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hepatitis b phases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640364/a-phase-2-study-of-the-efficacy-and-biomarker-on-the-combination-of-transarterial-chemoembolization-and-axitinib-in-the-treatment-of-inoperable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Stephen L Chan, Winnie Yeo, Frankie Mo, Anthony W H Chan, Jane Koh, Leung Li, Edwin P Hui, Charing C N Chong, Paul B S Lai, Tony S K Mok, Simon C H Yu
BACKGROUND: A surge of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may contribute to tumor progression. Axitinib is a potent antiangiogenic agent with main activity against VEGF receptors 1 to 3. To the authors' knowledge, its role in combination with TACE for the treatment of patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. METHODS: A phase 2 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01352728) was conducted to evaluate the combination treatment...
June 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#2
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624576/agreement-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-proton-density-fat-fraction-measurements-and-pathologist-assigned-steatosis-grades-of-liver-biopsies-from-adults-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Michael S Middleton, Elhamy R Heba, Catherine A Hooker, Mustafa R Bashir, Kathryn J Fowler, Kumar Sandrasegaran, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, Mark L Van Natta, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal, Rohit Loomba, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We assessed the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in grading hepatic steatosis and change in hepatic steatosis in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a multi-center study, using central histology as reference. METHODS: We collected data from 113 adults with NASH participating in a multi-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to compare the efficacy cross-sectionally and longitudinally of obeticholic acid vs placebo...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620096/interleukin-6-family-cytokines
#4
Stefan Rose-John
The interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines is a group of cytokines consisting of IL-6, IL-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), and IL-27. They are grouped into one family because the receptor complex of each cytokine contains two (IL-6 and IL-11) or one molecule (all others cytokines) of the signaling receptor subunit gp130. IL-6 family cytokines have overlapping but also distinct biologic activities and are involved among others in the regulation of the hepatic acute phase reaction, in B-cell stimulation, in the regulation of the balance between regulatory and effector T cells, in metabolic regulation, and in many neural functions...
June 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619100/cyclophilin-b-facilitates-the-replication-of-orf-virus
#5
Kui Zhao, Jida Li, Wenqi He, Deguang Song, Ximu Zhang, Di Zhang, Yanlong Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Viruses interact with host cellular factors to construct a more favourable environment for their efficient replication. Expression of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), was found to be significantly up-regulated. Recently, a number of studies have shown that CypB is important in the replication of several viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16). However, the function of cellular CypB in ORFV replication has not yet been explored...
June 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612163/repeatability-and-reproducibility-of-2d-and-3d-hepatic-mr-elastography-with-rigid-and-flexible-drivers-at-end-expiration-and-end-inspiration-in-healthy-volunteers
#6
Kang Wang, Paul Manning, Nikolaus Szeverenyi, Tanya Wolfson, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Florin Vaida, Meng Yin, Kevin Glaser, Richard L Ehman, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of 2D and 3D hepatic MRE with rigid and flexible drivers at end-expiration and end-inspiration in healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers underwent two same-day MRE exams separated by a 5- to 10-min break. In each exam, 2D and 3D MRE scans were performed, each under four conditions (2 driver types [rigid, flexible] × 2 breath-hold phases [end-expiration, end-inspiration]). Repeatability (measurements under identical conditions) and reproducibility (measurements under different conditions) were analyzed by calculating bias, limit of agreement, repeatability coefficient (RC), reproducibility coefficient (RDC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), as appropriate...
June 13, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611199/u-s-food-and-drug-administration-approval-summary-atezolizumab-for-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Chana Weinstock, Sean Khozin, Daniel Suzman, Lijun Zhang, Shenghui Tang, Sakar Wahby, Kirsten B Goldberg, Geoffrey Kim, Richard Pazdur
On October 18 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ®, Genentech Inc.) for treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) whose disease progressed during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy. Approval was based on demonstration of clinically meaningful improvements in overall survival (OS) and an acceptable safety profile in two randomized clinical trials (OAK and POPLAR). Median OS in OAK, a phase III trial, was 13.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606915/baseline-circulating-fgf21-concentrations-and-increase-after-fenofibrate-treatment-predict-more-rapid-glycemic-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-field-study
#8
Kwok-Leung Ong, Rachel O'Connell, Andrzej S Januszewski, Alicia J Jenkins, Aimin Xu, David R Sullivan, Philip J Barter, Russell S Scott, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Boris Waldman, Peter G Colman, James D Best, John R Simes, Kerry-Anne Rye, Anthony C Keech
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations are associated with glycemic progression in patients with established type 2 diabetes. This study reports this relationship in type 2 diabetes patients participating in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial. METHODS: Plasma FGF21 was quantified in 9697 study participants. Among patients with lifestyle-only glucose control measures at baseline, glycemic progression was defined as the initiation of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin therapy...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603850/polydiacetylene-anti-hbs-nanobio-complexes-for-visible-and-fluorescent-detection-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-on-nitrocellulose-membrane
#9
Jinkyu Roh, Su Yeon Lee, Sangho Park, Dong June Ahn
Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using nitrocellulose (NC) membrane offers several advantages. This technique is a rapid and straightforward method in contrast to other immunoassays. Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles have unique optical properties to show red color and red fluorescence at the same time. In this system, red-phase PDA vesicles are used as a fluorescent dye as well as a surface for immobilized hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb). PDA has remarkable stability than other fluorescent dyes. In this study, the most suitable PDA/HBsAb complexes is introduced for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
June 11, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#10
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592620/phase-ii-study-of-first-line-trebananib-plus-sorafenib-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Jean-Frederic Blanc, Steven Miles, Tom Ganten, Jörg Trojan, Jonathan Cebon, Andre K Liem, Lara Lipton, Charu Gupta, Benjamin Wu, Michael Bass, Ellen Hollywood, Jennifer Ma, Margaret Bradley, Jason Litten, Leonard B Saltz
LESSONS LEARNED: Trebananib leveraging anti-angiogenic mechanism that is distinct from the classic sorafenib anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition did not demonstrate improved progression-free survival at 4 months in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In support of previously reported high Ang-2 levels' association with poor outcome in HCC for patients, trebananib treatment with lower baseline Ang-2 at study entry was associated with improved overall survival to 22 months and may suggest future studies to be performed within the context of low baseline Ang-2...
June 7, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591730/downregulation-of-serum-rab27b-confers-improved-prognosis-and-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-through-pi3k-akt-p21-signaling
#12
Xue Yang, Xieqiong Ye, Le Sun, Fangyuan Gao, Yuxin Li, Xiaomin Ji, Xuejiang Wang, Ying Feng, Xianbo Wang
Previous study revealed that elevated expression of RAB27B in tissues is correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression; however, the mechanisms involved in promoting HCC development are still unclear. Moreover, HCC tissues are not readily obtained during routine diagnosis. Therefore, to further explore its potential value in early diagnosis, we examined RAB27B expression in patient sera. First, the correlation between serum RAB27B expression and survival, as well as TNM and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages, were evaluated in patients with HCC...
May 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591226/interval-to-vascularization-development-in-cirrhotic-precursor-nodules-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-co-infections
#13
Nai-Chi Chiu, Chien-Wei Su, Chien-An Liu, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Yi-You Chiou
With the widespread use of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, liver nodules appearing as hypovascular in the arterial phase and hypointense in the hepatobiliary phase, defined as hypovascular hypointense nodules, are increasingly detected in patients with cirrhosis and are considered precursor nodules. We sought to evaluate the interval to vascularization development in hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infected-associated precursor nodules (BC-HHN group) compared with that in hepatitis C virus mono-infected-associated precursor nodules (C-HHN group) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585715/does-liver-resection-transplantation-affect-respiratory-induced-liver-motion-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Yong Hu, Yong-Kang Zhou, Yi-Xing Chen, Lu-Xi Ye, Zhao-Chong Zeng
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of three-dimensional (3D) liver motion after liver resection/transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using four-dimensional (4D)-computed tomography (CT) images. From January 2012 to April 2016, 74 HCC patients underwent 4D-CT scans under a free-breathing state to assess respiratory liver motion. Of the 74 patients, 40 did not have a liver resection/transplantation (Group A), 34 with liver resection/transplantation. 15 underwent major or minor resection in the right liver lobe (Group B), 14 underwent major or minor resection in the left liver lobe (Group C), and five underwent liver transplantation (Group D)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584279/serum-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-as-a-biomarker-of-hepatic-inflammation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-normal-alanine-aminotransferase
#15
Jiyuan Zhou, Liuwei Song, Hong Zhao, Linlin Yan, Anlin Ma, Shibin Xie, Xuqing Zhang, Dazhi Zhang, Qing Xie, Guo Zhang, Jia Shang, Jun Cheng, Weifeng Zhao, Zhiqiang Zou, Mingxiang Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Guiqiang Wang
Our previous studies unexpectedly indicated that the level of serum hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was positively correlated with the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. The aim of this study was to determine whether anti-HBc could serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, especially in patients with normal ALT levels. Serum anti-HBc levels were quantified in 655 treatment-naïve CHB patients, including 45 patients who underwent two liver biopsies (baseline phase and the 78(th) weeks of antiviral-treatment)...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583305/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-new-hexavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hb-hib-administered-in-a-mixed-primary-series-schedule-with-a-pentavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hib
#16
Federico Martinón-Torres, Florence Boisnard, Stéphane Thomas, Christine Sadorge, Ray Borrow
DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib vaccine is a fully-liquid, combination hexavalent vaccine. This phase III, open-label, multicentre study conducted in Spain, evaluated the immune response to all DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib antigens when the vaccine was used in a mixed hexa/penta/hexa primary series. Infants (who had received one dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth) received a mixed schedule including DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib (PRP-OMP conjugate) at 2 and 6months of age, DTaP5-IPV-Hib at 4months, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 2 and 4months, and routine rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570647/differences-in-inflammation-and-acute-phase-response-but-similar-genotoxicity-in-mice-following-pulmonary-exposure-to-graphene-oxide-and-reduced-graphene-oxide
#17
Stefan Bengtson, Kristina B Knudsen, Zdenka O Kyjovska, Trine Berthing, Vidar Skaug, Marcus Levin, Ismo K Koponen, Abhay Shivayogimath, Timothy J Booth, Beatriz Alonso, Amaia Pesquera, Amaia Zurutuza, Birthe L Thomsen, Jesper T Troelsen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Ulla Vogel
We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564569/sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-voxilaprevir-for-previously-treated-hcv-infection
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marc Bourlière, Stuart C Gordon, Steven L Flamm, Curtis L Cooper, Alnoor Ramji, Myron Tong, Natarajan Ravendhran, John M Vierling, Tram T Tran, Stephen Pianko, Meena B Bansal, Victor de Lédinghen, Robert H Hyland, Luisa M Stamm, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Jie Zhang, K C Huang, G Mani Subramanian, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Elizabeth C Verna, Peter Buggisch, Charles S Landis, Ziad H Younes, Michael P Curry, Simone I Strasser, Eugene R Schiff, K Rajender Reddy, Michael P Manns, Kris V Kowdley, Stefan Zeuzem
BACKGROUND: Patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and who do not have a sustained virologic response after treatment with regimens containing direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have limited retreatment options. METHODS: We conducted two phase 3 trials involving patients who had been previously treated with a DAA-containing regimen. In POLARIS-1, patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had previously received a regimen containing an NS5A inhibitor were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir, and the protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (150 patients) or matching placebo (150 patients) once daily for 12 weeks...
June 1, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560356/rotavac-%C3%A2-does-not-interfere-with-the-immune-response-to-childhood-vaccines-in-indian-infants-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Temsunaro Rongsen Chandola, Sunita Taneja, Nidhi Goyal, Kalpana Antony, Kiran Bhatia, Deepak More, Nita Bhandari, Iksung Cho, Krishna Mohan, Sai Prasad, Gvja Harshavardhan, Tataji Surender Rao, Sudhanshu Vrati, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
A phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in the urban neighborhoods of Delhi to assess whether Oral Rotavirus Vaccine ROTAVAC(®) interferes with the immune response to childhood vaccines when coadministered. Infants aged 6 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of either ROTAVAC(®) or placebo along with childhood vaccines: Oral Polio Vaccine and vaccines against Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type b given as Pentavalent at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545019/circulating-soluble-programmed-death-1-levels-may-differentiate-immune-tolerant-phase-from-other-phases-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-other-clinical-diseases-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#20
Na Li, Zhihua Zhou, Fang Li, Jiao Sang, Qunying Han, Yi Lv, Wenxuan Zhao, Chunyan Li, Zhengwen Liu
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is involved in the immune dysfunction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study analyzed the association of circulating soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) levels with the phases and clinical diseases in chronic HBV infection. Serum sPD-1 levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with different phases and liver diseases of chronic HBV infection. The sPD-1 levels in patients with chronic HBV infection were significantly elevated compared with HBV infection resolvers or healthy controls...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
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