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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#1
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543100/syndecan-1-limits-the-progression-of-liver-injury-and-promotes-liver-repair-in-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#2
Eon Jeong Nam, Kazutaka Hayashida, Rafael S Aquino, John R Couchman, Rosemary A Kozar, Jian Liu, Pyong Woo Park
Accidental or intentional misuse of acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. While mechanisms that trigger APAP-induced liver injury are well known, those that halt the progression of APAP liver disease and facilitate liver recovery are less understood. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) bind to and regulate various tissue injury factors through their heparan sulfate (HS) chains, but the importance of HSPGs in liver injury in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the role of syndecan-1, the major cell surface HSPG of hepatocytes, in APAP-induced liver injury...
May 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528983/glycocalyx-shedding-is-markedly-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#3
Thanh H Nguyen, Saifei Liu, Gao J Ong, Irene Stafford, Michael P Frenneaux, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other forms of myocardial acute oxidative stress are associated with variable "shedding" of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCS) which can be quantitated ex vivo by release into plasma of glycocalyx components such as Syndecan-1 (SD-1). Previous studies have implicated release of both catecholamines and BNP as potential accentuating factors in GCS: since these are prominent aspects of the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), we hypothesised that TTC is associated with increased GCS and the extent of GCS is predictable on the basis of NT-proBNP and catecholamine releases...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#4
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509684/histone-complexed-dna-fragments-levels-are-associated-with-coagulopathy-endothelial-cell-damage-and-increased-mortality-after-severe-pediatric-trauma
#5
Robert T Russell, Sarah C Christiaans, Tate Nice, Morgan Banks, Vincent Mortellaro, Charity Morgan, Amy Duhachek-Stapelman, Steven J Lisco, Jeffrey D Kerby, Brant M Wagener, Mike K Chen, Jean-François Pittet
BACKGROUND: The release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in the extracellular space secondary to injury has been shown to cause systemic activation of the coagulation system and endothelial cell damage. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients with increased levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA) would have evidence of coagulopathy and endothelial damage that would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 149 pediatric trauma patients and 62 control patients at two level 1 pediatric trauma centers from 2013-2016...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507805/generation-and-functional-characterization-of-mdsc-like-cells
#6
Annkristin Heine, Stefanie Andrea Erika Held, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Julia Friederike Andrea Wolff, Kathrin Klee, Thomas Ulas, Niklas Arndt Schmacke, Solveig Nora Daecke, Kati Riethausen, Joachim L Schultze, Peter Brossart
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are critical in regulating immune responses by suppressing antigen presenting cells (APC) and T cells. We previously observed that incubation of peripheral blood monocytes with interleukin (IL)-10 during their differentiation to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) results in the generation of an APC population with a CD14(+)HLA-DR(low)phenotype (IL-10-APC) with reduced stimulatory capacity similar to human MDSC. Co-incubation experiments now revealed that the addition of IL-10-APC to moDC caused a reduction of DC-induced T-cell proliferation, of the expression of maturation markers, and of secreted cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and Rantes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504989/structural-behavior-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-is-associated-with-pathophysiologic-status-in-septic-mice-an-integrated-approach-to-analyzing-the-behavior-and-function-of-the-glycocalyx-using-both-electron-and-fluorescence-intravital-microscopy
#7
Hanae Kataoka, Akira Ushiyama, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Takehiko Iijima
BACKGROUND: The endothelial surface layer (ESL) regulates vascular permeability to maintain fluid homeostasis. The glycocalyx (GCX), which has a complex and fragile ultrastructure, is an important component of the ESL. Abnormalities of the GCX have been hypothesized to trigger pathological hyperpermeability. Here, we report an integrated in vivo analysis of the morphological and functional properties of the GCX in a vital organ. METHODS: We examined the behavior of the ESL and GCX, using both electron microscopy (EM) and intravital microscopy (IVM)...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489728/novel-adjunct-drugs-reverse-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#8
Ivo P Torres Filho, Luciana N Torres, Christi Salgado, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: There is interest in the small-volume therapeutic use of adjunct drugs for treating hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, critical information is only partially available on mechanisms of action of promising compounds such as adenosine-lidocaine-Magnesium (ALM), beta-hydroxybutyrate plus melatonin (BHB/M), and poloxamer 188 (P-188). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that these adjuncts would reverse HS-induced damage to microvascular endothelial glycocalyx and hemodynamics...
May 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487939/identification-of-novel-genes-associated-with-fracture-healing-in-osteoporosis-induced-by-krm2-overexpression-or-lrp5-deficiency
#9
Feng Gao, Feng Xu, Dankai Wu, Jieping Cheng, Peng Xia
The aim of the present study was to screen potential key genes associated with osteoporotic fracture healing. The microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database accession number GSE51686, were downloaded and used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fracture callus tissue samples obtained from the femora of type I collagen (Col1a1)‑kringle containing transmembrane protein 2 (Krm2) mice and low density lipoprotein receptor‑related protein 5‑/‑ (Lrp5‑/‑) transgenic mice of osteoporosis compared with those in wild‑type (WT) mice...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467516/baseline-serum-syndecan-4-predicts-prognosis-after-the-onset-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonia
#10
Yuki Sato, Yoshinori Tanino, Xintao Wang, Takefumi Nikaido, Suguru Sato, Kenichi Misa, Ryuichi Togawa, Charles W Frevert, Mitsuru Munakata
BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia can experience acute respiratory worsening, also known as acute exacerbation, with a large deterioration on prognosis. The precise mechanism remains unclear; however, syndecan-4 may be involved. Syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in a variety of cells (e.g., epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, etc.), performs various biological roles by binding to several proteins through its heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465789/syndecan-1-coating-of-interleukin-17-producing-natural-killer-t-cells-provides-a-specific-method-for-their-visualization-and-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Jaiswal, Mohanraj Sadasivam, Abdel Rahim A Hamad
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are innate-like T cells that acquire effector functions while developing in the thymus, polarize into three distinct functional subsets viz. NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 cells that produce interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17, respectively. However, there has been no unique surface markers that define each subsets, forcing investigators to use intracellular staining of transcription factors and cytokines in combination of surface markers to distinguish among these subsets...
April 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464847/glycosaminoglycans-are-involved-in-bacterial-adherence-to-lung-cells
#12
Olga Rajas, Luis M Quirós, Mara Ortega, Emma Vazquez-Espinosa, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Fernando Vazquez, Beatriz García
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections are among the top ten causes of death worldwide. Since pathogen to cell adhesion is a crucial step in the infection progress, blocking the interaction between eukaryotic receptors and bacterial ligands may enable the pathogenesis process to be stopped. Cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to be mediators in the adhesion of diverse bacteria to different cell types, making it of interest to examine their involvement in the attachment of various pathogenic bacteria to lung cells, including epithelial cells and fibroblasts...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462474/brain-heparan-sulphate-proteoglycans-are-altered-in-developing-foetus-when-exposed-to-in-utero-hyperglycaemia
#13
M S Sandeep, C D Nandini
In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin...
May 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453867/syndecan-1-regulates-dendritic-cell-migration-in-cutaneous-hypersensitivity-to-haptens
#14
Marco Averbeck, Stephanie Kuhn, Johannes Bühligen, Martin Götte, Jan C Simon, Tobias Polte
In human dendritic cells (DC), we previously demonstrated in vitro that syndecan-1 (SDC1) is downregulated during maturation correlating with enhanced motility. We investigated the effects of SDC1 on DC migration in vivo during TNCB(2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene)-induced cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction (CHS) in mice. We show that DC in SDC1-deficient mice migrated faster and at a higher rate to lymph nodes draining the hapten-painted skin. Adoptive transfer of SDC1-deficient hapten- and fluorochrome-labelled DC into wild type (WT) mice led to increased and faster migration of DC to paracortical lymph nodes, and to a stronger CHS compared to WT DC...
April 28, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453844/association-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-tight-and-adherens-junctions-with-severity-of-plasma-leakage-in-dengue-infection
#15
Suhendro Suwarto, R Tedjo Sasmono, Robert Sinto, Eppy Ibrahim, Maulana Suryamin
Background.: The role of vascular endothelial (VE) components in dengue infection with plasma leakage is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the adjusted association of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) and tight and adherens junction markers with plasma leakage. Methods.: A prospective observational study was conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Adult dengue patients admitted to the hospital on the third day of fever from November 2013 through August 2015 were included in the study...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422726/syndecan-1-knockdown-inhibits-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-deregulating-a-c-src-fak-associated-signaling-pathway
#16
Shuang Shi, Dong Zhong, Yao Xiao, Bing Wang, Wentao Wang, Fu'an Zhang, Haoyang Huang
Recent studies have shown that increased syndecan-1 (SDC1) expression in human glioma is associated with higher tumor grades and poor prognoses, but its oncogenic functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we examined SDC1 expression in datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus. Elevated SDC1 expression in glioma was closely associated with increases in tumor progression and shorter survival. We also examined SDC1 expression and evaluated the effects of stable SDC1 knockdown in glioma cell lines...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404852/attachment-and-post-attachment-receptors-important-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-cell-to-cell-transmission
#17
Huahao Fan, Luhua Qiao, Kyung-Don Kang, Junfen Fan, Wensheng Wei, Guangxiang Luo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires multiple receptors for its attachment and entry to the cell. Our previous studies found that human syndecan-1 (SDC-1), SDC-2, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (TIM-1) are HCV attachment receptors. Other cell surface molecules such as CD81, CLDN1, OCLN, SR-BI, and LDLR mainly function at post-attachment steps, which are considered post-attachment receptors. The underlying molecular mechanisms of different receptors in HCV cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission remain elusive...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#18
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395201/syndecan-4-deficiency-accelerates-the-transition-from-compensated-hypertrophy-to-heart-failure-following-pressure-overload
#19
Guannan Li, Jun Xie, Jianzhou Chen, Ran Li, Han Wu, Xinlin Zhang, Qinhua Chen, Rong Gu, Biao Xu
Increasing evidence suggests that a mismatch between angiogenesis and myocardial growth contributes to the transition from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure following pressure overload. Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane proteoglycan that binds to growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins and is critical in focal adhesion formation. However, its effects on coronary angiogenesis during pressure overload-induced heart failure have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that syndecan-4 modulates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload through its ability to regulate adaptive angiogenesis...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390135/comparative-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-ameloblastomas-and-ameloblastic-carcinomas
#20
M Martínez-Martínez, A Mosqueda-Taylor, R Carlos-Bregni, F-R Pires, W Delgado-Azanero, R Neves-Silva, B Aldape-Barrios, O Paes-de Almeida
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ameloblastomas (AM) and ameloblastic carcinomas (AC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen cases of AM and 9 AC were submitted to hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical analysis with the following antibodies: cytokeratins 5,7,8,14 and 19, Ki-67, p53, p63 and the cellular adhesion molecules CD138 (Syndecan-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mean score of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 labelling index (LIs) were compared between the groups using the t test...
May 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
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