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Victor Bandlow, Susanne Liese, Daniel Lauster, Kai Ludwig, Roland R Netz, Andreas Herrmann, Oliver Seitz
Attachment of the Influenza A virus onto host cells involves multivalent interactions between virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) and sialoside-containing glyco ligands. Despite the development of extremely powerful multivalent bind-ers of the Influenza virus and other viruses, comparably little is known about the optimal spacing of HA ligands, which ought to bridge binding sites within or across the trimeric HA molecules. To explore the criteria for ligand economical high affinity binding, we systematically probed distance-affinity relationships by means of two differently behaving scaffold types based on i) flexible polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates and ii) rigid self-assembled DNA·PNA complexes...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Rebecca L Anderson, Winsor H Watson, Christopher C Chabot
While horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus from regions with two daily tides express endogenous circatidal (~ 12.4 h) activity rhythms, much less is known about locomotor rhythm expression in horseshoe crabs from other tidal regimes. This study investigated whether horseshoe crabs (1) always express activity rhythms consistent with their natural tides, and (2) can alter activity rhythm expression in response to novel tide cycles. Activity rhythms of animals from environments with two daily tides (Gulf of Maine, 43°6' N/70°52' W, and Massachusetts, 41°32' N/70°40'W), one dominant daily tide (Apalachee Bay, Florida, 29°58' N/84°20' W), and microtides (Indian River Lagoon, Florida, 28°5' N/80°35' W) were recorded in 2011-2013 during three artificial tide conditions: no tides, a 12...
April 2017: Marine Biology
Sebastian Adeberg, Denise Bernhardt, Semi Ben Harrabi, Matthias Uhl, Angela Paul, Nina Bougatf, Vivek Verma, Andreas Unterberg, Wolfgang Wick, Thomas Haberer, Stephanie E Combs, Klaus Herfarth, Juergen Debus, Stefan Rieken
PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the feasibility and safety of a sequential proton boost following conventional chemoradiation in high-grade glioma (HGG). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Sixty-six consecutive patients with HGG were treated with 50.0 Gy photons (50.0-50.4 Gy) in 2.0 Gy (1.8-2.0 Gy) fractions, followed by a proton boost with 10 Gy equivalent (Gy(RBE)) in 2.0 Gy(RBE) fractions. Patients were matched one to one with 66 patients with HGG undergoing conventional radiation therapy (RT) with 60...
October 16, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Jay Gilbert, Mirren Charnley, Christopher Cheng, Nicholas P Reynolds, Owen G Jones
Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles...
October 19, 2017: Biointerphases
Michael F Dorman, Rene H Gifford
Purpose: The aim of this article is to summarize recent published and unpublished research from our 2 laboratories on improving speech understanding in complex listening environments by listeners fit with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: CI listeners were tested in 2 listening environments. One was a simulation of a restaurant with multiple, diffuse noise sources, and the other was a cocktail party with 2 spatially separated point sources of competing speech. At issue was the value of the following sources of information, or interventions, on speech understanding: (a) visual information, (b) adaptive beamformer microphones and remote microphones, (c) bimodal fittings, that is, a CI and contralateral low-frequency acoustic hearing, (d) hearing preservation fittings, that is, a CI with preserved low-frequency acoustic in the same ear plus low-frequency acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear, and (e) bilateral CIs...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Wenpei Fan, Bryant Yung, Peng Huang, Xiaoyuan Chen
The complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of tumors seriously undermine the therapeutic potential of treatment. Therefore, the current trend in clinical research has gradually shifted from a focus on monotherapy to combination therapy for enhanced treatment efficacy. More importantly, the cooperative enhancement interactions between several types of monotherapy contribute to the naissance of multimodal synergistic therapy, which results in remarkable superadditive (namely "1 + 1 > 2") effects, stronger than any single therapy or their theoretical combination...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Takeshi Kurokura, Samia Samad, Elli Koskela, Katriina Mouhu, Timo Hytönen, Zoe Wilson
According to the external coincidence model, photoperiodic flowering occurs when CONSTANS (CO) mRNA expression coincides with light in the afternoon of long days (LDs), leading to the activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO has evolved in Brassicaceae from other Group Ia CO-like (COL) proteins which do not control photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. COLs in other species have evolved different functions as floral activators or even as repressors. To understand photoperiodic development in the perennial rosaceous model species woodland strawberry, we functionally characterized FvCO, the only Group Ia COL in its genome...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rui Lü, Xingna Yu, Hailing Jia, Sihan Xiao
Ground-based characteristics (optical, type, size, and radiative properties) of aerosols measured between 2005 and 2012 were investigated over the Taihu rim region, which encompasses the cities of Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with the highest value in summer and the lowest AOD in winter. There was broadest frequency distribution with a multimodal structure in summer. The Ångström exponent (AE) showed high values during spring; the relative frequency of AE in the range of 0-0...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Xinjun Zhu, Jing Li, John C Thomas, Limei Song, Qinghua Guo, Jin Shen
In particle size measurement using dynamic light scattering (DLS), noise makes the estimation of the particle size distribution (PSD) from the autocorrelation function data unreliable, and a regularization technique is usually required to estimate a reasonable PSD. In this paper, we propose an Lp-norm-residual constrained regularization model for the estimation of the PSD from DLS data based on the Lp norm of the fitting residual. Our model is a generalization of the existing, commonly used L2-norm-residual-based regularization methods such as CONTIN and constrained Tikhonov regularization...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
E Georg Luebeck, Kit Curtius, William D Hazelton, Sean Maden, Ming Yu, Prashanthi N Thota, Deepa T Patil, Amitabh Chak, Joseph E Willis, William M Grady
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified age-related changes in DNA methylation patterns in normal and cancer tissues in a process that is called epigenetic drift. However, the evolving patterns, functional consequences, and dynamics of epigenetic drift during carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. Here we analyze the evolution of epigenetic drift patterns during progression from normal squamous esophagus tissue to Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) using 173 tissue samples from 100 (nonfamilial) BE patients, along with publically available datasets including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
Geoffrey Mégardon, Petroc Sumner
The Global Effect (GE) traditionally refers to the tendency of effectors (e.g. hand, eyes) to first land in between two nearby stimuli - forming a unimodal distribution. By measuring a shift of this distribution, recent studies used the GE to assess the presence of decision-related inputs on the motor map for eye movements. However, this method cannot distinguish whether one stimulus is inhibited or the other is facilitated and could not detect situations where both stimuli are inhibited or facilitated. Here, we detect deviations in the bimodal distribution of landing positions for remote stimuli, and find that this bimodal GE reveals the presence, location and polarity (facilitation or inhibition) of history-related and goal-related modulation of the non-selected activity (e...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kathrin Ohla, Richard Höchenberger, Jessica Freiherr, Johan N Lundström
Our sensory experiences comprise a variety of different inputs at any given time. Some of these experiences are unmistakable, others are ambiguous and profit from additional sensory information. Here, we explored whether the presence of a congruent odor influences the neural processing and sensory interaction of audio-visual objects using degraded videos (V) and sounds (A) of dynamic objects in unimodal and bimodal (AV) combinations without or with a congruent odor (VO, AO, AVO). Analyses of EEG data revealed super- and subadditive interaction effects...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Senses
M Riester, Q Xu, A Moreira, J Zheng, F Michor, R J Downey
BACKGROUND: Two recent observations regarding the Warburg effect are that (i) the metabolism of stem cells is constitutive ('aerobic') glycolysis while normal cellular differentiation involves a transition to oxidative phosphorylation and (ii) the degree of glucose uptake of a malignancy as imaged by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is associated with histologic measures of tumor differentiation. Combining these observations, we hypothesized that the high levels of glucose uptake observed in poorly differentiated cancers may reflect persistence of the glycolytic metabolism of stem cells in malignant cells that fail to fully differentiate...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Ling Zhang, Chan Gu, Lijiang Yang, Fuchou Tang, Yi Qin Gao
Methylation of cytosine at the 5 position of the pyrimidine ring is the most prevalent and significant epigenetic modifications in mammalian DNA. The CpG methylation level shows a bimodal distribution but the bimodality can be overestimated due to the heterogeneity of per-base depth. Here, we developed an algorithm to eliminate the effect of per-base depth inhomogeneity on the bimodality and obtained a random CpG methylation distribution. By quantifying the deviation of the observed methylation distribution and the random one using the information formula, we find that in tetranucleotides 5'-N5CGN3-3' (N5, N3 = A, C, G or T), GCGN3 and CCGN3 show less apparent deviation than ACGN3 and TCGN3, indicating that GCGN3 and CCGN3 are less variant in their level of methylation...
2017: PloS One
Brandon S Razooky, Youfang Cao, Maike M K Hansen, Alan S Perelson, Michael L Simpson, Leor S Weinberger
Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where 2 alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV's fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV's promoter, the long terminal repeat (LTR), to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
Bhupendera Prashanth Ramakrishnan, Qian Lei, Amit Misra, Jyoti Mazumder
Bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) exhibit a good combination of strength and plasticity owing to a dual-hierarchy in eutectic length-scales in the microstructure. The present study investigates the variation of phase, morphology, feature length-scales and modality of microstructures obtained in a Al81Cu13Si6 (at. %) ternary alloy after laser surface remelting. A novel approach of varying component bimodal eutectic volume fractions by controlling the cooling rate of the laser solidification process has been presented...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amy E King, F Gregory Murphy, Laurens E Howle
Human decompression sickness (DCS) is a condition associated with depressurization during underwater diving. Human research dive trial data containing dive outcome (DCS, no-DCS) and symptom information are used to calibrate probabilistic DCS models. DCS symptom onset time information is visualized using occurrence density functions (ODF) which plot the DCS onset rate per unit time. For the BIG292 human dive trial data set, a primary U.S. Navy model calibration set, the ODFs are bimodal, however probabilistic models do not produce bimodal ODFs...
October 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Karen Priestley, Charlotte Enns, Shauna Arbuckle
Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Thierry Bertomeu, Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington, Andrew Chatr-Aryamontri, Karine Bourdages, Etienne Coyaud, Brian Raught, Yu Xia, Mike Tyers
To interrogate genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival in human cells, we carried out a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen in a B-cell lymphoma line using a custom extended knockout (EKO) library of 278,754 sgRNAs that targeted 19,084 RefSeq genes, 20,852 alternatively-spliced exons and 3,872 hypothetical genes. A new statistical analysis tool called RANKS identified 2,280 essential genes, 234 of which were unique. Individual essential genes were validated experimentally and linked to ribosome biogenesis and stress responses...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jian Xu, Qiongzhen Wang, Congrui Deng, V Faye McNeill, Alison Fankhauser, Fengwen Wang, Xianjue Zheng, Jiandong Shen, Kan Huang, Guoshun Zhuang
There is growing evidence suggesting that organic aerosols play an important role in the evolution of severe haze episodes. However, long-term investigations of the different characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols during haze and non-haze days are insufficient. In this work, hourly measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were conducted in Shanghai, a megacity in Eastern China, over the course of a year from July 2013 to June 2014. Both OC and EC exhibited a bimodal diel pattern and were highly dependent on the wind speed and direction...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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