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Nadia García-Mateo, Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Alberto Pérez-Castellanos, Concepción Lillo, Diego Sanchez, Maria D Ganfornina
To compact the extracellular sides of myelin, an important transition must take place: from membrane sliding, while building the wraps, to membrane adhesion and water exclusion. Removal of the negatively charged glycocalyx becomes the limiting factor in such transition. What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin extracellular leaflet compaction in peripheral and central nervous system, which results in reduced conduction velocity and suboptimal behavioral outputs: motor learning is compromised...
December 9, 2017: Glia
Yulong Wang, Lijuan Xie, Jiasheng Ye, Wenfeng Sun, Xinke Wang, Shengfei Feng, Peng Han, Qiang Kan, Yan Zhang
We demonstrated a simple heart-shaped hole to tailor the axial intensity of a collimated laser beam. This hole is transformed from a soft-boundary one, which avoids the difficulty in fabricating the soft-boundary mask designed by the apodization method, as well as the interference problem caused by the pixel structure of the spatial light modulator. When a collimated light passes through this hole, its axial intensity oscillates less than 11% within a certain distance, while the fluctuation after the circular aperture is up to 200%...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Riccardo Marchetti, Cosimo Lacava, Ali Khokhar, Xia Chen, Ilaria Cristiani, David J Richardson, Graham T Reed, Periklis Petropoulos, Paolo Minzioni
We present a simple and practical strategy that allows to design high-efficiency grating couplers. The technique is based on the simultaneous apodization of two structural parameters: the grating period and the fill-factor, along with the optimization of the grating coupler etching depth. Considering a 260 nm Si-thick Silicon-on-insulator platform, we numerically demonstrated a coupling efficiency of -0.8 dB (83%), well matching the experimental value of -0.9 dB (81%). Thanks to the optimized design, these results represent the best performance ever reported in the literature for SOI structures without the use of any back-reflector...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Saritha Kosarussavadi, Zachary T Pennington, Jeremy Covell, Aaron P Blaisdell, Barney A Schlinger
Age-related decrements in cognitive ability have been proposed to stem from deteriorating function of the hippocampus. Many birds are long lived, especially for their relatively small body mass and elevated metabolism, making them a unique model of resilience to aging. Nevertheless, little is known about avian age-related changes in cognition and hippocampal physiology. We studied spatial cognition and hippocampal expression of the age-related gene, Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and the immediate early gene Egr-1 in zebra finches at various developmental time points...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
Puhong Zhang, Jialin Gao, Chun Pu, Yao Zhang
Dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by high plasma triglyceride concentrations, reduced high‑density lipoprotein concentrations and increased small density low‑density lipoprotein concentrations. Dyslipidaemia may lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other complications. Apolipoproteins mainly comprise six species, apolipoprotein (apo)A, apoB, apoC, apoD, apoE and apoM, which are important components of plasma lipoproteins that carry lipids and stabilize the structure of lipoproteins...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Stefano Mandija, Alessandro Sbrizzi, Ulrich Katscher, Peter R Luijten, Cornelis A T van den Berg
PURPOSE: MR electrical properties tomography (MR-EPT) aims to measure tissue electrical properties by computing spatial derivatives of measured B1+ data. This computation is very sensitive to spatial fluctuations caused, for example, by noise and Gibbs ringing. In this work, the error arising from the computation of spatial derivatives using finite difference kernels (FD error) has been investigated. In relation to this FD error, it has also been investigated whether mitigation strategies such as Gibbs ringing correction and Gaussian apodization can be beneficial for conductivity reconstructions...
November 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Xiaodong Wang, Bo Chen
Dual-band cold mirrors are designed based on third-order of 121.6 nm multilayers, and they are only composed of LaF3 and MgF2. The designed mirrors have a high reflectance at 121.6 nm and 280 nm, and a low reflectance in visible waveband; they also have a narrow bandwidth of 4 nm at 121.6 nm, and low sidelobe ripples of two stopbands. A broadband antireflection coating and an asymmetrically Gaussian-apodization of thickness-modulated design method are proposed to eliminate sidelobe ripples of the reflection zone...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Mahdi Shanei, Mahdieh Hashemi, Davood Fathi, Carlos J Zapata-Rodríguez
High-index silicon nanoblocks support excitation of both electric and magnetic resonance modes at telecommunication wavelengths. At frequencies where both electric and magnetic resonance modes are excited simultaneously, changing the geometrical dimensions of the silicon cubes creates a 2π full span over the phase of the transmitted light in different amplitude ranges. We take advantage of the additional power-flux modulation of the scattered signal to focus the incident light with desired full width at half maximum (FWHM) and side lobe levels (SLLs) in both the lateral and axial directions...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Yanyan Zhou, Li Wang, Rongqiao Li, Minmin Liu, Xiaotong Li, Hang Su, Yusong Xu, Huabing Wang
Recent studies highlighted that apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its homologs exert neuroprotective and antioxidant functions in mammals and Drosophila. Unlike mammals and Drosophila, lepidopteran insects possess three distinct ApoD homologs. However, few information on their functions in lepidopteran insects are available. In this study, we investigated the protective potential of a novel ApoD homolog, BmApoD1, in Bombyx mori. Quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that BmApoD1 is extensively expressed at low levels during the larval stage but abundantly expressed in the testis during the pupal and adult stages...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Christopher T Nadovich, William D Jemison, Derek J Kosciolek, David T Crouse
The forked grating coupler (FGC) is an optical vortex interface for silicon photonics. Using the structure of a Bragg grating coupler with a calculated forked hologram, the FGC couples optical vortex modes into confined waveguide modes of a photonic integrated circuit. Design methodologies are given, as well as measured performance data from fabricated devices. Data are analyzed with a variety of metrics. The effectiveness of design features are evaluated. Advanced FGC designs are demonstrated with focused forked gratings, allowing feed length to be reduced, and with apodization improving vortex mode fidelity...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
Zhengyun Zhang, Chenglong Bao, Hui Ji, Zuowei Shen, George Barbastathis
A sensor pixel integrates optical intensity across its extent, and we explore the role that this integration plays in phase space tomography. The literature is inconsistent in its treatment of this integration-some approaches model this integration explicitly, some approaches are ambiguous about whether this integration is taken into account, and still some approaches assume pixel values to be point samples of the optical intensity. We show that making a point-sample assumption results in apodization of and thus systematic error in the recovered ambiguity function, leading to underestimating the overall degree of coherence...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jianfei Jiang, Huiye Qiu, Gencheng Wang, Yan Li, Tingge Dai, Debin Mu, Hui Yu, Jianyi Yang, Xiaoqing Jiang
A lateral-apodized add-drop filter is demonstrated in a multimode asymmetric waveguide Bragg grating. This design utilizes two individual superposed gratings with the same sidewall corrugation depth. The strong side lobes of the grating filter are efficiently suppressed by mapping the target apodization profile into lateral shifts between the periods of the two gratings. Compared with other apodized technology, this device is easier to be realized. Experimental results show that the side-lobes suppression ratio can reach 18...
October 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Brian Vohnsen, Alessandra Carmichael, Najnin Sharmin, Salihah Qaysi, Denise Valente
The integrated Stiles-Crawford function is commonly used as apodization model for vision through the natural eye pupil. However, this method does not account for possible effects related to the retinal thickness, the large length-to-diameter aspect ratio of the photoreceptors, or the use of nonMaxwellian illumination. Here, we introduce a geometrical optics model to calculate the fraction of overlap between light at the retina and the photoreceptor outer segments where absorption triggers vision. The model, which does not account for photoreceptor waveguiding, is discussed for both Maxwellian and nonMaxwellian illumination...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Zhaohui Li, Cheng Chi
Large wideband two-dimensional (2-D) arrays are essential for high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging. Since the tremendous element number of a full sampled large 2-D array is not affordable in any practical 3-D ultrasound imaging system, it is necessary to reduce the element number through sparse 2-D array design. Sparse array design requires that both the positions and weights of the array elements should be arbitrarily alterable. Hence a proper evaluation tool that can deal with arbitrary array is integral to optimizing the array structure and apodization function...
October 10, 2017: Ultrasonics
Lin Li, Ming-Su Liu, Guang-Qin Li, Jie Tang, Yan Liao, Yang Zheng, Tong-Li Guo, Xin Kang, Mao-Ting Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is featured with motor disorder and nonmotor manifestations including psychological symptoms, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and paresthesia, which results in great inconvenience to the patients' life. The apolipoprotein (Apo) superfamily, as a group of potentially modifiable biomarkers in clinical practice, is of increasing significance in the diagnosis, evaluation, and prognosis of PD. The present review summarized the current understanding and emerging findings of the relationship between Apo superfamily and PD...
November 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Z Tao, W Song, C Zhu, W Xu, H Liu, S Zhang, Li Huifang
The egg-laying rate is an important indicator of egg production of laying ducks. Egg production directly impacts the economic benefits of the duck industry. In order to obtain better insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with the process of egg production, comparative transcriptomic analysis of the ovaries of Jinding ducks with high and low egg production was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of 843 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was identified, 367 that were down-regulated and 476 that were up-regulated in high egg production (HEP) ovaries, as compared with low egg production (LEP) ovaries...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
C Sima, B Cai, B Liu, Y Gao, Y Yu, J C Gates, M N Zervas, P G R Smith, D Liu
In this paper, we present integrated reconfigurable photonic filters using fractional Hilbert transformers (FrHTs) and optical phase tuning structure within the silica-on-silicon platform. The proposed structure, including grating-based FrHTs, an X-coupler, and a pair of thermal tuning filaments, is fabricated through the direct UV grating writing technique. The thermal tuning effect is realized by the controllable microheaters located on the two arms of the X-coupler. We investigate the 200 GHz maximum bandwidth photonic FrHTs based on apodized planar Bragg gratings, and analyze the reflection spectrum responses...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Eman A Elzahaby, Ishac Kandas, Moustafa H Aly
In this work, the characteristics of reflectivity spectra produced inside a reflective-tilted fiber Bragg grating (R-TFBG) are investigated, seeking a remarkable performance that could be able to upgrade the sensitivity range for temperature-strain sensors of quasi-distribution type. We introduce an optimized performance through a comparative investigation among different evaluation parameters, such as core radius, tilt angle, and the elite selection of apodization profiles, in addition to the traditional parameters, such as grating length, L, and index modulation amplitude, Δn...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jorge L Alió, Hakan Kaymak, Detlef Breyer, Beatrice Cochener, Ana B Plaza-Puche
IMPORTANCE: Quality of vision after multifocal intraocular lens (IOLs) implantation in relation to patient satisfaction. It is important to include the evaluation of visual quality and patient satisfaction in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: To evaluate and compare quality of life and patient satisfaction after implantation of three types of diffractive-refractive and apodized-diffractive bifocal and trifocal multifocal IOLs. DESIGN: Comparative, prospective, case series and randomized...
October 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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