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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214602/impact-of-fill-level-in-twin-screw-granulation-on-critical-quality-attributes-of-granules-and-tablets
#1
Robin Meier, Klaus-Peter Moll, Markus Krumme, Peter Kleinebudde
In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#2
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208322/ising-spin-glasses-in-dimension-five
#3
P H Lundow, I A Campbell
Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202254/robust-interactions-between-the-effects-of-auditory-and-cutaneous-electrical-stimulations-on-cell-activities-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#4
Akihisa Kimura
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our every day life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014)...
February 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197852/stereospecific-assignment-of-the-asparagine-and-glutamine-sidechain-amide-protons-in-proteins-from-chemical-shift-analysis
#5
Tobias Harsch, Philipp Schneider, Bärbel Kieninger, Harald Donaubauer, Hans Robert Kalbitzer
Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193511/investigation-of-dielectric-breakdown-in-silica-epoxy-nanocomposites-using-designed-interfaces
#6
Michael Bell, Timothy Krentz, J Keith Nelson, Linda Schadler, Ke Wu, Curt Breneman, Su Zhao, Henrik Hillborg, Brian Benicewicz
Adding nano-sized fillers to epoxy has proven to be an effective method for improving dielectric breakdown strength (DBS). Evidence suggests that dispersion state, as well as chemistry at the filler-matrix interface can play a crucial role in property enhancement. Herein we investigate the contribution of both filler dispersion and surface chemistry on the AC dielectric breakdown strength of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. Ligand engineering was used to synthesize bimodal ligands onto 15nm silica nanoparticles consisting of long epoxy compatible, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains, and short, π-conjugated, electroactive surface ligands...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187449/low-pca3-expression-is-a-marker-of-poor-differentiation-in-localized-prostate-tumors-exploratory-analysis-from-12-076-patients
#7
Mohammed Alshalalfa, Gerald W Verhaegh, Ewan A Gibb, Maria Santiago-Jiménez, Nicholas Erho, Jennifer Jordan, Kasra Yousefi, Lucia L C Lam, Tyler Kolisnik, Jijumon Chelissery, Roland Seiler, Ashley E Ross, R Jeffrey Karnes, Edward M Schaeffer, Tamara T Lotan, Robert B Den, Stephen J Freedland, Elai Davicioni, Eric A Klein, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is a prostate cancer diagnostic biomarker that has been clinically validated. The limitations of the diagnostic role of PCA3 in initial biopsy and the prognostic role are not well established. Here, we elucidate the limitations of tissue PCA3 to predict high grade tumors in initial biopsy. RESULTS: PCA3 has a bimodal distribution in both biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) tissues, where low PCA3 expression was significantly associated with high grade disease (p<0...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184211/disrupted-saccade-control-in-chronic-cerebral-injury-upper-motor-neuron-like-disinhibition-in-the-ocular-motor-system
#8
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Andrew Abdou, Yvonne W Lui, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy
Saccades rapidly direct the line of sight to targets of interest to make use of the high acuity foveal region of the retina. These fast eye movements are instrumental for scanning visual scenes, foveating targets, and, ultimately, serve to guide manual motor control, including eye-hand coordination. Cerebral injury has long been known to impair ocular motor control. Recently, it has been suggested that alterations in control may be useful as a marker for recovery. We measured eye movement control in a saccade task in subjects with chronic middle cerebral artery stroke with both cortical and substantial basal ganglia involvement and in healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178445/a-long-term-epigenetic-memory-switch-controls-bacterial-virulence-bimodality
#9
Irine Ronin, Naama Katsowich, Ilan Rosenshine, Nathalie Q Balaban
When pathogens enter the host, sensing of environmental cues activates the expression of virulence genes. Opposite transition of pathogens from activating to non-activating conditions is poorly understood. Interestingly, variability in the expression of virulence genes upon infection enhances colonization. In order to systematically detect the role of phenotypic variability in enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), an important human pathogen, both in virulence activating and non-activating conditions, we employed the ScanLag methodology...
February 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177597/zero-order-antibiotic-release-from-multilayer-contact-lenses-nonuniform-drug-and-diffusivity-distributions-produce-constant-rate-drug-delivery
#10
Gustavo Guzman, Siamak Shams Es-Haghi, Turgut Nugay, Mukerrem Cakmak
A novel approach to zero-order constant-rate drug delivery from contact lenses is presented. Quasi-Case II non-Fickian transport is achieved by nonuniform drug and diffusivity distributions within three-layer bimodal amphiphilic conetworks (β-APCNs). The center layer is a highly oxygen permeable β-APCN matrix, which contains the drug and exhibits a high drug diffusivity. The outer β-APCN layers contain no-drug and are loaded with vitamin E, which slows diffusion. In contrast to single-layer neat-polymer and vitamin E-loaded films that display first-order "burst" kinetics, it is demonstrated experimentally and by modeling that the combined effect of nonuniform distribution of drug loading and diffusion constants within the three-layer lens maintains low local drug concentration at the lens-fluid interface and yields zero-order drug delivery...
February 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171708/a-multi-institutional-comparison-of-outcomes-of-immunosuppressed-and-immunocompetent-patients-treated-with-surgery-and-radiation-therapy-for-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#11
Bindu V Manyam, Adam A Garsa, Rei-I Chin, Chandana A Reddy, Brian Gastman, Wade Thorstad, Sue S Yom, Brian Nussenbaum, Steven J Wang, Allison T Vidimos, Shlomo A Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Patients who are chronically immunosuppressed have higher rates of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (cSCC-HN). This is the largest multi-institutional study to date investigating the effect of immune status on disease outcomes in patients with cSCC-HN who underwent surgery and received postoperative radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: Patients from 3 institutions who underwent surgery and also received postoperative RT for primary or recurrent, stage I through IV cSCC-HN between 1995 and 2015 were included in this institutional review board-approved study...
February 7, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165041/enhanced-performance-of-sulfur-infiltrated-bimodal-mesoporous-carbon-foam-by-chemical-solution-deposition-as-cathode-materials-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#12
Tae-Gyung Jeong, Jinyong Chun, Byung-Won Cho, Jinwoo Lee, Yong-Tae Kim
The porous carbon matrix is widely recognized to be a promising sulfur reservoir to improve the cycle life by suppressing the polysulfide dissolution in lithium sulfur batteries (LSB). Herein, we synthesized mesocellular carbon foam (MSUF-C) with bimodal mesopore (4 and 30 nm) and large pore volume (1.72 cm(2)/g) using MSUF silica as a template and employed it as both the sulfur reservoir and the conductive agent in the sulfur cathode. Sulfur was uniformly infiltrated into MSUF-C pores by a chemical solution deposition method (MSUF-C/S CSD) and the amount of sulfur loading was achieved as high as 73% thanks to the large pore volume with the CSD approach...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163884/touchdown-to-take-off-at-the-interface-of-flight-and-surface-locomotion
#13
REVIEW
William R T Roderick, Mark R Cutkosky, David Lentink
Small aerial robots are limited to short mission times because aerodynamic and energy conversion efficiency diminish with scale. One way to extend mission times is to perch, as biological flyers do. Beyond perching, small robot flyers benefit from manoeuvring on surfaces for a diverse set of tasks, including exploration, inspection and collection of samples. These opportunities have prompted an interest in bimodal aerial and surface locomotion on both engineered and natural surfaces. To accomplish such novel robot behaviours, recent efforts have included advancing our understanding of the aerodynamics of surface approach and take-off, the contact dynamics of perching and attachment and making surface locomotion more efficient and robust...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161572/single-wavelength-light-mediated-synergistic-bimodal-cancer-photoablation-and-amplified-photothermal-performance-by-graphene-gold-nanostar-photosensitizer-theranostics
#14
Chunhui Wu, Dan Li, Lianhui Wang, Xiaotian Guan, Yuan Tian, Hong Yang, Shun Li, Yiyao Liu
: Light-triggered nanotheranostics opens a fascinating but challenging avenue to achieve simultaneous and highly efficient anticancer outcomes for multimodal therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Herein, a multifunctional phototheranostics based on a photosensitizer-assembled graphene/gold nanostar hybrid (GO/AuNS-PEG) was developed for cancer synergistic photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) as well as effective photothermal imaging. The stable and biocompatible GO/AuNS-PEG composite displayed a high photothermal conversion efficiency due to the enhanced optical absorbance of both graphene and gold nanostars in the near-infrared (NIR) range...
February 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161040/heavy-pollution-episodes-transport-pathways-and-potential-sources-of-pm2-5-during-the-winter-of-2013-in-chengdu-china
#15
Tingting Liao, Shan Wang, Jie Ai, Ke Gui, Bolong Duan, Qi Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Wanting Jiang, Yang Sun
Air mass concentration data from 8 environmental quality monitoring sites and meteorological data of Chengdu from 1 December 2013 to 28 February 2014 were used in this study. Chengdu suffered five continuous heavy pollutions during this winter due to the basin terrain and the meteorological conditions of low wind speed, low precipitation and high relative humidity. Analysing the hourly resolution time series of pollutants' concentrations, variation of PM2.5 in the urban area followed a growing "saw-tooth cycle" pattern during the heavy pollution, with a daily cycle of bimodal distribution...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160304/the-age-breed-and-sex-pattern-of-diagnosis-for-veterinary-care-in-insured-cats-in-japan
#16
R Isomura, M Yamazaki, M Inoue, N C L Kwan, M Matsuda, K Sugiura
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the annual prevalence of different diagnostic categories by age, breed and sex in insured cats in Japan for which veterinary care claims had been made, and to identify if there is a pattern in these host factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 48,187 cats insured for veterinary care in Japan in the period from April 2012 to March 2013 comprising 26,003 males and 22,184 females were analysed to calculate the annual prevalence of 18 diagnostic categories of disease by age, breed and sex...
February 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151638/direct-imaging-of-dopant-distribution-in-polycrystalline-zno-films
#17
Fanni Lorenzo, A Brian Aebersold, Monica Morales-Masis, Martin Ledinský, Stéphane Escrig, Aliaksei Vetushka, Duncan T L Alexander, Aïcha Hessler-Wyser, Antonín Fejfar, Cécile Hébert, Sylvain Nicolay, Christophe Ballif
Two fundamental requirements of transparent conductive oxides are high conductivity and low optical absorptance, properties strongly dependent on the free-carrier concentration of the film. The free-carrier concentration is usually tuned by the addition of dopant atoms; which are commonly assumed to be uniformly distributed in the films or partially segregated at grain boundaries. Here, the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy at the nanometric scale (NanoSIMS) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) allows direct imaging of boron-dopant distribution in polycrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films...
February 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147573/low-frequency-fine-structure-cues-allow-for-the-online-use-of-lexical-stress-during-spoken-word-recognition-in-spectrally-degraded-speech
#18
Ying-Yee Kong, Alexandra Jesse
English listeners use suprasegmental cues to lexical stress during spoken-word recognition. Prosodic cues are, however, less salient in spectrally degraded speech, as provided by cochlear implants. The present study examined how spectral degradation with and without low-frequency fine-structure information affects normal-hearing listeners' ability to benefit from suprasegmental cues to lexical stress in online spoken-word recognition. To simulate electric hearing, an eight-channel vocoder spectrally degraded the stimuli while preserving temporal envelope information...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144955/hypothyroidism-in-utero-stimulates-pancreatic-beta-cell-proliferation-and-hyperinsulinaemia-in-the-ovine-fetus-during-late-gestation
#19
Shelley E Harris, Miles J De Blasio, Melissa A Davis, Amy C Kelly, Hailey M Davenport, F B Peter Wooding, Dominique Blache, David Meredith, Miranda Anderson, Abigail L Fowden, Sean W Limesand, Alison J Forhead
Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143811/lipomatous-tumours-in-adrenal-gland-who-updates-and-clinical-implications
#20
Alfred Lam
Adrenal lipomatous tumour is a group of adrenal tumours with a significant component of adipose tissue. According to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of endocrine organs, adrenal myelolipoma is the only entity amongst the group of tumours being described. In the literature, other more recently documented adrenal lipomatous tumours included 24 lipomas, 32 teratomas and 16 angiomyolipomas. Rare fatty tumours of the adrenal gland comprised liposarcoma, hibernoma, adrenocortical tumours with fat component and rare adrenal tumours with fat component...
January 31, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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