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Junli Zhang, Liu Zhu, Yu Yang, Huadong Yong, Junwei Zhang, Yong Peng, Jiecai Fu
Tailoring the nanoarchitecture of materials is significant for the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. To date, one of the most powerful strategies is convergent electron beam irradiation (EBI). However, only two main functions of knock-on or atomic displacement have been achieved to date. In this study, a Coulomb explosion phenomenon was found to occur in α-MoO3 nanobelts (NBs) under electron beam irradiation, which was controllable and could be used to efficiently create nanostructures such as holes, gaps, and other atomic/nanometer patterns on a single α-MoO3 NB...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
Andreas Walther, Sebastian Loescher, Saskia Groeer
Scaffold-based lattice-engineered 3D DNA origami emerges as a powerful and versatile technique for the rational design and built-up of arbitrary and monodisperse DNA-based 3D nanoobjects. Relying on the unsurpassed molecular programmability of sequence-specific DNA hybridization, a long circular ssDNA strand (termed scaffold) is assembled with many short ssDNA oligomers (termed staples), which organize the scaffold into a 3D lattice in a single step leading to highest precision 3D nanoparticulate structures with high yields...
April 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Pei Zhao, Xuping Li, Glib Baryshnikov, Bin Wu, Hans Ågren, Junji Zhang, Liangliang Zhu
In nanoscience, amphiphilic carbon dots (ACDs) are of great importance due to their excellent transferability for application in biological sensing, imaging and labelling. However, facile synthetic strategies are still limited, especially for obtaining high-emissive ACDs. Since the development of a high-emissive feature is strongly desired for improving the practical resolution in vivo , here we report a chemical strategy that uses rigid molecules to straightforwardly construct amphiphilic carbon dots (ACDs) with high luminescence quantum yields (QYs)...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Rawan N AlKahtani
The emerging science of nanotechnology, especially within the dental and medical fields, sparked a research interest in their potential applications and benefits in comparison to conventional materials used. Therefore, a better understanding of the science behind nanotechnology is essential to appreciate how these materials can be utilised in our daily practice. The present paper will help the reader understand nanoscience, and the benefits and limitations of nanotechnology by addressing its ethical, social, and health implications...
April 2018: Saudi Dental Journal
Taehun Kim, Sumin Lim, Jaeyoung Hong, Soon Gu Kwon, Jun Okamoto, Zhi Ying Chen, Jaehong Jeong, Soonmin Kang, Jonathan C Leiner, Jung Tae Lim, Chul Sung Kim, Di Jing Huang, Taeghwan Hyeon, Soonchil Lee, Je-Geun Park
Most interesting phenomena of condensed matter physics originate from interactions among different degrees of freedom, making it a very intriguing yet challenging question how certain ground states emerge from only a limited number of atoms in assembly. This is especially the case for strongly correlated electron systems with overwhelming complexity. The Verwey transition of Fe3 O4 is a classic example of this category, of which the origin is still elusive 80 years after the first report. Here we report, for the first time, that the Verwey transition of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles exhibits size-dependent thermal hysteresis in magnetization,57 Fe NMR, and XRD measurements...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander Heiss, Daesung Park, Anna-Christin Joel
Spiders are natural specialists in fiber processing. In particular, cribellate spiders manifest this ability as they produce a wool of nanofibers to capture prey. During its production they deploy a sophisticated movement of their spinnerets to darn in the fibers as well as a comb-like row of setae, termed calamistrum, on the metatarsus which plays a key role in nanofiber processing. In comparison to the elaborate nanofiber extraction and handling process by the spider's calamistrum, the human endeavors of spinning and handling of artificial nanofibers is still a primitive technical process...
March 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Beatriz Díez-Buitrago, Nerea Briz, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Valeri Pavlov
Enzymes are pivotal elements in bioanalysis due to their specificity and extremely high catalytic activity. The sensitivity of bioanalytical assays depends mainly on the capacity of an observer to detect the product(s) of a biocatalytic reaction. Both natural and artificial compounds have been traditionally used to evaluate enzymatic activities. The drawbacks of chromogenic and fluorogenic organic enzymatic substrates are their high cost and low stability, resulting in high background signals. We review here state of the art assays in the detection of enzymatic activities using recent advances in nanoscience...
March 19, 2018: Analyst
Anouk S Lubbe, Qing Liu, Sanne J Smith, Jan Willem de Vries, Jos C M Kistemaker, Alex H De Vries, Ignacio Faustino, Zhuojun Meng, Wiktor Szymanski, Andreas Herrmann, Ben L Feringa
Reversible control over the functionality of biological systems via external triggers may be used in future medicine to reduce the need for invasive procedures. Additionally, externally regulated biomacromolecules are now considered as particularly attractive tools in nanoscience and the design of smart materials, due to their highly programmable nature and complex functionality. Incorporation of photoswitches into biomolecules, such as peptides, antibiotics and nucleic acids, has generated exciting results in the past few years...
March 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
E L Starostin, G H M van der Heijden
We show that thin rectangular ribbons, defined as energy-minimizing configurations of the Sadowsky functional for narrow developable elastic strips, have a propensity to form spherical shapes in the sense that forceless solutions lie on a sphere. This has implications for ribbonlike objects in (bio)polymer physics and nanoscience that cannot be described by the classical wormlike chain model. A wider class of functionals with this property is identified.
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Bo Zhang, Mouzhe Xie, Lei Bruschweiler-Li, Rafael Brüschweiler
Understanding and harnessing the interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules is at the forefront of applications of nanotechnology to modern biology. Metabolomics has emerged as a prominent player in systems biology as a complement to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Its focus is the systematic study of metabolite identities and concentration changes in living systems. Despite significant progress over the recent past, important challenges in metabolomics remain, such as the deconvolution of the spectra of complex mixtures with strong overlaps, the sensitive detection of metabolites at low abundance, unambiguous identification of known metabolites, structure determination of unknown metabolites and standardized sample preparation for quantitative comparisons...
March 13, 2018: Metabolites
Dinesh Pratap Singh, Carlos Eugenio Herrera, Brijesh Singh, Shipra Singh, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Rajesh Kumar
The two-dimensional (2D) derivative of graphite termed graphene has widespread applications in various frontiers areas of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Graphene in its oxidized form named as graphene oxide (GO) has a mixed structure equipped with various oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, hydroxyl, carboxylic and carbonyl etc.) provides attachment sites to various biological molecules including protein, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) etc. The attached biological molecules with the help of functional groups make it a promising candidate in research field of biotechnological and biomedical applications...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Charles N Melton, Sheida T Riahinasab, Amir Keshavarz, Benjamin J Stokes, Linda S Hirst
When nanoparticle self-assembly takes place in an anisotropic liquid crystal environment, fascinating new effects can arise. The presence of elastic anisotropy and topological defects can direct spatial organization. An important goal in nanoscience is to direct the assembly of nanoparticles over large length scales to produce macroscopic composite materials; however, limitations on spatial ordering exist due to the inherent disorder of fluid-based methods. In this paper we demonstrate the formation of quantum dot clusters and spherical capsules suspended within spherical liquid crystal droplets as a method to position nanoparticle clusters at defined locations...
March 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Eric Auchter, Justin Marquez, Garrison N Stevens, Rebecca Silva, Quinn Mcculloch, Quintessa Guengerich, Andrew Blair, Sebastian Litchfield, Nan Li, Chris Sheehan, Rebecca Chamberlin, Steven Yarbro, Enkeleda Dervishi
We present a methodology for developing ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled morphologies. Formvar is a thin hydrophilic and oleophilic polymer inert to most chemicals and resistant to radiation. The formvar-based membranes are viable materials as support structures in micro- and macro-scale systems depending on thinness and porosity control. Tunable sub-micron thick porous membranes with 20% to 65% porosity were synthesized by controlling the ratios of formvar, glycerol, and chloroform...
March 7, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yilong Wang, Shuyang Sun, Zhiyuan Zhang, Donglu Shi
Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Paul S Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Limin Zhang, Yang Tian
The in vivo analysis of chemical signals in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using implanted electrochemical biosensors is a vital way to study brain functions and brain activity mapping. This approach offers excellent spatial (10-200 μm) and temporal (approximately second) resolution and the major advantage of long-term stability. By implantation of a microelectrode in a specific brain region, changes in the concentration of a variety of ECF chemical species can be monitored through applying a suitable electrical signal and, typically, recording the resulting Faradaic current...
February 27, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Elizabeth Ellis, Suresh Moorthy, Weng-I Katherine Chio, Tung-Chun Lee
Artificial nanomachines can be broadly defined as manmade molecular and nanosystems that are capable of performing useful tasks, very often, by means of doing mechanical work at the nanoscale. Recent advances in nanoscience allow these tiny machines to be designed and made with unprecedented sophistication and complexity, showing promise in novel applications, including molecular assemblers, self-propelling nanocarriers and in vivo molecular computation. This Feature Article overviews and compares major types of nanoscale machines, including molecular machines, self-assembled nanomachines and hybrid inorganic nanomachines, to reveal common structural features and operating principles across different length scales and material systems...
February 27, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Letian Wang, Yoonsoo Rho, Wan Shou, Sukjoon Hong, Kimihiko Kato, Matthew Eliceiri, Meng Shi, Costas P Grigoropoulos, Heng Pan, Carlo Carraro, Dongfeng Qi
Manipulating and tuning nanoparticles by means of optical field interactions is of key interest for nanoscience and applications in electronics and photonics. We report scalable, direct, and optically modulated writing of nanoparticle patterns (size, number, and location) of high precision using a pulsed nanosecond laser. The complex nanoparticle arrangement is modulated by the laser pulse energy and polarization with the particle size ranging from 60 to 330 nm. Furthermore, we report fast cooling-rate induced phase switching of crystalline Si nanoparticles to the amorphous state...
February 26, 2018: ACS Nano
Jing Liu, Runliang Zhu, Tianyuan Xu, Mingwang Laipan, Yanping Zhu, Qing Zhou, Jianxi Zhu, Hongping He
The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with thousands types of nanomaterials being produced, will lead to various environmental impacts. Thus, understanding the behaviors and fate of these nanomaterials is essential. This study focused on the interaction between polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF) and ferrihydrite (Fh), a widespread iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanomineral and geosorbent. Our results showed that PHF were effectively adsorbed by Fh. The adsorption isotherm fitted the D-R model well, with an adsorption capacity of 67...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Rundong Zhao, Yan-Ling Zhao, Fei Qi, Klaus E Hermann, Rui-Qin Zhang, Michel A Van Hove
While molecular machines play an increasingly significant role in nanoscience research and applications, there remains a shortage of investigations and understanding of the molecular gear (cogwheel), which is an indispensable and fundamental component to drive a larger correlated molecular machine system. Employing ab initio calculations, we investigate model systems consisting of molecules adsorbed on metal or graphene surfaces, ranging from very simple triple-arm gears such as PF3 and NH3 to larger multi-arm gears based on carbon rings...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
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