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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244949/growth-kinetics-and-size-distribution-dynamics-of-viscous-secondary-organic-aerosol
#1
Rahul A Zaveri, John E Shilling, Alla Zelenyuk, Jiumeng Liu, David M Bell, Emma L D'Ambro, Cassandra J Gaston, Joel A Thornton, Alexander Laskin, Peng Lin, Jacqueline M Wilson, Richard C Easter, Jian Wang, Allan K Bertram, Scot T Martin, John H Seinfeld, Douglas R Worsnop
Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration timescale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or -pinene SOA) mode particles...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244715/response-characterization-of-an-inexpensive-aerosol-sensor
#2
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Risto Hillamo, Hilkka Timonen
Inexpensive aerosol sensors have been considered as a complementary option to address the issue of expensive but low spatial coverage air quality monitoring networks. However, the accuracy and response characteristics of these sensors is poorly documented. In this study, inexpensive Shinyei PPD42NS and PPD60PV sensors were evaluated using a novel laboratory evaluation method. A continuously changing monodisperse size distribution of particles was generated using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator. Furthermore, the laboratory results were validated in a field experiment...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243147/seasonal-variations-in-size-distribution-water-soluble-ions-and-carbon-content-of-size-segregated-aerosols-over-new-delhi
#3
Pawan Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Sudesh Yadav
Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM10, PM0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM3-7.2 (20%), PM7.2-10 (15%), PM0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM2.5. Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and Cl- followed bimodal distribution while SO42- and NH4+ ions showed one mode in PM0...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243119/action-observation-or-imitation-of-virtual-hand-movement-affect-differently-regions-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-the-default-mode-network
#4
Nabila Brihmat, Mohamed Tarri, Yann Quidé, Ketty Anglio, Bernard Pavard, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, David Gasq, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque, Isabelle Loubinoux
Virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms use visual stimuli that can modulate visuo-motor networks leading to the stimulation of brain circuits. The aims of this study were to compare the changes in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal when watching and imitating moving real (RH) and virtual hands (VH) in 11 healthy participants (HP). No differences were found between the observation of RH or VH making this VR-based experiment a promising tool for rehabilitation protocols. VH-imitation involved more the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) as part of the mirror neuron system (MNS) compared to execution and VH-observation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239643/not-all-differentiation-is-the-same-examining-the-moderating-effects-of-leader-member-exchange-lmx-configurations
#5
Jungmin Jamie Seo, Jennifer D Nahrgang, Min Z Carter, Peter W Hom
Leaders often influence whether an employee stays or quits and yet research in collective turnover, or turnover at the work-unit level, has neglected leadership as a key antecedent. In the current study we examine how the quality of leader-member relationships within a group (i.e., leader-member exchange, LMX) influences building a shared mindset of collective organizational commitment and ultimately influences collective turnover. We build on a key tenet of LMX theory that leaders form differentiated relationships with followers and propose that not all LMX differentiation is the same and therefore, researchers must take into account the configuration, or mix of high and low LMX relationships, within a group...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237669/a-play-that-went-wrong-unique-presentation-of-bowel-perforation-from-an-unusually-large-per-rectal-foreign-body
#6
Saad Ikram, Shailendra Singh, Ramana Kallam, Ajay Dabra
Colorectal foreign bodies (FBs) are not unheard of in the province of surgery. They are commonly seen in men ranging from 20 to 90 years of age with a bimodal age distribution. A variety of objects have been described and reported in literature. Management involves a complete history and examination followed by the necessary investigations. Most of the time they can be removed at bedside with some manipulation techniques employing the use of some ingenious devices and/or endoscopy for adamant objects. But persistent FBs or those that are high in the rectum or those that present with complications will require operative management...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237075/bimodal-evolutionary-developmental-mirna-program-in-animal-embryogenesis
#7
Gal Avital, Gustavo Starvaggi França, Itai Yanai
miRNAs play essential roles in the mechanics of gene regulation, however, on an organismal-scale, the processes in which they are deployed are not well understood. Here, we adopt an evolutionary developmental approach to study miRNA function by examining their expression throughout embryogenesis in both C. elegans and D. melanogaster. We find that, in both species, miRNA transcriptomic shifts in a punctuated fashion during the mid-developmental transition, specifying two dominant modes of early and late expression profiles...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235924/unplanned-stents-in-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-for-type-b-aortic-dissection-a-16-year-single-center-report
#8
Junjun Liu, Rongjie Zhang, Rui Feng, Jiaxuan Feng, Zhiqing Zhao, Zhenjiang Li, Yuxi Zhao, Yiming Li, Jian Zhou, Zaiping Jing
Background Unplanned stents in thoracic endovascular aortic repair mean additional stents implantation beyond the preoperative planning to achieve operation success. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and consequences of unplanned stents in thoracic endovascular aortic repair for type B aortic dissection and explore the reasons, risk factors and solutions for unplanned stents. Methods Retrospectively analysis consecutive patients diagnosed as type B aortic dissection with initial tear originating distal from the left subclavian artery and underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair from September 1998 to June 2014 in our center...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227502/sensing-in-plane-nanomechanical-surface-and-sub-surface-properties-of-polymers-local-shear-stress-as-function-of-the-indentation-depth
#9
Christian Dietz
Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) is an excellent tool for the study of the compositional and nanomechanical properties of polymers that exploits the flexural eigenmodes of a cantilever comprising a sharp tip vibrating perpendicular to the sample surface. However, the in-plane nanomechanical properties of a specimen cannot be detected by this technique. Here, a bimodal approach was developed where flexural and torsional eigenmodes are driven simultaneously. The corresponding vibrational amplitude and phase shift of the vertical tip motion were utilized for topographical feedback and out-of-plane dissipative interaction acquisition, respectively, whereas the frequency shift and the drive amplitude of the lateral tip motion mapped the in-plane conservative and dissipative interactions of two heterogeneous polymers: an elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) and a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene diblock copolymer (SB)...
December 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226850/temperature-dependent-infrared-nano-imaging-of-la0-67sr0-33mno3-thin-film
#10
Peng Xu, T J Huffman, In Hae Kwak, Amlan Biswas, M M Qazilbash
We investigate the temperature dependence of infrared properties at nanometer length scales in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin film with a thickness of 47 unit cells grown on SrTiO3 substrate. The infrared nano-imaging experiments were performed using a near-field optical microscope in conjunction with a variable temperature heating stage. The near-field infrared data is consistent with the bulk of the LSMO film undergoing the thermally-driven non-percolative second-order transition from a metallic, ferromagnetic phase to an insulating, paramagnetic phase...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223925/characterizing-interaction-forces-between-actin-and-proteins-of-the-tropomodulin-family-reveals-the-presence-of-the-n-terminal-actin-binding-site-in-leiomodin
#11
Baran Arslan, Mert Colpan, Kevin T Gray, Nehal I Abu-Lail, Alla S Kostyukova
Tropomodulin family of proteins includes several isoforms of tropomodulins (Tmod) and leiomodins (Lmod). These proteins can sequester actin monomers or nucleate actin polymerization. Although it is known that their actin-binding properties are isoform-dependent, knowledge on how they vary in strengths of interactions with G-actin is missing. While it is confirmed in many studies that Tmods have two actin-binding sites, information on number and location of actin-binding sites in Lmod2 is controversial. We used atomic force microscopy to study interactions between G-actin and proteins of the tropomodulin family...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223825/theranostic-liposomes-as-a-bimodal-carrier-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agent-and-photosensitizer
#12
Paulina Skupin-Mrugalska, Lukasz Sobotta, Alicja Warowicka, Beata Wereszczynska, Tomasz Zalewski, Piotr Gierlich, Marcin Jarek, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Marek Kempka, Jacek Gapinski, Stefan Jurga, Jadwiga Mielcarek
The present study is focused on the development of liposomes bearing gadolinium chelate (GdLip) providing two functionalities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy of cancer. A lipid derivative of gadolinium(III) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid salt (GdDTPA1) was inserted in the liposomal membrane and served as MRI contrast agent whereas a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was used as a model photosensitizer. In addition to conventional liposomes, pegylated lipids were used for the preparation of "stealth" liposomes...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222835/effective-network-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-subthalamic-nucleus-with-bimodal-positron-emission-tomography-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Hui-Min Chen, Zhi-Qiang Sha, Hui-Zi Ma, Yong He, Tao Feng
AIMS: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment strategy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the biological mechanism underlying DBS treatment remains poorly understood. METHOD: In this study, we investigated how STN-DBS modulated the brain network using a bimodal positron emission tomography (PET)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset. We first performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 13 PET/SPECT studies concerning STN-DBS effects on resting-state brain activity in Parkinson's disease...
December 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221100/automated-detection-of-cloud-and-aerosol-features-with-sacol-micro-pulse-lidar-in-northwest-china
#14
Hailing Xie, Tian Zhou, Qiang Fu, Jianping Huang, Zhongwei Huang, Jianrong Bi, Jinsen Shi, Beidou Zhang, Jinming Ge
The detection of cloud and aerosols using a modified retrieval algorithm solely for a ground-based micropulse lidar (MPL) is presented, based on one-year data at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) site (35.57°N, 104.08°E, 1965.8 m), northwest of China, from March 2011 to February 2012. The work not only identifies atmosphere particle layers by means of the range-dependent thresholds based on elastic scattering ratio and depolarization ratio, but also discriminates the detected layers by combining empirical thresholds of the atmosphere's thermodynamics states and scattering properties and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analyses...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221060/active-metasurface-modulator-with-electro-optic-polymer-using-bimodal-plasmonic-resonance
#15
Jiaqi Zhang, Yuji Kosugi, Akira Otomo, Yoshiaki Nakano, Takuo Tanemura
Electrically tunable metasurfaces have gained special interest as they can realize ultrathin surface-normal modulators in planar geometries. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel metasurface modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer that utilizes bimodal resonance inside a metallic subwavelength grating to increase the modulation efficiency. When two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonant modes are excited simultaneously inside the grating, they couple strongly to generate a sharp dip in the reflected spectrum...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220772/column-integrated-aerosol-optical-properties-of-coarse-and-fine-mode-particles-over-the-pearl-river-delta-region-in-china
#16
B Mai, X Deng, X Xia, H Che, J Guo, X Liu, J Zhu, C Ling
The sun-photometer data from 2011 to 2013 at Panyu site (Panyu) and from 2007 to 2013 at Dongguan site (Dg) in the Pearl River Delta region, were used for the retrieving of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), Ångström exponent (AE) and volume size distribution of coarse- and fine-mode particles. The coarse-mode particles presented low AOD (ranging from 0.05±0.03 to 0.08±0.05) but a strong absorption property (SSA ranged from 0.70±0.03 to 0.90±0.02) for the wavelengths between 440 and 1020nm...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220502/identification-of-soybean-host-plant-resistance-to-brown-marmorated-stink-bugs-in-maturity-group-iii-plant-introductions
#17
Jonathan M La Mantia, M A Rouf Mian, Margaret G Redinbaugh
Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a polyphagous nonnative insect first found in the United States in 1996. As of 2017, BMSB has been detected in 43 states and is a severe agricultural pest in mid-Atlantic states. On soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr (Fabales: Fabaceae), damage from BMSB infestation ranges from puncture marks with seed discoloration and deformities to seed and pod abortion. Host plant resistance has been used for managing pest populations and mitigating soybean yield losses caused by neotropical stink bugs (Eushistus heros, Nezara viridula, and Piezodorus guildinii) in Brazil and on the U...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220486/transcriptome-signatures-of-selection-drift-introgression-and-gene-duplication-in-the-evolution-of-an-extremophile-endemic-plant
#18
Angela K Hawkins, Elyssa R Garza, Valerie A Dietz, Oscar J Hernandez, W Daryl Hawkins, A Millie Burrell, Alan E Pepper
Plants on serpentine soils provide extreme examples of adaptation to environment, and thus offer excellent models for the study of evolution at the molecular and genomic level. Serpentine outcrops are derived from ultramafic rock and have extremely low levels of essential plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca), as well as toxic levels of heavy metals (e.g. Ni, Cr, Co) and low moisture availability. These outcrops provide habitat to a number of endemic plant species, including the annual mustard Caulanthus amplexicaulis var...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220483/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-disrupts-naturally-occurring-bimodal-dna-methylation-at-proximal-promoter-of-fggy-an-obesity-relevant-gene-encoding-a-carbohydrate-kinase-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissues-of-cd-1-mice
#19
Julia A Taylor, Keiko Shioda, Shino Mitsunaga, Shiomi Yawata, Brittany M Angle, Susan C Nagel, Frederick S Vom Saal, Toshi Shioda
Exposure of mammalian fetuses to endocrine disruptors can increase the risk of adult-onset diseases. For example, we previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. To obtain insights into roles of epigenetic changes in the delayed toxic effects of endocrine disruption, we determined effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression in gonadal white adipose tissues by deep sequencing (MBD-seq and RNA-seq), bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time qPCR...
December 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#20
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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