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Megan Ulmer Carnes, R Rand Allingham, Allison Ashley-Koch, Michael A Hauser
PURPOSE: To characterize the transcriptional landscape of human adult and fetal trabecular meshwork (TM), cornea, and ciliary body (CB) tissues, and to evaluate the expression level of candidate genes selected from genetic association studies of primary-open angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, vertical cup to disc ratio, and optic nerve parameters. METHODS: Deep RNA sequencing was performed on the selected human tissues. Transcriptome analyses were performed to 1) characterize the total number of expressed genes, 2) identify the most highly expressed genes, 3) estimate the number of novel transcripts, and 4) evaluate the expression of candidate genes in each tissue...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Minjie Wu, Liang Fang, Charles E Ray, Anand Kumar, Shaolin Yang
PURPOSE: A method for adaptively optimized combination (AOC) of MR spectroscopic data from a coil array was recently introduced. The superior performance of the AOC method is evident when compared with the methods that assume uncorrelated noise between coil elements. However, it is unclear whether the AOC method represents the most optimal combination in the presence of correlated noise, when compared with the noise-decorrelated or whitened methods that specifically tackle the correlated noise between coil elements...
November 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Victor Perez, Bo-Jui Chang, Ernst Hans Karl Stelzer
Structured illumination microscopy relies on reconstruction algorithms to yield super-resolution images. Artifacts can arise in the reconstruction and affect the image quality. Current reconstruction methods involve a parametrized apodization function and a Wiener filter. Empirically tuning the parameters in these functions can minimize artifacts, but such an approach is subjective and produces volatile results. We present a robust and objective method that yields optimal results by two straightforward filtering steps with Richardson-Lucy-based deconvolutions...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Parinaz Aleahmad, Hector Moya Cessa, Ido Kaminer, Mordechai Segev, Demetrios N Christodoulides
We investigate the propagation dynamics of accelerating beams that are shape-preserving solutions of the Maxwell equations, and explore the contribution of their evanescent field components in detail. Both apodized and nonapodized Bessel beam configurations are considered. We show that, in spite of the fact that their evanescent tails do not propagate, these nonparaxial beams can still accelerate along circular trajectories and can exhibit large deflections. Subsequently, our formulation is extended in other two-dimensional vectorial arrangements...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Junseob Shin, Yu Chen, Harshawn Malhi, Jesse T Yen
Despite numerous recent advances in medical ultrasound imaging, reverberation clutter from near-field anatomical structures, such as the abdominal wall, ribs, and tissue layers, is one of the major sources of ultrasound image quality degradation. Reverberation clutter signals are undesirable echoes, which arise as a result of multiple reflections of acoustic waves between the boundaries of these structures, and cause fill-in to lower image contrast. In order to mitigate the undesirable reverberation clutter effects, we present, in this paper, a new beamforming technique called multiphase apodization with cross correlation (MPAX), which is an improved version of our previous technique, dual apodization with cross correlation (DAX)...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Simon Holbek, Thomas Lehrmann Christiansen, Matthias Bo Stuart, Christopher Beers, Erik Vilain Thomsen, Jorgen Arendt Jensen
Simulation and experimental results from 3-D vector flow estimations for a 62 + 62 2-D row-column (RC) array with integrated apodization are presented. A method for implementing a 3-D transverse oscillation (TO) velocity estimator on a 3-MHz RC array is developed and validated. First, a parametric simulation study is conducted, where flow direction, ensemble length, number of pulse cycles, steering angles, transmit/receive apodization, and TO apodization profiles and spacing are varied, to find the optimal parameter configuration...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Yang Chen, Robert Halir, Íñigo Molina-Fernández, Pavel Cheben, Jian-Jun He
Chip-fiber grating couplers have been widely used in silicon-on-insulator platforms. In silicon nitride waveguides, the lower index contrast yields gratings with a weaker radiation strength and poor directionality, thereby limiting the coupling efficiency. Here we propose and design an apodized self-imaging grating coupler in silicon nitride that images an in-plane waveguide input to an output optical fiber placed at a specific distance above the chip. Both amplitude and phase apodizations are employed to engineer the transfer function of the self-imaging grating to produce an image field matching the fiber mode profile...
November 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Hamed Pishvai Bazargani, Maurizio Burla, Lukas Chrostowski, José Azaña
We experimentally demonstrate high-performance integer and fractional-order photonic Hilbert transformers based on laterally apodized Bragg gratings in a silicon-on-insulator technology platform. The sub-millimeter-long gratings have been fabricated using single-etch electron beam lithography, and the resulting HT devices offer operation bandwidths approaching the THz range, with time-bandwidth products between 10 and 20.
November 1, 2016: Optics Letters
D O Allina, Yu Yu Andreeva, L E Zavalishina, L V Moskvina, G A Frank
: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently detected malignancies in men. The gold standard for its diagnosis is morphological examination; at the same time the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and benign conditions that are able to mimic the malignancies is tremendously difficult in a number of cases, this being so, the hyperdiagnosis rate of HGPIN requiring mandatory repeat biopsy is as high as 24%. The currently available differential diagnostic panel of antibodies is imperfect, which necessitates a search for novel markers...
2016: Arkhiv Patologii
Abel Santos, Cheryl Suwen Law, Dominique Wong Chin Lei, Taj Pereira, Dusan Losic
In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures...
October 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Giulia Matrone, Alessandro Ramalli, Alessandro Savoia, Piero Tortoli, Giovanni Magenes
Multi-Line Transmission (MLT) was recently demonstrated as a valuable tool to increase the frame rate of ultrasound images. In this approach, the multiple beams that are simultaneously transmitted may determine cross-talk artifacts that are typically reduced, although not eliminated, by the use of Tukey apodization on both transmission and reception apertures, which unfortunately worsens the image lateral resolution. In this paper we investigate the combination, and related performance, of Filtered-Delay Multiply And Sum (F-DMAS) beamforming with MLT for high frame-rate ultrasound imaging...
October 4, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Alejandra Ortega, Jean Provost, Ling Tong, Pedro Santos, Brecht Heyde, Mathieu Pernot, Jan D'hooge
It was previously demonstrated in 2-D echocardiography that a proper multiline transmit (MLT) implementation can be used to increase frame rate while preserving image quality. Initial findings for extending MLT to 3-D showed that it might address the low spatiotemporal resolution of current volumetric ultrasound systems. However, to date, it remains unclear how much transmit/receive parallelization would be possible using a 3-D MLT system. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to contrast different MLT setups for 3-D imaging by computer simulation in order to determine an optimal tradeoff between the amount of parallelization of an MLT system and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting images...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Tao Zhou, Yun Li, Shikai Liu, Qifan Zeng, Xiaozhu Wang, Yulin Jin, Changxu Tian, Zhenkui Qin, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Apolipoproteins are protein component of plasma lipoproteins. They exert crucial roles in lipoprotein metabolism and serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers in mammals. In teleosts, apolipoproteins are also involved in diverse processes including embryonic and ontogenic development, liver and digestive system organogenesis, and innate immunity. In this study, we identified a set of 19 apolipoprotein genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Phylogenetic analysis and syntenic analysis were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Marcony R Santhiago, Bruna V Ventura, Ramon C Ghanem, Newton Kara-Junior, Haroldo V Moraes, Emir Ghanem
PURPOSE: To investigate potential differences in predictability, efficacy, and safety of corneal excimer laser to correct residual myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in eyes previously implanted with multifocal intraocular lenses using distinct optical surfaces and platforms for multifocality. METHODS: This prospective comparative study included 37 eyes submitted to laser in situ keratomileusis correction for residual errors after implantation of either an apodized diffractive-refractive (Restor) or a full-diffractive (Tecnis) multifocal intraocular lens...
November 2016: Cornea
N C Hornig, M Ukat, H U Schweikert, O Hiort, R Werner, S L S Drop, M Cools, I A Hughes, L Audi, S F Ahmed, J Demiri, P Rodens, L Worch, G Wehner, A E Kulle, D Dunstheimer, E Müller-Roßberg, T Reinehr, A T Hadidi, A K Eckstein, C van der Horst, C Seif, R Siebert, O Ammerpohl, P-M Holterhus
CONTEXT: Only approximately 85% of patients with a clinical diagnosis complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and less than 30% with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome can be explained by inactivating mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to clarify this discrepancy by in vitro determination of AR transcriptional activity in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) and male controls. DESIGN: Quantification of DHT-dependent transcriptional induction of the AR target gene apolipoprotein D (APOD) in cultured genital fibroblasts (GFs) (APOD assay) and next-generation sequencing of the complete coding and noncoding AR locus...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
W Lim, H Bae, G Song
Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins. Although Apolipoprotein D binds to small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol, little is known about effects of high-fat diet with cholesterol on expression of Apolipoprotein D in the male reproductive tract. Therefore, we investigated Apod expression in penises, prostate glands, and testes from rats fed a high-fat diet including a high amount of cholesterol...
August 27, 2016: Andrology
Zhengwei Zhou, Xiaoming Bi, Janet Wei, Hsin-Jung Yang, Rohan Dharmakumar, Reza Arsanjani, C Noel Bairey Merz, Debiao Li, Behzad Sharif
PURPOSE: The presence of subendocardial dark-rim artifact (DRA) remains an ongoing challenge in first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a free-breathing FPP imaging scheme with Cartesian sampling that is optimized to minimize the DRA and readily enables near-instantaneous image reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed FPP method suppresses Gibbs ringing effects-a major underlying factor for the DRA-by "shaping" the underlying point spread function through a two-step process: 1) an undersampled Cartesian sampling scheme that widens the k-space coverage compared to the conventional scheme; and 2) a modified parallel-imaging scheme that incorporates optimized apodization (k-space data filtering) to suppress Gibbs-ringing effects...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Junseob Shin, Yu Chen, Harshawn Malhi, Jesse Yen
Despite numerous recent advances in medical ultrasound imaging, reverberation clutter from near-field anatomical structures, such as the abdominal wall, ribs, and tissue layers, is one of the major sources of ultrasound image quality degradation. Reverberation clutter signals are undesirable echoes, which arise as a result of multiple reflections of acoustic waves between the boundaries of these structures, and cause fill-in to lower image contrast. In order to mitigate the undesirable reverberation clutter effects, we present in this paper a new beamforming technique called multi-phase apodization with cross-correlation (MPAX), which is an improved version of our previous technique, DAX...
August 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Shankarappa Manjunatha, Klaus Distelmaier, Surendra Dasari, Rickey E Carter, Yogish C Kudva, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Higher HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is linked to lower cardiovascular risk but individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with normal or high HDL-C have higher cardiovascular events compared to age matched non-diabetic controls (ND). We determined whether altered HDL functions despite having normal HDL-C concentration may explain increased cardiovascular risk in T1DM individuals. We also determined whether irreversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of HDL bound proteins occur in T1DM individuals with altered HDL functions...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Corine Martineau, Ouafa Najyb, Céline Signor, Éric Rassart, Robert Moreau
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a member of the lipocalin family known to transport small hydrophobic ligands. A major site of ApoD expression in mice is the central nervous system where evidence suggests that it plays a protective role. Gene expression of ApoD was reported in bone-forming osteoblasts but its impact on bone metabolism remains undocumented. METHODS: We compared basic bone parameters of ApoD(-/-) (null) and transgenic (tg) mice to wild-type (wt) littermates through microCT and histochemistry, as well as ApoD expression and secretion in osteoblasts under various culture conditions through real-time PCR and immunoblotting...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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