposed: with ultrasonic waves, an alternating electric field will be generated over BiOCl, which can drive charge carriers (electrons) to interact with O2 and H2O, then to form H2O2...
January 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315872/theoretical-investigations-on-the-mechanistic-aspects-of-o2-activation-by-a-biomimetic-di-nitrosyl-iron-complex
#11
Ambar Banerjee, Souloke Sen, Ankan Paul
Though Dinitrosyl-Iron complexes (DNICs) are largely believed to act as NO carriers, topical experiments on model DNICs have suggested that they can also act as Nitrating agents in presence of dioxygen. Oxygen activation by DNICs have been implicated as a possible route for protein tyrosine nitration (PTN), which leads to neurodegenerative disorders. Herein using static and dynamic theoretical techniques we unravel a previously unknown dual state mechanistic paradigm for dioxygen activation of a biomimetic nitrating DNIC complex leading to phenolic nitration...
January 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315537/vitamin-transporters-in-mice-brain-with-aging
#12
P Marcos, J González-Fuentes, L Castro-Vázquez, M V Lozano, M J Santander-Ortega, V Rodríguez-Robledo, N Villaseca-González, M M Arroyo-Jiménez
Its high metabolic rate and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content make the brain very sensitive to oxidative damage. In the brain, neuronal metabolism occurs at a very high rate and generates considerable amounts of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which accumulate inside neurons, leading to altered cellular homeostasis and integrity and eventually irreversible damage and cell death. A misbalance in redox metabolism and the subsequent neurodegeneration increase throughout the course of normal aging, leading to several age-related changes in learning and memory as well as motor functions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313031/direct-comparison-of-oligochaete-erythrocruorins-as-potential-blood-substitutes
#13
Devon Zimmerman, Matthew DiIusto, Jack Dienes, Osheiza Abdulmalik, Jacob J Elmer
While many blood substitutes are based on mammalian hemoglobins (e.g., human hemoglobin, HbA), the naturally extracellular hemoglobins of invertebrates (a.k.a. erythrocruorins, Ecs) are intriguing alternative oxygen carriers. Specifically, the erythrocruorin of Lumbricus terrestris has been shown to effectively deliver oxygen in mice and rats without the negative side effects observed with HbA. In this study, the properties of six oligochaete Ecs (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia hortensis, Eisenia fetida, Eisenia veneta, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Amynthas gracilis) were compared in vitro to identify the most promising blood substitute candidate(s)...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305420/in-vitro-reconstitution-functional-dissection-and-mutational-analysis-of-metal-ion-transport-by-mitoferrin-1
#14
Eric T Christenson, Austin S Gallegos, Anirban Banerjee
Iron is universally important to cellular metabolism and mitoferrins-1 and -2 have been proposed to be the iron importers of mitochondria, the cell's assembly plant of heme and iron-sulfur clusters. These iron-containing prosthetic groups are critical for a host of physiological processes ranging from oxygen transport and energy consumption to maintaining protein structural integrity. Mitoferrin-1 (Mfrn1) belongs to the mitochondrial carrier (MC) family and is atypical given its putative metallic cargo; most MCs transport nucleotides, amino acids, or other small to medium-size metabolites...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305141/dequalinium-based-functional-nanosomes-show-increased-mitochondria-targeting-and-anticancer-effect
#15
Yoonhee Bae, Min Kyo Jung, Seulgi Lee, Su Jeong Song, Ji Young Mun, Eric S Green, Jin Han, Kyung Soo Ko, Joon Sig Choi
Mitochondria are targets with great potential for therapeutics for many human disorders. However, drug delivery systems for such therapeutics remain in need of more efficient mitochondrial-targeting carriers. In this study, we report that nanosomes composed of Dequalinium/DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane)/DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), called DQA80s, can act in the dual role of mitochondrial-targeting carrier and anticancer agent for therapeutic interventions against mitochondrial diseases...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303976/thermally-stimulated-currents-in-nanocrystalline-titania
#16
Mara Bruzzi, Riccardo Mori, Andrea Baldi, Ennio Antonio Carnevale, Alessandro Cavallaro, Monica Scaringella
A thorough study on the distribution of defect-related active energy levels has been performed on nanocrystalline TiO₂. Films have been deposited on thick-alumina printed circuit boards equipped with electrical contacts, heater and temperature sensors, to carry out a detailed thermally stimulated currents analysis on a wide temperature range (5-630 K), in view to evidence contributions from shallow to deep energy levels within the gap. Data have been processed by numerically modelling electrical transport...
January 5, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303174/oxygen-induced-degradation-of-the-electronic-properties-of-thin-layer-inse
#17
Xin Wei, Chaofang Dong, Aoni Xu, Xiaogang Li, Digby D Macdonald
Thin-layer indium selenide (InSe) compounds, as two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, have been widely and intensively studied due to their high electron mobility and environmental stability. Here, we report a study demonstrating the oxygen-induced degradation of monolayer and bilayer InSe nanosheets using first-principles calculations and deformation potential theory. It is evident that O atoms prefer to substitute Se atoms instead of undergoing adsorption onto surfaces, while interstitial sites are the most stable adsorption sites of O atoms in the interior for both monolayer and bilayer InSe...
January 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302663/enhanced-robust-light-driven-h2-generation-by-gallium-doped-titania-nanoparticles
#18
Si Luo, Thuy-Duong Nguyen-Phan, Dimitriy Vovchok, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Robert M Palomino, Andrew D Gamalski, Laura Barrio, Wenqian Xu, Dmitry E Polyansky, José A Rodriguez, Sanjaya D Senanayake
The splitting of water into molecular hydrogen and oxygen with the use of renewable solar energy is considered one of the most promising routes to yield sustainable fuel. Herein, we report the H2 evolution performance of gallium doped TiO2 photocatalysts with varying degrees of Ga dopant. The gallium(iii) ions induced significant changes in the structural, textural and electronic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity and good stability for H2 production. Ga3+ ions can act as hole traps that enable a large number of excited electrons to migrate towards the TiO2 surface, thereby facilitating electron transfer and charge separation...
January 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297522/one-dimensional-cadmium-sulphide-nanotubes-for-photocatalytic-water-splitting
#19
Lin Ju, Ying Dai, Wei Wei, Mengmeng Li, Yan Liang, Baibiao Huang
Recently, a two-dimensional (2D) stable CdS monolayer with remarkable visible-light photocatalytic activity for water splitting has been proposed via theoretical calculations. It is also interesting to explore the photocatalytic activity of one-dimensional (1D) CdS nanotubes (CSNTs). In the present study, we have designed atomic models for CSNTs in the 5.2-19.2 Å outer diameter range and investigated the basic properties using density functional theory. It is shown that the CSNTs have negative strain energies when the diameter is beyond 6...
January 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291056/niclosamide-loaded-biodegradable-chitosan-nanocargoes-an-in-vitro-study-for-potential-application-in-cancer-therapy
#20
Saba Naqvi, Shanid Mohiyuddin, P Gopinath
Chitosan nanoparticles can advance the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of chemotherapeutic agents by controlling release rates and targeted delivery process, which eliminates the limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapies and they are also safe as well as cost-effective. The aim of present study is to explore the anti-tumour effect of niclosamide in lung and breast cancer cell lines using biocompatible and biodegradable carrier where nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic drug (niclosamide) were synthesized, characterized and applied as a stable anti-cancer agent...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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