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Bimodality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#1
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427620/effect-of-ultrasonic-frequency-on-size-distributions-of-nanosized-mist-generated-by-ultrasonic-atomization
#2
Takahisa Kudo, Kazuhiko Sekiguchi, Kenshi Sankoda, Norikazu Namiki, Susumu Nii
Ultrasonic atomization is used to produce fine liquid mists with diameter ranges below 100nm. We investigated the effect of the frequency on the size distribution of ultrasonic mist. A bimodal distribution was obtained for the mist generated by ultrasonic atomization with a wide-range particle spectrometer. The peak diameter decreased with increasing frequency, and the number concentration of the mist increased in the smaller range. We determined the relation between the size distribution of the mist and the ultrasonic frequency, and we proposed a generation mechanism for the ultrasonic nanosized mist based on the amount of water vapor around the liquid column...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426387/characterization-of-bimodal-chronotype-and-its-association-with-sleep-a-population-based-study
#3
Priscila Farias Tempaku, Juliana Ramirez Arruda, Diego Robles Mazzotti, Bruno S B Gonçalves, Mário Pedrazzoli, Lia Bittencourt, Sergio Tufik
The circadian system coordinates internal events in a daily schedule to make sure that the body systems are synchronized to environmental time and internal cues. One important behavioral aspect of the circadian system is the chronotype. It is usually assessed through subjective questionnaires, being the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) one of the most used. It classifies individuals into three major categories: morning, evening, and intermediate types. Recently, it has been hypothesized the existence of a fourth chronotype, the bimodal type, through an algorithm derived from the MEQ responses...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425850/a-novel-and-robust-method-for-testing-bimodality-and-characterizing-porcine-adipocytes-of-adipose-tissue-of-5-purebred-lines-of-pig
#4
Eric D Testroet, Peter Sherman, Chad Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Adipocyte sizes from adipose tissue of mature animals form a bimodal distribution, thus reporting mean cell size is misleading. The objectives of this study were to develop a robust method for testing bimodality of porcine adipocytes, describe the size distribution with an informative metric, and statistically test hypertrophy and appearance of new small adipocytes, possibly resulting from hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. Ninety-three percent of adipose samples measured were bimodal (P < 0...
March 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423003/hacdivsel-two-new-methods-haplotype-based-and-outlier-based-for-the-detection-of-divergent-selection-in-pairs-of-populations
#5
Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
The detection of genomic regions involved in local adaptation is an important topic in current population genetics. There are several detection strategies available depending on the kind of genetic and demographic information at hand. A common drawback is the high risk of false positives. In this study we introduce two complementary methods for the detection of divergent selection from populations connected by migration. Both methods have been developed with the aim of being robust to false positives. The first method combines haplotype information with inter-population differentiation (FST)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422653/learning-compositional-sparse-bimodal-models
#6
Suren Kumar, Vikas Dhiman, Parker A Koch, Jason J Corso
Various perceptual domains have underlying compositional semantics that are rarely captured in current models. We suspect this is because directly learning the compositional structure has evaded these models. Yet, the compositional structure of a given domain can be grounded in a separate domain thereby simplifying its learning. To that end, we propose a new approach to modeling bimodal perceptual domains that explicitly relates distinct projections across each modality and then jointly learns a bimodal sparse representation...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420731/distinct-modulatory-role-of-rna-in-the-aggregation-of-the-tumor-suppressor-protein-p53-core-domain
#7
Petar Stefanov Kovachev, Debapriya Banerjee, Luciana Pereira Rangel, Jonny Eriksson, Murilo M Pedrote, Mafalda Maria D C Martins-Dinis, Katarina Edwards, Yraima Cordeiro, Jerson L Silva, Suparna Sanyal
Inactivation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 by mutagenesis, chemical modification, protein-protein interaction or aggregation has been associated with different human cancers. Although DNA is the typical substrate of p53, numerous studies have reported p53 interactions with RNA. Here, we have examined the effects of RNA of varied sequence, length and origin on the mechanism of aggregation of the core domain of p53 (p53C) using light scattering, intrinsic fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, thioflavin-T binding, seeding and immunoblot assays...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418047/an-ftir-emission-study-of-the-products-of-no-a-2-%C3%AE-v-0-1-o2-collisions
#8
Julian Few, James D Fletcher, Gus Hancock, Jennifer L Redmond, Grant A D Ritchie
Collisional quenching of NO A(2)Σ(+) (v = 0, 1) by O2 has been studied through the detection of vibrationally excited products by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. Non-reactive quenching of NO A(2)Σ(+) (v = 0) produces a vibrational distribution in NO X(2)Π which has been quantified for v = 2-22, and is found to be bimodal. The results are consistent with two quenching channels. The first forms the ground X(3)Σ or low-lying a (1)Δg electronic state of O2 with a distribution including high vibrational levels of NO X(2)Π which is slightly hotter than statistical...
April 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417168/rdx-degradation-in-bioaugmented-model-aquifer-columns-under-aerobic-and-low-oxygen-conditions
#9
Mark E Fuller, Paul B Hatzinger, Charles W Condee, Christina Andaya, Rachel Rezes, Mandy M Michalsen, Fiona H Crocker, Karl J Indest, Carina M Jung, G Alon Blakeney, Jonathan D Istok, Steven A Hammett
Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in laboratory columns following biostimulation and bioaugmentation was investigated using sediment and groundwater from a contaminated aquifer at a US Navy facility. No RDX degradation was observed following aerobic biostimulation with either fructose or lactate (both 0.1 mM) prior to bioaugmentation. Replicate columns were then bioaugmented with either Gordonia sp. KTR9, Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C (Ps I-C), or both strains. Under aerobic conditions (influent dissolved oxygen (DO) >6 mg/L), RDX was degraded following the addition of fructose, and to a lesser extent with lactate, in columns bioaugmented with KTR9...
April 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416417/in-vitro-evaluation-of-nasogastric-ng-tube-delivery-performance-of-esomeprazole-magnesium-delayed-release-capsules
#10
Alicia Hoover, Dajun Sun, Hong Wen, Wenlei Jiang, Minglei Cui, Xiaojian Jiang, David Keire, Changning Guo
Enteral feeding tubes are used to deliver food or drugs to patients that cannot swallow. To deliver delayed-release drugs that are formulated as enteric coated granules to these patients via feeding tubes requires that they be suspended in water prior to administration. Importantly, the suspension of enteric granules in water of varying pH can cause damage to the enteric coating and affect the bioavailability of the drug. Here, analytical methods for testing acid resistance stability and particle size distribution (PSD) of esomeprazole granules were utilized to monitor the integrity of the granule enteric coating after water pretreatment and delivery through an oral syringe and nasogastric (NG) tube...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415395/drug-kinetics-release-from-eudragit-tenofovir-sioc-tablets
#11
A Tamayo, M A Mazo, M D Veiga, R Ruiz-Caro, F Notario-Pérez, J Rubio
A novel drug release system has been obtained in form of tablets from Eudragit® RS and tenofovir loaded on porous silicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC). Active carbon (AC) and mesoporous silica (MCM-41) have also been used for comparative purposes. The porous silicon oxycarbide presents a bimodal mesopore size distribution that is maintained after functionalization with amino groups. We have studied the adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium when the materials are loaded with tenofovir and, in all cases, pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm have been revealed as the most representative models describing the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415231/gap-solitons-in-rabi-lattices
#12
Zhaopin Chen, Boris A Malomed
We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414286/-pcr-analysis-of-the-absolute-number-of-copies-of-human-chromosome-18-transcripts-in-liver-and-hepg2-cells
#13
Y Y Kiseleva, K G Ptitsyn, O V Tikhonova, S P Radko, L K Kurbatov, I V Vakhrushev, V G Zgoda, E A Ponomarenko, A V Lisitsa, A I Archakov
Using reverse transcription in conjunction with the quantitative real-time PCR or digital droplet PCR, the transcriptome profiling of human chromosome 18 has been carried out in liver hepatocytes and hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 cell line) in terms of the absolute number of each transcript per cell. The transcript abundance varies within the range of 0.006 to 9635 and 0.011 to 4819 copies per cell for HepG2 cell line and hepatocytes, respectively. The expression profiles for genes of chromosome 18 in hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were found to significantly correlate: the Spearman's correlation coefficient was equal to 0...
March 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413554/confounding-features-of-ectopic-craniopharyngioma-a-differential-for-tumors-showing-diffusion-restriction
#14
Sudha Karnan, Vanitha Krishnamoorthy, Kailasanathan Natarajan, Babu Peter Sathyanathan
Craniopharyngiomas comprise approximately 1-3% of all intracranial tumors and arise from squamous epithelial rests along remnants of Rathke's cleft. They have bimodal age distribution. The ectopic sites reported are the nasopharynx, sphenoid bone, pineal region, cerebellopontine angle and third ventricle. We report a case of ectopic craniopharyngioma in the Foramen of Monro with restricted diffusion, which have is an unusual feature, not commonly reported and is a potential pitfall.
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407510/implicit-co-activation-of-american-sign-language-in-deaf-readers-an-erp-study
#15
Gabriela Meade, Katherine J Midgley, Zed Sevcikova Sehyr, Phillip J Holcomb, Karen Emmorey
In an implicit phonological priming paradigm, deaf bimodal bilinguals made semantic relatedness decisions for pairs of English words. Half of the semantically unrelated pairs had phonologically related translations in American Sign Language (ASL). As in previous studies with unimodal bilinguals, targets in pairs with phonologically related translations elicited smaller negativities than targets in pairs with phonologically unrelated translations within the N400 window. This suggests that the same lexicosemantic mechanism underlies implicit co-activation of a non-target language, irrespective of language modality...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404775/stable-producer-scrounger-dynamics-in-wild-birds-sociability-and-learning-speed-covary-with-scrounging-behaviour
#16
L M Aplin, J Morand-Ferron
There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer-scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer-scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory personality, but correlated with latency to contact and learn the foraging task, with the late arrivers and slower learners more likely to adopt the scrounging role...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402884/interdigitation-between-triglycerides-and-lipids-modulates-surface-properties-of-lipid-droplets
#17
Amélie Bacle, Romain Gautier, Catherine L Jackson, Patrick F J Fuchs, Stefano Vanni
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are the main cellular site of metabolic energy storage. Their structure is unique inside the cell, with a core of esterified fatty acids and sterols, mainly triglycerides and sterol esters, surrounded by a single monolayer of phospholipids. Numerous peripheral proteins, including several that were previously associated with intracellular compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer, have been recently shown to target the surface of LDs, but how they are able to selectively target this organelle remains largely unknown...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402291/multi-pulse-flash-light-sintering-of-bimodal-cu-nanoparticles-ink-for-highly-conductive-printed-cu-electrodes
#18
Myeong-Hyeon Yu, Sung Jun Joo, Hak Sung Kim
In this work, bimodal Cu nano-inks composed of two different sizes of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) (40 nm and 100 nm in diameter) were successfully sintered with a multi-pulse flashlight sintering technique. Bimodal Cu nano-inks were fabricated and printed with various mixing ratios and subsequently sintered by a flash light sintering method. The effects of the flashlight sintering conditions, including irradiation energy and pulse number, were investigated to optimize the sintering conditions. A detailed mechanism of the sintering of bimodal Cu nano-ink was also studied via real-time resistance measurement during the sintering process...
April 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401917/cooperative-roles-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-central-clock-and-the-adrenal-clock-in-controlling-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm
#19
Sooyoung Chung, Eun Jeong Lee, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Jeongah Kim, Doyeon Kim, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
The mammalian circadian timing system consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral clocks in other tissues. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones with widespread physiological effects that undergo daily oscillations. We previously demonstrated that the adrenal peripheral clock plays a pivotal role in circadian GC rhythm by driving cyclic GC biosynthesis. Here, we show that the daily rhythm in circulating GC levels is controlled by bimodal actions of central and adrenal clockwork...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397700/narcotic-bowel-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Adam D Farmer, Jayne Gallagher, Caroline Bruckner-Holt, Qasim Aziz
Narcotic bowel syndrome is characterised by worsening abdominal pain in the context of escalating or continuous opioid therapy. Although narcotic bowel syndrome is rarely diagnosed, given the current epidemic of opioid use, it is likely to be under-recognised. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of narcotic bowel syndrome are incompletely understood; however, opioid-induced hyperalgesia is likely to be a central facet. The putative mechanisms of hyperalgesia include activation of bimodal opioid regulatory systems, counter-regulatory mechanisms, neuroinflammation, opioid facilitation, and interactions of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor with opioids at the level of the spinal cord...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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