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haloperidol vs placebo for delirium

Harriet Riegger, Alexa Hollinger, Burkhardt Seifert, Katharina Toft, Andrea Blum, Tatjana Zehnder, Martin Siegemund
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a neurobehavioural syndrome that frequently develops in the postoperative setting. The incidence of elderly patients who develop delirium during hospital stay ranges from 10 to 80% (Schonauer et al., J Pept Sci. 2017). Delirium was first described more than half a century ago in the cardiac surgery population (Blachy and Starr, Am J Psychiatry 121:371-5, 1964), where it was already discovered as a state that might be accompanied by serious complications such as prolonged ICU and hospital stay, reduced quality of life and increased mortality...
February 26, 2018: Trials
Mark van den Boogaard, Arjen J C Slooter, Roger J M Brüggemann, Lisette Schoonhoven, Albertus Beishuizen, J Wytze Vermeijden, Danie Pretorius, Jan de Koning, Koen S Simons, Paul J W Dennesen, Peter H J Van der Voort, Saskia Houterman, J G van der Hoeven, Peter Pickkers
Importance: Results of studies on use of prophylactic haloperidol in critically ill adults are inconclusive, especially in patients at high risk of delirium. Objective: To determine whether prophylactic use of haloperidol improves survival among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium, which was defined as an anticipated intensive care unit (ICU) stay of at least 2 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigator-driven study involving 1789 critically ill adults treated at 21 ICUs, at which nonpharmacological interventions for delirium prevention are routinely used in the Netherlands...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
M Barbateskovic, S R Kraus, M O Collet, O Mathiesen, J C Jakobsen, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients...
February 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
David Hui, Susan Frisbee-Hume, Annie Wilson, Seyedeh S Dibaj, Thuc Nguyen, Maxine De La Cruz, Paul Walker, Donna S Zhukovsky, Marvin Delgado-Guay, Marieberta Vidal, Daniel Epner, Akhila Reddy, Kimerson Tanco, Janet Williams, Stacy Hall, Diane Liu, Kenneth Hess, Sapna Amin, William Breitbart, Eduardo Bruera
Importance: The use of benzodiazepines to control agitation in delirium in the last days of life is controversial. Objective: To compare the effect of lorazepam vs placebo as an adjuvant to haloperidol for persistent agitation in patients with delirium in the setting of advanced cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-center, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial conducted at an acute palliative care unit at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas, enrolling 93 patients with advanced cancer and agitated delirium despite scheduled haloperidol from February 11, 2014, to June 30, 2016, with data collection completed in October 2016...
September 19, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Meera R Agar, Peter G Lawlor, Stephen Quinn, Brian Draper, Gideon A Caplan, Debra Rowett, Christine Sanderson, Janet Hardy, Brian Le, Simon Eckermann, Nicola McCaffrey, Linda Devilee, Belinda Fazekas, Mark Hill, David C Currow
Importance: Antipsychotics are widely used for distressing symptoms of delirium, but efficacy has not been established in placebo-controlled trials in palliative care. Objective: To determine efficacy of risperidone or haloperidol relative to placebo in relieving target symptoms of delirium associated with distress among patients receiving palliative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-titrated randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 Australian inpatient hospice or hospital palliative care services between August 13, 2008, and April 2, 2014, among participants with life-limiting illness, delirium, and a delirium symptoms score (sum of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale behavioral, communication, and perceptual items) of 1 or more...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Anne-Mette C Sauër, Arjen J C Slooter, Dieuwke S Veldhuijzen, Maarten M J van Eijk, John W Devlin, Diederik van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and may be partly related to the systemic inflammatory response triggered by the surgery and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We hypothesized that intraoperative administration of high-dose dexamethasone, a drug with potent anti-inflammatory effects, would reduce the incidence of delirium at any time point during the first 4 postoperative days after cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a single-center substudy within a larger, multicenter placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, the Dexamethasone for Cardiac Surgery (DECS) trial that randomized patients ≥18 years, undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, to receive, in a double-blind fashion, either dexamethasone 1 mg/kg or placebo at the induction of anesthesia...
November 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Valerie J Page, E Wesley Ely, Simon Gates, Xiao Bei Zhao, Timothy Alce, Ayumi Shintani, Jim Jackson, Gavin D Perkins, Daniel F McAuley
BACKGROUND: Delirium is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Haloperidol is the most commonly used drug for delirium despite little evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to establish whether early treatment with haloperidol would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or coma. METHODS: We did this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU)...
September 2013: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Vladan Novakovic, Tymaz Adel, Eric Peselow, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVES: Five long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are currently available in the United States for the treatment of schizophrenia: fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. Additionally, aripiprazole LAI is currently under FDA review. However, research into the safety and tolerability of these LAIs, with particular regard to the development of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS), is limited and has been focused mainly on olanzapine pamoate...
March 2013: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Holland C Detke, Fangyi Zhao, Michael M Witte
BACKGROUND: To treat acute schizophrenia, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic needs a rapid onset of action and therapeutic profile similar to that of oral agents. The present post-hoc analyses compared results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) for acute schizophrenia with those observed in similarly designed trials of oral olanzapine. METHODS: Six-week results from the olanzapine LAI study (N = 404) were compared with those of 3 oral studies (study 1: olanzapine vs...
May 30, 2012: BMC Psychiatry
Wei Wang, Hong-Liang Li, Dong-Xin Wang, Xi Zhu, Shuang-Ling Li, Gai-Qi Yao, Kai-Sheng Chen, Xiu-E Gu, Sai-Nan Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-term low-dose intravenous haloperidol for delirium prevention in critically ill elderly patients after noncardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in two centers. SETTING: Intensive care units of two large tertiary teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Four hundred fifty-seven patients 65 yrs or older who were admitted to the intensive care unit after noncardiac surgery...
March 2012: Critical Care Medicine
John W Devlin, Yoanna Skrobik, Richard R Riker, Eric Hinderleider, Russel J Roberts, Jeffrey J Fong, Robin Ruthazer, Nicholas S Hill, Erik Garpestad
INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that delirium symptoms may respond differently to antipsychotic therapy. The purpose of this paper was to retrospectively compare duration and time to first resolution of individual delirium symptoms from the database of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing quetiapine (Q) or placebo (P), both with haloperidol rescue, for critically ill patients with delirium. METHODS: Data for 10 delirium symptoms from the eight-domain, intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC) previously collected every 12 hours were extracted for 29 study patients...
2011: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
John W Devlin, Russel J Roberts, Jeffrey J Fong, Yoanna Skrobik, Richard R Riker, Nicholas S Hill, Tracey Robbins, Erik Garpestad
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of scheduled quetiapine to placebo for the treatment of delirium in critically ill patients requiring as-needed haloperidol. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Three academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-six adult intensive care unit patients with delirium (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score > or = 4), tolerating enteral nutrition, and without a complicating neurologic condition...
February 2010: Critical Care Medicine
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