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Chenggong Hu, Yongfang Zhou, Chang Liu, Yan Kang
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. In the current study, comprehensive bioinformatic analyses were performed to develop a novel scoring system for GC risk assessment based on CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein family member 4 (CLIP4) DNA methylation status. Two GC datasets with methylation sequencing information and mRNA expression profiling were downloaded from the The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Tobias Wurfl, Mathis Hoffmann, Vincent Christlein, Katharina Breininger, Yixin Huang, Mathias Unberath, Andreas K Maier
In this paper, we present a new deep learning framework for 3-D tomographic reconstruction. To this end, we map filtered back-projection-type algorithms to neural networks. However, the back-projection cannot be implemented as a fully connected layer due to its memory requirements. To overcome this problem, we propose a new type of cone-beam back-projection layer, efficiently calculating the forward pass. We derive this layer's backward pass as a projection operation. Unlike most deep learning approaches for reconstruction, our new layer permits joint optimization of correction steps in volume and projection domain...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Frederik Desmarais, Karl-F Bergeron, Michel Lacaille, Isabelle Lemieux, Jean Bergeron, Simon Biron, Eric Rassart, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriege, Catherine Mounier
PURPOSE: Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin participating in lipid transport. It binds to a variety of ligands, with a higher affinity for arachidonic acid, and is thought to have a diverse array of functions. We investigated a potential role for ApoD in insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and thrombosis-processes related to lipid metabolism-in severely obese women. METHODS: We measured ApoD expression in a cohort of 44 severely obese women including dysmetabolic and non-dysmetabolic patients...
June 4, 2018: Endocrine
Samuel Pinson, Charles W Holland, Yann Stéphan
Integral solutions for wave scattering over slightly rough surfaces generally include the source and receiver directivity. In this paper, it is shown that integrating the point source, point receiver solution over the source and receiver apertures leads to solutions with a clear physical interpretation. The scintillation, time-of-arrival, and direction-of-arrival spatial covariances of the specular echo are derived for a multibeam-subbottom-profiler configuration and result in surface integrals that can be evaluated numerically...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Andreas Waldner, Sarah Dassati, Bernhard Redl, Nicola Smania, Marialuisa Gandolfi
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a lipocalin transporter of small hydrophobic molecules, plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases. ApoD is expressed in and secreted from a variety of peripheral and brain tissues. Increments of ApoD have been reported in relation with oxidative stress conditions, aging, and degeneration in the nervous system. Preliminary findings support the role of ApoD in neuroprotection. However, its role in PD remains unclear. To date, no studies have been performed on the relationship between ApoD in the blood and PD, as neurodegenerative pathology related to oxidative damage...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Andreas Hellerschmied, Lucia McCallum, Jamie McCallum, Jing Sun, Johannes Böhm, Jianfeng Cao
The possibility to observe satellites with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique is vividly discussed in the geodetic community, particularly with regard to future co-location satellite missions. The Chinese APOD-A nano satellite can be considered as a first prototype-suitable for practical observation tests-combining the techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and VLBI on a single platform in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Unfortunately, it has hardly been observed by VLBI, so major studies towards actual frame ties could not be performed...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Amir Hossein Alinoori, Saeed Masoum
A unique metal oxide semiconductor sensor (MOS) array detector with eight sensors was designed and fabricated in a PTFE chamber as an interface for coupling with multicapillary gas chromatography. This design consists of eight transfer lines with equal length between the multicapillary columns (MCC) and sensors. The deactivated capillary columns were passed through each transfer line and homemade flow splitter to distribute the same gas flow on each sensor. Using eight ports flow splitter design helps us to equal the length of carrier gas path and flow for each sensor, minimizing the dead volume of the sensor's chamber and increasing chromatographic resolution...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Junseob Shin, Yu Chen, Harshawn Malhi, Frank Chen, Jesse Yen
Degradation of image contrast caused by phase aberration, off-axis clutter, and reverberation clutter remains one of the most important problems in abdominal ultrasound imaging. Multiphase apodization with cross-correlation (MPAX) is a novel beamforming technique that enhances ultrasound image contrast by adaptively suppressing unwanted acoustic clutter. MPAX employs multiple pairs of complementary sinusoidal phase apodizations to intentionally introduce grating lobes that can be used to derive a weighting matrix, which mostly preserves the on-axis signals from tissue but reduces acoustic clutter contributions when multiplied with the beamformed radio-frequency (RF) signals...
May 1, 2018: Ultrasonic Imaging
Chuan Chen, Gijs A G M Hendriks, Ruud J G van Sloun, Hendrik H G Hansen, Chris L de Korte
In this paper, a novel processing framework is introduced for Fourier-domain beamforming of plane-wave ultrasound data, which incorporates coherent compounding and angular weighting in the Fourier domain. Angular weighting implies spectral weighting by a 2-D steering-angle-dependent filtering template. The design of this filter is also optimized as part of this paper. Two widely used Fourier-domain plane-wave ultrasound beamforming methods, i.e., Lu's f-k and Stolt's f-k methods, were integrated in the framework...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Fabien Patru, Pierre Baudoz, Raphaël Galicher, Qing Cao, Kai Wang, Lujing Xing, Faouzi Boussaha, Josiane Firminy, Marion Bonafous
The six-level phase mask (SLPM) can be used in a focal plane as an efficient coronagraph [Opt. Express 22, 1884 (2014)]. It has several advantages: high-contrast imaging in broadband with small inner working angle; easy fabrication at low cost by photolithography and reactive ion etching processes; easy implementation with no need of pupil apodization. We present in this paper the first laboratory results demonstrating the high performance of a SLPM with an unobscured pupil. The on-axis attenuation reaches 2 × 10-5 at λ = 800 nm and is better than 10-4 over a 10% spectral bandwidth and better than 10-3 over a 20% bandwidth...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Katarzyna Piórkowska, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Mirosław Tyra, Artur Gurgul
Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Grigoriy Zurakhov, Ling Tong, Alessandro Ramalli, Piero Tortoli, Jan D'hooge, Zvi Friedman, Dan Adam
Increased frame rate is of high importance to cardiac diagnostic imaging as it enables examination of fast events during the cardiac cycle and improved quantitative analysis, such as speckle tracking. Multiline transmission (MLT) is one of the methods proposed for this purpose. In contrast to the single-line transmission (SLT), where one focused beam is sent in each direction, MLT beams are simultaneously transmitted and focused in several ( ) directions improving the frame rate accordingly. The simultaneous transmission is known to cause crosstalk artifacts due to the interference between the main lobes and the sidelobes of the transmitted and received beams...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Jeongmin Kim, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
In light focusing through a dielectric interface, Wiersma et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 1482 (1997)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.14.001482] claim that the Debye-Wolf diffraction theory and the m-theory predict axial focal fields with "little difference." We found a possible mistake of using an inaccurate apodization factor in the m-theory integral. Here we correct the apodization factor, which then leads to better agreement on axial intensity distributions between the two theories than reported.
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Juan José Mompó, Sonia Martín-López, Miguel González-Herráez, Alayn Loayssa
We demonstrate a technique to reduce the sidelobes in optical pulse compression reflectometry for distributed acoustic sensing. The technique is based on using a Gaussian probe pulse with linear frequency modulation. This is shown to improve the sidelobe suppression by 13 dB compared to the use of square pulses without any significant penalty in terms of spatial resolution. In addition, a 2.25 dB enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio is calculated compared to the use of receiver-side windowing. The method is tested by measuring 700 Hz vibrations with a 140  nε amplitude at the end of a 50 km fiber sensing link with 34 cm spatial resolution, giving a record 147,058 spatially resolved points...
April 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Sigal Kfir, Raghavendra Basavaraja, Noa Wigoda, Shifra Ben-Dor, Irit Orr, Rina Meidan
To unveil novel global changes associated with corpus luteum (CL) maturation, we analyzed transcriptome data for the bovine CL on days 4 and 11, representing the developing vs. mature gland. Our analyses revealed 681 differentially expressed genes (363 and 318 on day 4 and 11, respectively), with ≥2 fold change and FDR of <5%. Different gene ontology (GO) categories were represented prominently in transcriptome data at these stages (e.g. days 4: cell cycle, chromosome, DNA metabolic process and replication and on day 11: immune response; lipid metabolic process and complement activation)...
2018: PloS One
Emilio Pedrotti, Francesco Carones, Francesco Aiello, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Enrico Bruni, Erika Bonacci, Pietro Talli, Carlo Nucci, Cesare Mariotti, Giorgio Marchini
PURPOSE: To compare the visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and quality of vision in patients with bilateral implantation of 4 intraocular lenses (IOLs). SETTINGS: Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Eye Clinic, University of Verona, Verona, and Carones Ophthalmology Center, Milano, Italy. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: The study included patients who had bilateral cataract surgery with the implantation of 1 of 4 IOLs as follows: Tecnis 1-piece monofocal (monofocal IOL), Tecnis Symfony extended range of vision (extended-range-of-vision IOL), Restor +2...
February 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Cheryl Suwen Law, Siew Yee Lim, Abel Santos
This study presents a nanofabrication approach that enables the production of nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs) with finely engineered light filtering features across the spectral regions. The photonic stopband (PSB) of these NAA-based photonic crystal (PC) structures is precisely tuned by an apodization strategy applied during stepwise pulse anodization with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA-DBRs in depth. We systematically assess the effect of different fabrication parameters such as apodization function (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Minah Han, Byeongjoon Kim, Jongduk Baek
We investigate the detectability of breast cone beam computed tomography images using human and model observers and the variations of exponent, β, of the inverse power-law spectrum for various reconstruction filters and interpolation methods in the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) reconstruction. Using computer simulation, a breast volume with a 50% volume glandular fraction and a 2mm diameter lesion are generated and projection data are acquired. In the FDK reconstruction, projection data are apodized using one of three reconstruction filters; Hanning, Shepp-Logan, or Ram-Lak, and back-projection is performed with and without Fourier interpolation...
2018: PloS One
Craig K Abbey, Frank W Samuelson, Rongping Zeng, John M Boone, Miguel P Eckstein, Kyle Myers
PURPOSE: This study investigates forced localization of targets in simulated images with statistical properties similar to trans-axial sections of x-ray computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 24 imaging conditions are considered, comprising two target sizes, three levels of background variability, and four levels of frequency apodization. The goal of the study is to better understand how human observers perform forced-localization tasks in images with CT-like statistical properties...
May 2018: Medical Physics
Min Liu, Zhou Li, Lu Liu
Sidelobe reduction is a very primary task for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Various methods have been proposed for broadside SAR, which can suppress the sidelobes effectively while maintaining high image resolution at the same time. Alternatively, squint SAR, especially highly squint SAR, has emerged as an important tool that provides more mobility and flexibility and has become a focus of recent research studies. One of the research challenges for squint SAR is how to resolve the severe range-azimuth coupling of echo signals...
March 5, 2018: Sensors
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