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Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Stuti Bhagat, N V Srikanth Vallabani, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Mark Bowden, Ajay S Karakoti, Sanjay Singh
Catalytically active individual gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to exhibit specific enzyme-like activities, such as natural catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymes. These activities have been maneuvered to design several biological applications such as immunoassays, glucose detection, radiation and free radical protection and tissue engineering. In biological systems, multienzyme complexes are involved in catalyzing important reactions of essential metabolic processes such as respiration, biomolecule synthesis, and photosynthesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Asya Ozkizilcik, Roger Williams, Z Ryan Tian, Dafin F Muresanu, Aruna Sharma, Hari S Sharma
Nanoscience provides us with new opportunities to develop nanotechnologies for treating, in particular, central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis. From a methodological point of view, it is challenging to deliver drugs effectively across the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Our 10-year data and reports from both in vivo and in vitro studies, however, have consistently proved that therapeutic drugs of different types can be generally loaded in/on the nanocarriers for targeted and programmable deliveries to the central nervous system with a high degree of efficacy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew W Cook, Zachary R Jones, Guang Wu, Susannah L Scott, Trevor W Hayton
The development of atomically-precise nanoclusters (APNCs) protected by organometallic ligands, such as acetylides and hydrides, is an emerging area of nanoscience. In principle, these organometallic APNCs should not require harsh pre-treatment for activation towards catalysis, such as calcination, which can lead to sintering. Herein, we report the synthesis of the mixed-valent organometallic copper APNC, [Cu20(CCPh)12(OAc)6)] (1), via reduction of Cu(OAc) with Ph2SiH2 in the presence of phenylacetylene. This cluster is a rare example of a two-electron copper superatom, and the first to feature a tetrahedral [Cu4]2+ core, which is a unique "kernel" for a Cu-only superatom...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Katsuhiko Ariga, Taizo Mori, Lok Kumar Shrestha
Important points for the fabrication of functional materials are the creation of nanoscale/molecular-scale units and architecting them into functional materials and systems. Recently, a new conceptual paradigm, nanoarchitectonics, has been proposed to combine nanotechnology and other methodologies including supramolecular chemistry, self-assembly and self-organization to satisfy major features of nanoscience and promote the creation of functional materials and systems. In this account article, our recent research results in materials development based on the nanoarchitectonics concept are summarized in two stories, (i) nanoarchitectonics from fullerenes as the simplest nano-units and (ii) dimension-dependent nanoarchitectonics from various structural units...
December 4, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Fan Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Tianhan Liu, Timothy D Keiper, Xiaolei Wang, Guang Yang, Daniel T Hallinan, Jianhua Zhao, Peng Xiong
The ability to create micro/nano patterns of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on semiconductor surfaces is crucial for fundamental studies and applications in a number of emerging fields in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate the direct patterning of thiolate SAMs on oxide-free GaAs surface by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) and micro-contact printing (μCP), facilitated by a process of surface etching and passivation of the GaAs. A quantitative analysis on the molecular diffusion on GaAs was conducted by examining the writing of nanoscale dot and line patterns by DPN, which agrees well with surface diffusion models...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kylie J Mitchell, Khalil A Abboud, George Christou
Synthesis of truly monodisperse nanoparticles and their structural characterization to atomic precision are important challenges in nanoscience. Success has recently been achieved for metal nanoparticles, particularly Au, with diameters up to 3 nm, the size regime referred to as nanoclusters. In contrast, families of atomically precise metal oxide nanoparticles are currently lacking, but would have a major impact since metal oxides are of widespread importance for their magnetic, catalytic and other properties...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Yong Cheol Shin, Su-Jin Song, Suck Won Hong, Seung Jo Jeong, Wojciech Chrzanowski, Jae-Chang Lee, Dong-Wook Han
Because of recent research advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there has been a growing interest in functional nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds, biosensors, bioimaging agents and drug delivery carriers. Among a great number of promising candidates, graphene and its derivatives-including graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide-have particularly attracted plenty of attention from researchers as novel nanobiomaterials. Graphene and its derivatives, two-dimensional nanomaterials, have been found to have outstanding biocompatibility and biofunctionality as well as exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity and thermal stability...
November 4, 2017: Nanomaterials
María Laura Soriano, Mohammed Zougagh, Miguel Valcárcel, Ángel Ríos
The main aim of this paper is to offer an objective and critical overview of the situation and trends in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N), which is an important break point in the evolution of Analytical Chemistry in the XXI century as they were computers and instruments in the second half of XX century. The first part of this overview is devoted to provide a general approach to AN&N by describing the state of the art of this recent topic, being the importance of it also emphasized. Secondly, particular but very relevant trends in this topic are outlined: the analysis of the nanoworld, the so "third way" in AN&N, the growing importance of bioanalysis, the evaluation of both nanosensors and nanosorbents, the impact of AN&N in bioimaging and in nanotoxicological studies, as well as the crucial importance of reliability of the nanotechnological processes and results for solving real analytical problems in the frame of Social Responsibility (SR) of science and technology...
January 15, 2018: Talanta
Anne-Caroline Genix, Julian Oberdisse
Quantitative characterization of the average structure of dense nanoparticle assemblies and aggregates is a common problem in nanoscience. Small-angle scattering is a suitable technique, but it is usually limited to not too big assemblies due to the limited experimental range, low concentrations to avoid interactions, and monodispersity to keep calculations tractable. In the present paper, a straightforward analysis of the generally available scattered intensity - even for large assemblies, at high concentrations - is detailed, providing information on the local volume fraction of polydisperse particles with hard sphere interactions...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Mengxi Wu, Zhangming Mao, Kejie Chen, Hunter Bachman, Yuchao Chen, Joseph Rufo, Liqiang Ren, Peng Li, Lin Wang, Tony Jun Huang
The separation of nanoscale particles based on their differences in size is an essential technique to the nanoscience and nanotechnology community. Here, nanoparticles are successfully separated in a continuous flow by using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves. The acoustic field deflects nanoparticles based on volume, and the fractionation of nanoparticles is optimized by tuning the cutoff parameters. The continuous separation of nanoparticlesis demonstrated with a ≈90% recovery rate. The acoustic nanoparticle separation method is versatile, non-invasive, and simple...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
Yuriy Garbovskiy, Anatoliy Glushchenko
The dispersion of ferroelectric nanomaterials in liquid crystals has recently emerged as a promising way for the design of advanced and tunable electro-optical materials. The goal of this paper is a broad overview of the current technology, basic physical properties, and applications of ferroelectric nanoparticle/liquid crystal colloids. By compiling a great variety of experimental data and discussing it in the framework of existing theoretical models, both scientific and technological challenges of this rapidly developing field of liquid crystal nanoscience are identified...
November 1, 2017: Nanomaterials
Rongchao Jin, Meng Zhou, Chenjie Zeng, Yongbo Song, Jonathan W Padelford, Gangli Wang, Matthew Y Sfeir, Tatsuya Higaki
The transition from molecular to plasmonic behaviour in metal nanoparticles with increasing size remains a central question in nanoscience. We report that the giant 246-gold-atom nanocluster (2.2 nm in gold core diameter) protected by 80 thiolate ligands is surprisingly non-metallic based on UV-vis and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as well as electrochemical measurements. Specifically, the Au246 nanocluster exhibits multiple excitonic peaks in transient absorption spectra and electron dynamics independent of the pump power, which are in contrast to the behaviour of metallic gold nanoparticles...
November 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Marc Mulet-Gas, Laura Abella, Maira R Cerón, Edison Castro, Alan G Marshall, Antonio Rodríguez-Fortea, Luis Echegoyen, Josep M Poblet, Paul W Dunk
An ultimate goal in carbon nanoscience is to decipher formation mechanisms of highly ordered systems. Here, we disclose chemical processes that result in formation of high-symmetry clusterfullerenes, which attract interest for use in applications that span biomedicine to molecular electronics. The conversion of doped graphite into a C80 cage is shown to occur through bottom-up self-assembly reactions. Unlike conventional forms of fullerene, the iconic Buckminsterfullerene cage, I h-C60, is entirely avoided in the bottom-up formation mechanism to afford synthesis of group 3-based metallic nitride clusterfullerenes...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
Dae-Young Kim, Avinash Kadam, Surendra Shinde, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Jayanta Patra, Gajanan Ghodake
The applications and benefits of nanotechnology in agricultural sector have attracted considerable attention, particularly in the invention of unique nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. The contemporary developments in nanotechnology are acknowledged and the most significant opportunities awaiting in the agriculture sector from the recent scientific and technical literature are addressed. This review discusses the significance of recent trends in nanomaterial-based sensors available for the sustainable management of agricultural soil, as well as the role of nanotechnology in detection and protection against plant pathogens, and for food quality and safety...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yu Heng Lau, Jack K Clegg, Jason R Price, Rene B Marquart, Matthew H Todd, Peter J Rutledge
Molecular switches have many potential applications in nanoscience and biomedicine. Transition metal complexes that can be switched from an unreactive state to an active one by a simple change in conditions (e.g. pH shift) or by binding to a specific biomolecular target - so-called target-activated metal complexes (TAMCs) - hold particular allure as a means of harnessing the potent but at times indiscriminate reactivity of metal-based drugs. We have prepared a series of ten structurally related ligands each of which bears a different pendant side-arm functional group off a common macrocyclic core...
October 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Charles Reilly, Donald E Ingber
Many have recognized the potential value of facilitating activities that span the art-science interface for the benefit of society; however, there are few examples that demonstrate how pursuit of an artistic agenda can lead to scientific insights. Here, we describe how we set out to produce an entertaining short film depicting the fertilization of the egg by sperm as a parody of a preview for another Star Wars movie to excite the public about science, but ended up developing a simulation tool for multiscale modeling...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Atanu Ghosh, Mohammad Bodiuzzaman, Abhijit Nag, Madhuri Jash, Ananya Baksi, Thalappil Pradeep
We report the formation of naked cluster ions of silver of specific nuclearities, uncontaminated by other cluster ions, derived from monolayer-protected clusters. The hydride and phosphine co-protected cluster, [Ag18(TPP)10H16](2+) (TPP, triphenylphosphine), upon activation produces the naked cluster ion, Ag17(+), exclusively. The number of metal atoms present in the naked cluster is almost the same as that in the parent material. Two more naked cluster ions, Ag21(+) and Ag19(+), were also formed starting from two other protected clusters, [Ag25(DPPE)8H22](3+) and [Ag22(DPPE)8H19](3+), respectively (DPPE, 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane)...
October 20, 2017: ACS Nano
Mohammad Hadi Modarres, Rossella Aversa, Stefano Cozzini, Regina Ciancio, Angelo Leto, Giuseppe Piero Brandino
In this paper we applied transfer learning techniques for image recognition, automatic categorization, and labeling of nanoscience images obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Roughly 20,000 SEM images were manually classified into 10 categories to form a labeled training set, which can be used as a reference set for future applications of deep learning enhanced algorithms in the nanoscience domain. The categories chosen spanned the range of 0-Dimensional (0D) objects such as particles, 1D nanowires and fibres, 2D films and coated surfaces, and 3D patterned surfaces such as pillars...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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