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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721544/sleep-in-older-adults-and-in-subjects-with-dementia
#1
REVIEW
Helmut Frohnhofen, Jeanina Schlitzer, Nikolaus Netzer
The neuronal structures for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness are located in the brain. This complex network is vulnerable to numerous factors, most importantly neurodegenerative diseases and drugs. The macrostructure and microstructure of sleep change with age. These changes are more pronounced in subjects with dementia. Sleep disorders in subjects with dementia may be independent of dementia or caused by dementia. Furthermore, epidemiological studies reveal that sleep disorders per se may induce dementia by reduction of cerebral clearance of beta-amyloids...
July 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716614/evaluation-of-a-pain-assessment-procedure-in-long-term-care-residents-with-pain-and-dementia
#2
Janine van Kooten, Martin Smalbrugge, Johannes C van der Wouden, Max L Stek, Cees M P M Hertogh
BACKGROUND: The management of pain in long-term care residents with dementia is complex. A prospective exploratory study was conducted to describe the course of pain and pain management strategies following a guideline-based pain assessment procedure in long-term care (LTC) residents with pain and dementia. MEASURES: Pain observations with the MOBID-2 Pain Scale, review of the medical records and pharmacy files and physical examination of LTC residents with pain and dementia...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#3
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705297/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#4
Torsten Kratz
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders such as aggressiveness, agitation, delusions, disinhibition, affect lability, and apathy arise in more than 90% of patients with dementia. Behavioral disorders are a major challenge and the greatest stress factor in everyday life for nursing personnel and for family members caring for the patient. METHODS: This review is based on relevant publications retrieved by a selective literature search in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and German S3 guideline databases with the search terms "behavioral disorders," "non-cognitive disorders," and "challenging behavior," in conjunction with "dementia" and "behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697570/adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-during-dementia-work-up-in-a-real-world-setting-a-study-from-the-registry-of-dementias-of-girona
#5
Oriol Turró-Garriga, Laia Calvó-Perxas, Joan Vilalta-Franch, Marta Hernández-Ferrándiz, Margarita Flaqué, Marta Linares, Marta Cullell, Jordi Gich, Isabel Casas, Héctor Perkal, Josep Garre-Olmo
BACKGROUND: There are several position statements and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for diagnosing dementia. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to evaluate the adherence to CPG among specialists in the 7 memory clinics included in the Registry of Dementias of Girona (ReDeGi), and to compare the results between 2007-2011 and 2012-2015. We also determined the time and number of visits required to achieve a diagnosis, the supplementary tests ordered, and the drugs prescribed according to dementia subtypes...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697569/relationships-of-dietary-patterns-foods-and-micro-and-macronutrients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-late-life-cognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#6
Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Carlo Custodero, Madia Lozupone, Bruno P Imbimbo, Vincenzo Valiani, Pasquale Agosti, Andrea Schilardi, Alessia D'Introno, Maddalena La Montagna, Mariapaola Calvani, Vito Guerra, Rodolfo Sardone, Daniela I Abbrescia, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Giancarlo Logroscino, Carlo Sabbá, Francesco Panza
In the last decade, the association between diet and cognitive function or dementia has been largely investigated. In the present article, we systematically reviewed observational studies published in the last three years (2014-2016) on the relationship among dietary factors and late-life cognitive disorders at different levels of investigation (i.e., dietary patterns, foods and food-groups, and dietary micro- and macronutrients), and possible underlying mechanisms of the proposed associations. From the reviewed evidence, the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline due to AD pathology introduced some evidence suggesting a direct relation between diet and changes in the brain structure and activity...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693437/effects-of-computerized-cognitive-training-on-neuroimaging-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#7
Lisanne F Ten Brinke, Jennifer C Davis, Cindy K Barha, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the population is aging and the number of individuals diagnosed with dementia is rising rapidly. Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical cures. Hence, identifying lifestyle approaches that may prevent, delay, or treat cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults is becoming increasingly important. Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) is a promising strategy to combat cognitive decline. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the effect of CCT on cognition remain poorly understood...
July 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688072/-a%C3%A2-qualitative-exploration-of-the-chronic-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-in-nursing-homes
#8
Lukas Leten, Majda Azermai, Maarten Wauters, Jan De Lepeleire
BACKGROUND: Although guidelines put forward non-pharmacological therapies and advise against the chronic use of psychotropic drugs, these are still being prescribed regularly in Belgian nursing homes. GOAL: To explore the reasons for initiation, continuation and cessation of psychotropic drug treatment of elderly with dementia and behavioral problems, residing in the nursing home. METHOD: Twenty-seven interviews from an earlier project were used, in which a semi-structured interview was conducted with the nursing staff, the physicians and the caretakers of eleven randomly selected residents from three nursing homes...
July 7, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679818/cms-strategies-to-reduce-antipsychotic-drug-use-in-nursing-home-patients-with-dementia-show-some-progress
#9
Judith A Lucas, John R Bowblis
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services initiated three strategies (in March and July 2012 and in May 2013) to reduce the use of unnecessary antipsychotic medications in nursing homes, especially their widespread use to control behavioral symptoms of dementia. We examined 86,163 state recertification surveys conducted at 15,055 facilities in the period January 1, 2009-March 31, 2015. We found that these strategies were associated with increases in citations for only one of two targeted deficiencies (unnecessary drug use) and only after the third strategy (revisions to the federal guidelines for the citations) was implemented...
July 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677230/delirium-in-a-residential-care-facility-an-exploratory-study-of-staff-knowledge
#10
Amy Buettel, Michelle Cleary, Marguerite Bramble
OBJECTIVE: To explore staff knowledge of delirium by eliciting meaning through descriptions of their experiences within a residential aged care facility (RACF). METHODS: Six staff from one RACF in Australia participated in this qualitative study. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted and analysed using Colaizzi's analytical framework. RESULTS: The analysis revealed four themes: (i) absence of the word delirium; (ii) care based on intuition and automated actions; (iii) reliance on teamwork; and (iv) confusing delirium, depression and dementia...
July 5, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669365/incidence-of-pneumonia-in-nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-in-the-netherlands-an-estimation-based-on-three-differently-designed-studies
#11
T P Zomer, T VAN DER Maaden, A B VAN Gageldonk-Lafeber, S C DE Greeff, J T VAN DER Steen, L Verhoef
Pneumonia leads to considerable morbidity and mortality in nursing home residents with dementia. We assessed pneumonia incidence based on data from three different studies: (1) real-time national surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in nursing home residents in 2009-2015; (2) a randomized controlled trial in 2012-2015 to assess effects of a practical guideline in nursing home residents with dementia and pneumonia; and (3) a study in 2007-2010 to assess quality of dying in newly admitted nursing home residents with dementia...
July 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667059/hypercholesterolaemia-and-vascular-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Jason P Appleton, Polly Scutt, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors-diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking-are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet not fully understood...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666470/the-effects-of-chronic-and-acute-physical-activity-on-working-memory-performance-in-healthy-participants-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
Azeem Rathore, Barbara Lom
BACKGROUND: Understanding how physical activity (PA) influences cognitive function in populations with cognitive impairments, such as dementia, is an increasingly studied topic yielding numerous published systematic reviews. In contrast, however, there appears to be less interest in examining associations between PA and cognition in cognitively healthy individuals. Therefore, the objective of this review was to evaluate and synthesize randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies that investigated the effects of both chronic and acute PA on working memory performance (WMP) in physically and cognitively healthy individuals...
June 30, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657600/the-association-between-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-cognitive-health-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Yasmine S Aridi, Jacqueline L Walker, Olivia R L Wright
The ageing population is accompanied by increased rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Not only does cognitive decline have a profound impact on an individual's health and quality of life, but also on that of their caregivers. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been known to aid in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. It has been recently linked to better cognitive function in the elderly population. The purpose of this review was to compile evidence based data that examined the effect of adherence to the MD on cognitive function and the risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease...
June 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655027/zolpidem-for-the-treatment-of-neurologic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#15
Martin N Bomalaski, Edward S Claflin, Whitney Townsend, Mark D Peterson
Importance: Given its selective action on the ω1 subtype of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. Objective: To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic disorders. Evidence Review: Eligibility criteria included any published English-language article that examined the use of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurologic disorders in humans for all dates up to March 20, 2015...
June 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652059/burden-and-predictors-of-poststroke-cognitive-impairment-in-a-sample-of-ghanaian-stroke-survivors
#16
Fred Stephen Sarfo, John Akassi, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) from low- and middle-income countries where the stroke burden is burgeoning. The aim of this study was to characterize the burden, determinants, and effects of VCI on health-related quality of life in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: From January 2015 to February 2016, we collected information on 147 consecutive stroke survivors (>45 years) seen at a tertiary hospital in Ghana and 49 demographically matched stroke-free controls...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644588/clinical-consensus-guidelines-on-the-application-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-recommendations-of-the-irish-network-for-biomarkers-in-neurodegeneration
#17
A M Miller, E Begley, R Coen, M Doyle, J Dunne, S Hutchinson, S P Kennelly, R A Kenny, R P Killeen, A Lynch, S O'Dwyer, C O'Neill, S S O'Sullvan, M J Rowan, N Sheehy, C McGuigan, B A Lawlor
It is accepted that a lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis support the routine diagnostic work-up for the differential diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) within certain patient cohorts1. These tests, which measure CSF protein concentrations of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau) and phospho tau (p-tau), were recently validated, accredited and made available clinically for the first time in Ireland. A working group, comprising Irish clinical and scientific researchers, met to review a) the validation results; b) international consensus opinions, and c) research and clinical evidence as to the clinical utility of CSF biomarker analysis for AD dementia diagnosis...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643811/-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-what-is-the-role-of-public-health
#18
Nicola Vanacore, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Flavia Mayer, Giulia Grande, Matteo Cesari, Marco Canevelli
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed by Petersen in 1999 with the objective of identifying an early stage of dementia. The new diagnostic criteria for dementia, both those promoted by the International Working Group (IWG) and those defined by the National Institute of Aging (NIA), subsequently introduced a new model that starts with a preclinical phase, then proceeds with a prodromal phase, and ends with a phase of dementia. The condition known as subjective cognitive disorder (SCD) is included between the preclinic and the prodromal phases...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641576/euthanasia-for-people-with-psychiatric-disorders-or-dementia-in-belgium-analysis-of-officially-reported-cases
#19
Sigrid Dierickx, Luc Deliens, Joachim Cohen, Kenneth Chambaere
BACKGROUND: Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases...
June 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596151/survey-on-advance-care-planning-of-italian-outpatients-on-chronic-haemodialysis
#20
Nicola Panocchia, Giuseppe Tonnara, Roberta Minacori, Dario Sacchini, Maurizio Bossola, Luigi Tazza, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Gioacchino Spagnolo
OBJECTIVES: The clinical practice guidelines published by the Renal Physicians Association (USA) recommend instituting advance care planning (ACP) for patients with end-stage renal disease. Studies on this issue are lacking in Italy. Our aim was to determine the attitudes of patients on ACP in our dialysis centre. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey. We recruited patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) at Hemodialysis Center of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, from 1 March 2014 to 31 March 2015...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
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