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Liqiu Zhang, Hee-Jeong Jang, Sung Jae Yoo, Sanghyun Cho, Ji Hye Won, Lichun Liu, Sungho Park
Site-selective synthesis of nanostructures is an important topic in the nanoscience community. Normally, the difference between seeds and deposition atoms in terms of crystallinity triggers the deposition atoms to grow initially at the specific site of nucleation. It is more challenging to control the deposition site of atoms that have the same composition as the seeds because the atoms tend to grow epitaxially, covering the whole surface of the seed nanoparticles. Gold (Au) nano-octahedrons used as seeds in this study possess obvious hierarchical surface energies depending on whether they are at vertices, edges, or terraces...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Alexander Ohmann, Chen-Yu Li, Christopher Maffeo, Kareem Al Nahas, Kevin N Baumann, Kerstin Göpfrich, Jejoong Yoo, Ulrich F Keyser, Aleksei Aksimentiev
Mimicking enzyme function and increasing performance of naturally evolved proteins is one of the most challenging and intriguing aims of nanoscience. Here, we employ DNA nanotechnology to design a synthetic enzyme that substantially outperforms its biological archetypes. Consisting of only eight strands, our DNA nanostructure spontaneously inserts into biological membranes by forming a toroidal pore that connects the membrane's inner and outer leaflets. The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating the lipid composition...
June 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Shihui Wen, Jiajia Zhou, Kezhi Zheng, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Xiaogang Liu, Dayong Jin
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are capable of converting near-infra-red excitation into visible and ultraviolet emission. Their unique optical properties have advanced a broad range of applications, such as fluorescent microscopy, deep-tissue bioimaging, nanomedicine, optogenetics, security labelling and volumetric display. However, the constraint of concentration quenching on upconversion luminescence has hampered the nanoscience community to develop bright UCNPs with a large number of dopants...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Kyriakos Dalamagkas, Magdalini Tsintou, Amelia Seifalian, Alexander M Seifalian
Spinal cord injury is a chronic and debilitating neurological condition that is currently being managed symptomatically with no real therapeutic strategies available. Even though there is no consensus on the best time to start interventions, the chronic phase is definitely the most stable target in order to determine whether a therapy can effectively restore neurological function. The advancements of nanoscience and stem cell technology, combined with the powerful, novel neuroimaging modalities that have arisen can now accelerate the path of promising novel therapeutic strategies from bench to bedside...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mitch M Lasat, Kian Fan Chung, Jamie Lead, Steve McGrath, Richard J Owen, Sophie Rocks, Jason Unrine, Junfeng Zhang
Nanotechnology has significant economic, health, and environmental benefits, including renewable energy and innovative environmental solutions. Manufactured nanoparticles have been incorporated into new materials and products because of their novel or enhanced properties. These very same properties also have prompted concerns about the potential environmental and human health hazard and risk posed by the manufactured nanomaterials. Appropriate risk management responses require the development of models capable of predicting the environmental and human health effects of the nanomaterials...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Protection
Baicheng Yao, Shu-Wei Huang, Yuan Liu, Abhinav Kumar Vinod, Chanyeol Choi, Michael Hoff, Yongnan Li, Mingbin Yu, Ziying Feng, Dim-Lee Kwong, Yu Huang, Yunjiang Rao, Xiangfeng Duan, Chee Wei Wong
Optical frequency combs, which emit pulses of light at discrete, equally spaced frequencies, are cornerstones of modern-day frequency metrology, precision spectroscopy, astronomical observations, ultrafast optics and quantum information1-7 . Chip-scale frequency combs, based on the Kerr and Raman nonlinearities in monolithic microresonators with ultrahigh quality factors8-10 , have recently led to progress in optical clockwork and observations of temporal cavity solitons11-14 . But the chromatic dispersion within a laser cavity, which determines the comb formation15,16 , is usually difficult to tune with an electric field, whether in microcavities or fibre cavities...
June 11, 2018: Nature
Petr Kovaříček, Marek Cebecauer, Jitka Neburková, Jan Bartoň, Michaela Fridrichová, Karolina A Drogowska, Petr Cigler, Jean-Marie Lehn, Martin Kalbac
Manipulating nanoscopic objects by external stimuli is the cornerstone of nanoscience. Here, we report the implemen-tation of dynamic covalent chemistry in the reversible binding and directional motion of fluorescent nanodiamond particles at a functionalized graphene surface via imine linkages. The dynamic connections allow for controlling the formation and rupture of these linkages by external stimuli. By introduction of pH gradients, the nanoparticles are driven to move along the gradient due to the different rates of the imine condensation and hydrolysis in the two envi-ronments...
June 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Luca Canale, Axel Laborieux, Agasthya Aroul Mogane, Laetitia Jubin, Jean Comtet, Antoine Lainé, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Antoine Niguès
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows to reconstruct the topography of surfaces with a resolutions in the nanometer range. The exceptional resolution attainable with the AFM makes this instrument a key tool in nanoscience and technology. The core of standard AFM set-up relies on the detection of the change of the mechanical motion of a micro-oscillator when approaching the sample to image. Despite the fact that AFM is nowadays a very common instrument for both fundamental and applied research. The fabrication of the micrometric scale mechanical oscillator is still a very complicated and expensive task requiring dedicated platforms...
June 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jemmyson Romário de Jesus, Luana Ferreira da Costa, Eraldo Luiz Lehmann, Rodrigo Moretto Galazzi, Katherine Chacón Madrid, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda
Chemical speciation approaches is an inherent part of metallomics, once metals/metalloids and organic structures need to be currently evaluated for attaining metallomics studies. Then, this chapter focuses on the applications of the chemical speciation applied to the human health risk, food and human diet, drugs, forensic, nanoscience, and geological metallomics, also pointing out the advances in such area. Some aspects regarding sample preparation is commented along this chapter, and some strategies for maintaining the integrity of the metallomics information are also emphasized...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Serena Rigo, Chao Cai, Gesine Gunkel-Grabole, Lionel Maurizi, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jian Xu, Cornelia G Palivan
Microbial contamination and biofilm formation of medical devices is a major issue associated with medical complications and increased costs. Consequently, there is a growing need for novel strategies and exploitation of nanoscience-based technologies to reduce the interaction of bacteria and microbes with synthetic surfaces. This article focuses on surfaces that are nanostructured, have functional coatings, and generate or release antimicrobial compounds, including "smart surfaces" producing antibiotics on demand...
May 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Linhan Lin, Eric H Hill, Xiaolei Peng, Yuebing Zheng
Optical manipulation techniques are important in many fields. For instance, they enable bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials and high-resolution and in situ analysis of biological cells and molecules, providing opportunities for discovery of new materials, medical diagnostics, and nanomedicines. Traditional optical tweezers have their applications limited due to the use of rigorous optics and high optical power. New strategies have been established for low-power optical manipulation techniques. Optothermal manipulation, which exploits photon-phonon conversion and matter migration under a light-controlled temperature gradient, is one such emerging technique...
May 25, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Qiaofeng Yao, Tiankai Chen, Xun Yuan, Jianping Xie
Total synthesis, where desired organic- and/or biomolecules could be produced from simple precursors at atomic precision and with known step-by-step reactions, has prompted centuries-lasting bloom of organic chemistry since its conceptualization in 1828 (Wöhler synthesis of urea). Such expressive science is also highly desirable in nanoscience, since it represents a decisive step toward atom-by-atom customization of nanomaterials for basic and applied research. Although total synthesis chemistry is less established in nanoscience, recent years have witnessed seminal advances and increasing research efforts devoted into this field...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Wenqi Liu, Allen G Oliver, Bradley D Smith
Two macrocyclic tetralactam receptors are shown to selectively encapsulate anionic, square planar chloride and bromide coordination complexes of gold(III), platinum(II), or palladium(II). Both receptors have a preorganized structure that is complementary to its precious metal guest. The receptors do not directly ligate the guest metal center but instead provide an array of arene π-electron donors that interact with the electropositive metal, and hydrogen bond donors that interact with the outer electronegative ligands...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lei Zhang, Nadiia Pasthukova, Yifan Yao, Xiaolan Zhong, Egon Pavlica, Gvido Bratina, Emanuele Orgiu, Paolo Samorì
Self-standing nanostructures are of fundamental interest in materials science and nanoscience and are widely used in (opto-)electronic and photonic devices as well as in micro-electromechanical systems. To date, large-area and self-standing nanoelectrode arrays assembled on flexible substrates have not been reported. Here the fabrication of a hollow nanomesh scaffold on glass and plastic substrates with a large surface area over 1 mm2 and ultralow leakage current density (≈1-10 pA mm-2 @ 2 V) across the empty scaffold is demonstrated...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xiuru Liu, Xiaoqiu Li, Wu Xu, Xiaohan Zhang, Zhicheng Huang, Feng Wang, Juewen Liu
A hallmark of nanoscience is size-dependent and distance-dependent physical properties. While most previous studies focused on optical properties, which are often tuned at nanometer scale, we herein report on the interaction between halide-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and phosphocholine (PC) liposomes at the sub-Angstrom level. Halide-capped AuNPs are adsorbed by PC liposomes attributable to van der Waals force. Iodide-capped AuNPs interact much more weakly with the liposomes compared to bromide and chloride-capped AuNPs, as indicated by a liposome leakage assay and differential scanning calorimetry...
May 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Richard J Gillams, Tony Z Jia
An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity...
May 8, 2018: Life
Lin Cui, Chen-Chen Li, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct characteristics of high brightness, large Stokes shift and broad absorption spectra, large molar extinction coefficients, high quantum yield, good photostability and long fluorescence lifetime. The QDs have replaced the conventional fluorophores with wide applications in immunoassays, microarrays, fluorescence imaging, targeted drug delivery and therapy. The integration of QDs with various nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, carbon allotropes, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) brings new opportunities and possibilities in nanoscience and nanotechnology...
May 8, 2018: Analyst
Bing Ni, Ting He, Jia-Ou Wang, Simin Zhang, Chen Ouyang, Yong Long, Jing Zhuang, Xun Wang
Designing intricate structures and searching for functional materials has attracted wide interest in nanoscience. Herein we have fabricated (NiFe)S2 pyrite mesocrystals in the form of nearly-single crystalline porous cubes, and studied their self-optimization to realize efficient activity toward water oxidation under electrochemical conditions. The growth mechanism of the mesocrystals was a non-classical mechanism, which was initiated by the formation of a large quantity of small nickel sulfide clusters, followed by the aggregation and transformation of these small clusters in an oriented manner...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Adarsh Bafana, Shishir V Kumar, Sila Temizel-Sekeryan, Si Amar Dahoumane, Liv Haselbach, Clayton S Jeffryes
Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known for applications in electronics and as antimicrobial agents because of their unique optical, electrical, cytotoxic and thermal properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized via a wide variety of techniques; however, they require the use of hazardous solvents which have very high environmental impacts. Nanoscience researchers have attempted novel synthesis routes that reduce resource requirements and use benign chemicals, while maintaining control over their unique properties...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
F Langer, C P Schmid, S Schlauderer, M Gmitra, J Fabian, P Nagler, C Schüller, T Korn, P G Hawkins, J T Steiner, U Huttner, S W Koch, M Kira, R Huber
As conventional electronics approaches its limits 1 , nanoscience has urgently sought methods of fast control of electrons at the fundamental quantum level 2 . Lightwave electronics 3 -the foundation of attosecond science 4 -uses the oscillating carrier wave of intense light pulses to control the translational motion of the electron's charge faster than a single cycle of light5-15 . Despite being particularly promising information carriers, the internal quantum attributes of spin 16 and valley pseudospin17-21 have not been switchable on the subcycle scale...
May 2018: Nature
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