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Sung-Min Kwon, Bong Ki Min, Jun Sik Son, Tae-Yub Kwon
Self-assembled monolayers of thiols have been used to link a range of materials to planar gold surfaces or gold nanoparticles in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Novel mercapto silane systems are a promising alternative to dental noble metal alloys for enhanced resin bonding durability Goldbased alloys for full-cast restorations contain various base metal elements, which may bond to acidic functional monomers chemically, in addition to noble metal elements. This study examined how the additional incorporation of a phosphate monomer (di-2-hydroxyethyl methacryl hydrogenphosphate, DHP) into novel mercapto silane primer systems affected the resin bond strength to a type IV gold alloy pretreated with the primers...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
David A Winkler
The quantitative structure-activity relationships method was popularized by Hansch and Fujita over 50 years ago. The usefulness of the method for drug design and development has been shown in the intervening years. As it was developed initially to elucidate which molecular properties modulated the relative potency of putative agrochemicals, and at a time when computing resources were scarce, there is much scope for applying modern mathematical methods to improve the QSAR method and to extending the general concept to the discovery and optimization of bioactive molecules and materials more broadly...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
M H Bahreyni-Toosi, M H Zare, A Ale-Davood, M T Shakeri, S Soudmand
Background and Objective: Multi-walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs) as an important element of nanosciences have a remarkable absorption in the region of NIR window (650-900 nm) which can overcome the limitations of deep treatment in photothermal therapy. To disperse MWCNTs in water, it is proposed to attach carboxylated functional group (-COOH) to MWCNTs in order to increase dispersivity in water. Materials and Methods: A stable suspension of MWCNTs-COOH with different concentrations (from 2...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Savita Chaudhary, Ahmad Umar, K K Bhasin, Sotirios Baskoutas
Recent advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed numerous triumphs of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials due to their various exotic and multifunctional properties and wide applications. As a remarkable and functional material, ZnO has attracted extensive scientific and technological attention, as it combines different properties such as high specific surface area, biocompatibility, electrochemical activities, chemical and photochemical stability, high-electron communicating features, non-toxicity, ease of syntheses, and so on...
February 12, 2018: Materials
Sijie Lin, Tianyu Yu, Zhenyang Yu, Xialin Hu, Daqiang Yin
Designing safer nanomaterials and nanostructures has gained increasing attention in the field of nanoscience and technology in recent years. Based on the body of experimental evidence contributed by environmental health and safety studies, materials scientists now have a better grasp on the relationships between the nanomaterials' physicochemical characteristics and their hazard/safety profiles. Therefore, it is expected that an integration of design synthesis and safety assessment will foster nanomaterials safer-by-design by considering both applications and implications...
February 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Gaozhi Ou, Jing Zhao, Peng Chen, Changjin Xiong, Fan Dong, Biao Li, Xiaojun Feng
Atomically precise noble metal nanoclusters with ultrasmall physical sizes in the subnanometer range have emerged as a new class of probing fluorophores and have attracted considerable research interest because of their intrinsic physical, chemical, optical, biological, and electrical properties, such as stability, biocompatibility, and molecule-like photoluminescence. In comparison with traditional fluorophores such as organic dyes and quantum dots, noble metal nanoclusters have significant advantages, including low toxicity toward the environment and biological tissues, high stability when exposed to irradiation, and small size, that make them more suitable for biological sensing or biological labeling applications...
February 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jia-Wei Zhou, Xue-Mei Zou, Shang-Hong Song, Guan-Hua Chen
The pesticide and veterinary drug residues brought by large-scale agricultural production have become one of the issues in the fields of food safety and environmental ecological security. It is necessary to develop the rapid, sensitive, qualitative and quantitative methodology for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. As one of the achievements of nanoscience, quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. In these methodology studies, the used QD-signal styles include fluorescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, photoelectrochemistry, etc...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chan Cao, Yi-Tao Long
Nanopore sensing is developing into a powerful single-molecule approach to investigate the features of biomolecules that are not accessible by studying ensemble systems. When a target molecule is transported through a nanopore, the ions occupying the pore are excluded, resulting in an electrical signal from the intermittent ionic blockade event. By statistical analysis of the amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and shapes of the blockade events, many properties of the target molecule can be obtained in real time at the single-molecule level, including its size, conformation, structure, charge, geometry, and interactions with other molecules...
January 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Inder Kaur, Laura-Jayne Ellis, Isabella Romer, Ratna Tantra, Marie Carriere, Soline Allard, Martine Mayne-L'Hermite, Caterina Minelli, Wolfgang Unger, Annegret Potthoff, Steffi Rades, Eugenia Valsami-Jones
The sonication process is commonly used for de-agglomerating and dispersing nanomaterials in aqueous based media, necessary to improve homogeneity and stability of the suspension. In this study, a systematic step-wise approach is carried out to identify optimal sonication conditions in order to achieve a stable dispersion. This approach has been adopted and shown to be suitable for several nanomaterials (cerium oxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) dispersed in deionized (DI) water. However, with any change in either the nanomaterial type or dispersing medium, there needs to be optimization of the basic protocol by adjusting various factors such as sonication time, power, and sonicator type as well as temperature rise during the process...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hieu Bui, Shalin Shah, Reem Mokhtar, Tianqi Song, Sudhanshu Garg, John Reif
The field of DNA nanoscience has demonstrated many exquisite DNA nanostructures and intricate DNA nanodevices. However the operation of each step of prior demonstrated DNA nanodevices requires the diffusion of DNA strands, and the speed of these devices is limited by diffusion kinetics. Here we demonstrate chains of localized DNA hybridization reactions on the surface of a self-assembled DNA origami rectangle. The localization design for our DNA nanodevices does not rely on the diffusion of DNA strands for each step, thus providing faster reaction kinetics...
January 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Min-Quan Yang, Jing Wang, Hao Wu, Ghim Wei Ho
The fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has significantly advanced the fabrication of nanocatalysts and the in-depth study of the structural-activity characteristics of materials at the atomic level. Vacancies, as typical atomic defects or imperfections that widely exist in solid materials, are demonstrated to effectively modulate the physicochemical, electronic, and catalytic properties of nanomaterials, which is a key concept and hot research topic in nanochemistry and nanocatalysis. The recent experimental and theoretical progresses achieved in the preparation and application of vacancy-rich nanocatalysts for electrochemical water splitting are explored...
January 22, 2018: Small
Muthu Thiruvengadam, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ill-Min Chung
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Avijit PramaniK, Stacy Jones, Ye Gao, Carrie Sweet, Aruna Vangara, Salma Begum, Paresh Chandra Ray
Even in 21st century, >90% cancer-associated deaths are caused by metastatic disease. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which circulate in the blood stream after release from primary tumors, extravasate and form fatal metastases in different organs. Several clinical trials indicate that CTCs can be used as a liquid biopsy of tumors for early diagnosis of cancers. Since CTCs are extremely rare and exhibit heterogeneous biology due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), oncologists continue to face enormous challenges in using CTCs as a true "liquid biopsy" for cancer patients...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Yang Yang, Yong Gang Li, Michael P Short, Chung-Soo Kim, Karl K Berggren, Ju Li
Full three dimensional (3D) simulations of ion implantation are necessary in a wide range of nanoscience and nanotechnology applications to capture the increasing effect of ion leakage out of surfaces. Using a recently developed 3D Monte Carlo simulation code IM3D, we first quantify the relative error of the 1D approach in three applications of nano-scale ion implantation: (1) nano-beam for nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation, (2) implantation of nanowires to fabricate p-n junctions, and (3) irradiation of nano-pillars for small-scale mechanical testing of irradiated materials...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
Elisabete Oliveira, Emilia Bértolo, Cristina Núñez, Viviane Pilla, Hugo M Santos, Javier Fernández-Lodeiro, Adrian Fernández-Lodeiro, Jamila Djafari, José Luis Capelo, Carlos Lodeiro
Red and green are two of the most-preferred colors from the entire chromatic spectrum, and red and green dyes are widely used in biochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immune-staining, and nanochemistry applications. Selective dyes with green and red excitable chromophores can be used in biological environments, such as tissues and cells, and can be irradiated with visible light without cell damage. This critical review, covering a period of five years, provides an overview of the most-relevant results on the use of red and green fluorescent dyes in the fields of bio-, chemo- and nanoscience...
January 2018: ChemistryOpen
Joaquín Calbo, Juan Carlos Sancho-García, Enrique Ortí, Juan Aragó
Understanding how molecular systems self-assemble to form well-organized superstructures governed by noncovalent interactions is essential in the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the nanoscience context, the self-assembly of different carbon-based nanoforms (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene) with, in general, electron-donor molecular systems, has received increasing attention as a means of generating potential candidates for technological applications. In these carbon-based systems, a deep characterization of the supramolecular organization is crucial to establish an intimate relation between supramolecular structure and functionality...
January 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xuexiao Cao, Meng Wang, Lili Sun, Xiaoliang Ren, Gaosheng Pei
BACKGROUND: The highly selective capture of individual components of complex systems such as Chinese medicine extracts is a great challenge. With the rapid development of nanoscience, magnetic materials have attracted increased attention as suitable candidates for use in drug transport vehicles. RESULTS: In this work, amino-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (MNP-NH2 ) have been synthesized and successfully used to selectively isolate Luteolin, a type of flavonoid, from peanut shell, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
S A Gazze, I Hallin, G Quinn, E Dudley, G P Matthews, P Rees, G van Keulen, S H Doerr, L W Francis
Localized variations at the nanoscale in soil aggregates and in the spatial organisation of soil organic matter (SOM) are critical to understanding the factors involved in soil composition and turnover. However soil nanoscience has been hampered by the lack of suitable methods to determine soil biophysical properties at nanometre spatial resolution with minimal sample preparation. Here we introduce for the first time an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)-based Quantitative Nano-Mechanical mapping (QNM) approach that allows the characterisation of the role of SOM in controlling surface nano-mechanical properties of soil aggregates...
December 14, 2017: Nanoscale
Ruijing Ge, Xiaohan Wu, Myungsoo Kim, Jianping Shi, Sushant Sudam Sonde, Li Tao, Yanfeng Zhang, Jack Lee, Deji Akinwande
Recently, two-dimensional (2D) atomic sheets have inspired new ideas in nanoscience including topologically-protected charge transport, spatially-separated excitons, and strongly anisotropic heat transport. Here, we report the intriguing observation of stable non-volatile resistance switching (NVRS) in single-layer atomic sheets sandwiched between metal electrodes. NVRS is observed in the prototypical semiconducting (MX2, M=Mo, W; and X=S, Se) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which alludes to the universality of this phenomenon in TMD monolayers, and offers forming-free switching...
December 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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