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hepatitis b phases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748854/ratios-of-t-helper-2-cells-to-t-helper-1-cells-and-cytokine-levels-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b
#1
Ming-Hui Li, Dan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Jing Qu, Yao Lu, Ge Shen, Shu-Ling Wu, Min Chang, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Hong-Xiao Hao, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Gang Wan, Shun-Ai Liu, Yao Xie
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is an immune response-mediated disease. The aim of this study was to explore the differences of ratios of T-helper (Th) 2 cells to Th1 cells and cytokine levels in acute hepatitis B (AHB) patients and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients in immune-tolerance and immune-active phases. METHODS: Thirty chronic HBV-infected patients in the immune-tolerant phase (IT group) and 50 chronic hepatitis B patients in the immune-active (clearance) phase (IC group), 32 AHB patients (AHB group), and 13 healthy individuals (HI group) were enrolled in the study...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728956/ataluren-in-patients-with-nonsense-mutation-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-act-dmd-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#2
Craig M McDonald, Craig Campbell, Ricardo Erazo Torricelli, Richard S Finkel, Kevin M Flanigan, Nathalie Goemans, Peter Heydemann, Anna Kaminska, Janbernd Kirschner, Francesco Muntoni, Andrés Nascimento Osorio, Ulrike Schara, Thomas Sejersen, Perry B Shieh, H Lee Sweeney, Haluk Topaloglu, Már Tulinius, Juan J Vilchez, Thomas Voit, Brenda Wong, Gary Elfring, Hans Kroger, Xiaohui Luo, Joseph McIntosh, Tuyen Ong, Peter Riebling, Marcio Souza, Robert J Spiegel, Stuart W Peltz, Eugenio Mercuri
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. METHODS: We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America...
July 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723855/four-year-outcomes-after-cessation-of-tenofovir-in-immune-tolerant-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#3
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Aric J Hui, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Rosita Suk-Yi Chan, Angel Mei-Ling Chim, Angeline Oi-Shan Lo, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
GOALS: To study the long-term outcome after cessation of antiviral therapy in immune-tolerant patients. BACKGROUND: Experience in the treatment of immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B is scanty. Some immune-tolerant patients may receive temporary antiviral therapy, such as for prevention of vertical transmission at pregnancy or prophylaxis for chemotherapy. STUDY: This was a follow-up study of a phase 2 trial at 2 centers. Immune-tolerant patients received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and/or emtricitabine for 4 years and were followed for another 4 years after treatment cessation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720427/the-challenges-and-promise-of-targeting-the-liver-x-receptors-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-disease
#4
REVIEW
Michael B Fessler
The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated transcription factors that upregulate a suite of genes that together promote coordinated mobilization of excess cholesterol from cells and from the body. The LXRs, like other nuclear receptors, are anti-inflammatory, inhibiting signal-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory genes by nuclear factor-κB, activating protein-1, and other transcription factors. Synthetic LXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate atherosclerosis and a wide range of inflammatory disorders in preclinical animal models...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715645/characteristics-of-regulatory-b-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-different-immune-phases
#5
Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Rui Huang, Bei Jia, Ran Su, Zhenhua Sun, Chen Tian, Yali Xiong, Juan Xia, Xiaomin Yan, Zhaoping Zhang, Chao Wu
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are reported to play an important role in the immune responses to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) via Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) signaling. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of Bregs and the expressions of TLRs in Bregs in the peripheral blood of different immune phases of patients with chronic HBV infection. In this study, we determined the frequencies of Bregs and TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and determined the levels of IL-10 in serum with the Human Magnetic Cytokine/Chemokine Bead Panel...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709980/downregulation-of-usp18-inhibits-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-suppressing-bcl2l1
#6
Jing Cai, Tiande Liu, Xiaoliu Jiang, Changkuo Guo, Anwen Liu, Xinlan Xiao
Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is closely related with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which has been involved in tumourigenesis. However, there has been little research into the role of USP18 on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in HBV-related HCC. In present study, we found that USP18 expression was aberrantly elevated in HCC tissues than adjacent non-tumour tissues. Importantly, USP18 expression was higher in HBV-related HCC cell lines (HepG2.2.15 and Hep3B) than HBV-unrelated HCC cell lines...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705153/a-randomized-clinical-pharmacokinetic-trial-of-tenofovir-in-blood-plasma-and-urine-in-adults-with-perfect-moderate-and-low-prep-adherence-the-target-study
#7
Tim R Cressey, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Rachel W Kubiak, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Kanchana Than-In-At, Jared Baeten, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of tenofovir (TFV) in accessible biological samples, such as fingerprick blood, urine or oral fluid samples could be a novel objective measure of recent TDF adherence. To measure TFV concentrations associated with different levels of TDF adherence, we designed a randomized clinical trial to assess the blood, urine and oral fluid concentrations of TFV in adults with perfect, moderate and low drug adherence...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695452/chronic-hepatitis-b-correlation-of-abnormal-features-on-t2-weighted-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-imaging-with-hepatic-histopathology
#8
Jian Shu, Jian Nong Zhao, Fu Gang Han, Guang Cai Tang, Xin Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlations between abnormal features on liver magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging and the pathological findings in chronic hepatitis B. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B and 18 normal controls who were undergone an abdominal MR imaging were analyzed retrospectively. Patchy hyperintensities, linear and reticular hyperintensities in liver and periportal edema on T2WI and abnormal intrahepatic enhancement signals on DCE imaging were noted...
July 10, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694219/hepatic-abca1-deficiency-is-associated-with-delayed-apolipoprotein-b-secretory-trafficking-and-augmented-vldl-triglyceride-secretion
#9
Mingxia Liu, Soonkyu Chung, Gregory S Shelness, John S Parks
ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane transporter that facilitates nascent HDL formation. Tangier disease subjects with complete ABCA1 deficiency have <5% of normal levels of plasma HDL, elevated triglycerides (TGs), and defective vesicular trafficking in fibroblasts and macrophages. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice (HSKO) have a similar lipid phenotype with 20% of normal plasma HDL levels and a two-fold elevation of plasma TGs due to hepatic overproduction of large, triglyceride-enriched VLDL...
July 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690451/new-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-and-immunomodulators-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#10
Marion G Peters, Stephen Locarnini
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects over 350 million individuals worldwide and is the most common cause of liver cancer. In the United States, CHB affects at least 2 to 3 million individuals, and current therapies can control the disease but not cure it. There are over 30 new molecules being studied in CHB in preclinical to phase 2 studies, targeting specific parts of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle and the host immune response. When discussing new therapies for CHB, it is critical to understand both the various phases of CHB and the life cycle of HBV...
June 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687420/hepatic-adverse-event-profile-of-inotuzumab-ozogamicin-in-adult-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-results-from-the-open-label-randomised-phase-3-ino-vate-study
#11
Hagop M Kantarjian, Daniel J DeAngelo, Anjali S Advani, Matthias Stelljes, Partow Kebriaei, Ryan D Cassaday, Akil A Merchant, Naohito Fujishima, Toshiki Uchida, Maria Calbacho, Anna A Ejduk, Susan M O'Brien, Elias J Jabbour, Hui Zhang, Barbara J Sleight, Erik R Vandendries, David I Marks
BACKGROUND: The INO-VATE study demonstrated efficacy and safety of inotuzumab ozogamicin versus standard care in adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Here, we report the frequency of, and potential risk factors for, hepatotoxicity in patients in this trial and after treatment and subsequent haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3, multicentre, international study, adults with relapsed or refractory, CD22-positive, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive or Ph-negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who were due to receive first or second salvage treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive inotuzumab ozogamicin (starting dose 1·8 mg/m(2) per cycle [0·8 mg/m(2) on day 1; 0·5 mg/m(2) on days 8 and 15 of a 21-28 day cycle for ≤6 cycles]) or standard care (either fludarabine plus cytarabine plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, mitoxantrone plus cytarabine, or high-dose cytarabine)...
July 4, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680292/effect-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-on-recurrence-rate-and-liver-regeneration-after-liver-resection-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#12
N W Molla, M M Hassanain, Z Fadel, L M Boucher, A Madkhali, R M Altahan, E A Alrijraji, E B Simoneau, H Alamri, A Salman, Z Gao, P P Metrakos
BACKGROUND: Resection of metastases is the only potential cure for patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (crc-lm). But despite an improved overall 5-year survival, the recurrence rate is still as high as 60%. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) can decrease the liver's capacity to regenerate after resection and might also affect cancer recurrence, potentially by elevating transforming growth factor β, levels of specific metalloproteinases, and oxidative stress. The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of the histologic features of nafld on cancer recurrence and liver regeneration...
June 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679059/role-and-potential-targeting-of-hepatic-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Kadry Sadek, Tarek Abouzed, Sherif Nasr, Moustafa Shukry
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox element 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a pervasive multifunctional protein required in the DNA base extraction repair (BER) pathway and a noteworthy reducing-oxidizing (redox) factor that upgrades the authoritative of various transcription components to DNA. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) assume a key part in directing the movement of the cell-cycle. The present study evaluates the synergistic efficacy of using licochalcone B (LCB) and fullerene C60 (FnC60) nanoparticles against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in rats...
July 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678410/simultaneous-mr-quantification-of-hepatic-fat-content-fatty-acid-composition-transverse-relaxation-time-and-magnetic-susceptibility-for-the-diagnosis-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
B Leporq, S A Lambert, M Ronot, V Vilgrain, B E Van Beers
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized at histology by steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and inflammatory infiltrates, with or without fibrosis. Although diamagnetic material in fibrosis and inflammation can be detected with quantitative susceptibility imaging, fatty acid composition changes in NASH relative to simple steatosis have also been reported. Therefore, our aim was to develop a single magnetic resonance (MR) acquisition and post-processing scheme for the diagnosis of steatohepatitis by the simultaneous quantification of hepatic fat content, fatty acid composition, T2 * transverse relaxation time and magnetic susceptibility in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
July 5, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676085/nasal-administration-of-the-neuroprotective-candidate-neuroepo-to-healthy-volunteers-a-randomized-parallel-open-label-safety-study
#15
Orestes Santos-Morales, Alina Díaz-Machado, Daise Jiménez-Rodríguez, Yaisel Pomares-Iturralde, Tatiana Festary-Casanovas, Carlos A González-Delgado, Sonia Pérez-Rodríguez, Eulalia Alfonso-Muñoz, Carmen Viada-González, Patricia Piedra-Sierra, Idrian García-García, Daniel Amaro-González, Julio César García-Rodríguez, Iliana Sosa-Testé, Alicia Lagarto-Parra, Laura Barrero-Viera, Marlene David-Baldo, Maura Tamayo-Rodríguez, Ivonne Rivero-Vázquez, Gricel González-Gamiz, Alis Martín-Trujillo, Yasmila Rodríguez-Fernández, Ana Alfa Ledo-de la Luz, Maylén Álvarez-Delgado, Ivón Howland-Álvarez, Yolanda Cruz-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Delivery of therapeutic agents as erythropoietin (EPO) into Central Nervous System through intranasal route could benefit patients with neurological disorders. A new nasal formulation containing a non-hematopoietic recombinant EPO (NeuroEPO) has shown neuroprotective actions in preclinical models. In the current study, the safety of NeuroEPO was evaluated for the first time in humans. METHODS: A phase I, randomized, parallel, open-label study was carried out in healthy volunteers...
July 4, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675991/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-nucleocapsid-assembly-a-new-approach-to-treat-chronic-hbv-infection
#16
Li Yang, Mengji Lu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major health problem worldwide. The current available antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV infection do not achieve satisfactory results. Thus, it is desirable to develop novel anti-HBV drugs based the recent advances of basic research on molecular biology of HBV. HBV nucleocapsid assembly is now considered as a potential target of anti-HBV therapy. Structural and functional analysis provided essential insight of molecular interaction of the components of HBV nucleocapsid...
July 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665004/hepatitis-b-virus-evades-innate-immunity-of-hepatocytes-but-activates-cytokine-production-by-macrophages
#17
Xiaoming Cheng, Yuchen Xia, Elisavet Serti, Peter Daniel Block, Michelle Chung, Kazuaki Chayama, Barbara Rehermann, T Jake Liang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects hepatocytes specifically and causes immune mediated liver damage. How HBV interacts with the innate immunity at the early phase of infection, either with the hepatocytes or other cells in the liver remains controversial. To address this question, we utilized various cell culture models and humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice. All these models were unable to mount an interferon (IFN) response despite robust HBV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the lack of IFN response, we examined whether HBV actively inhibits innate immune functions of hepatocytes...
June 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662087/unique-intrahepatic-transcriptomics-profiles-discriminate-the-clinical-phases-of-a-chronic-hbv-infection
#18
Jun Hou, Willem P Brouwer, Kim Kreefft, Lucio Gama, Sarah L Price, Harry L A Janssen, Pim J French, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Andre Boonstra
Chronic hepatitis B is a highly heterogeneous liver disease characterized by phases with fluctuations in viral replication and progressive liver damage in some, but not all infected individuals. Despite four decades of research, insight into host determinants underlying these distinct clinical phases-immunotolerant, immune active, inactive carrier, and HBeAg-negative hepatitis-remains elusive. We performed an in-depth transcriptome analysis of archived FFPE liver biopsies of each clinical phase to address host determinants associated with the natural history...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660478/drugs-in-development-for-hepatitis-b
#19
REVIEW
Altaf Dawood, Syed Abdul Basit, Mahendran Jayaraj, Robert G Gish
With high morbidity and mortality worldwide, there is great interest in effective therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus. There are currently several dozen investigational agents being developed for treatment of CHB. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that interfere with a specific step in viral replication; and (2) host-targeting agents that inhibit viral replication by modifying host cell function, with the latter group further divided into the subcategories of immune modulators and agents that target other host functions...
August 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657199/interprep-internet-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-generic-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtrictabine-in-london-analysis-of-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-outcomes
#20
X Wang, N Nwokolo, R Korologou-Linden, A Hill, G Whitlock, I Day-Weber, M O McClure, M Boffito
OBJECTIVES: The National Health Service in England (NHS England) does not provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, forcing people to purchase generic versions on the internet. However, there are concerns about the authenticity of medicines purchased online. We established an innovative service offering plasma tenofovir (TFV) and emcitrabine (FTC) therapeutic drug monitoring for people buying generic PrEP online, to ensure that drug concentrations in vivo were consistent with those of propriety brands and previously published data...
June 28, 2017: HIV Medicine
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