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Bimodality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919357/lipid-phenotype-and-heritage-pattern-in-families-with-genetic-hypercholesterolemia-not-related-to-ldlr-apob-pcsk9-or-apoe
#1
Estíbaliz Jarauta, María Rosario Pérez-Ruiz, Sofia Pérez-Calahorra, Rocio Mateo-Gallego, Ana Cenarro, Montserrat Cofán, Emilio Ros, Fernando Civeira, Maria Teresa Tejedor
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of individuals clinically diagnosed as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) do not carry pathogenic mutations in candidate genes. Whether in them the high cholesterol trait is transmitted monogenically has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the inheritance pattern, penetrance, and expression of high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDLc) in families with genetic hypercholesterolemia (GH) without known causative mutations (non-FH-GH)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918626/evolutionary-origins-of-abnormally-large-shoot-sodium-accumulation-in-nonsaline-environments-within-the-caryophyllales
#2
Philip J White, Helen C Bowen, Martin R Broadley, Hamed A El-Serehy, Konrad Neugebauer, Anna Taylor, Jacqueline A Thompson, Gladys Wright
The prevalence of sodium (Na)-'hyperaccumulator' species, which exhibit abnormally large shoot sodium concentrations ([Na]shoot ) when grown in nonsaline environments, was investigated among angiosperms in general and within the Caryophyllales order in particular. Shoot Na concentrations were determined in 334 angiosperm species, representing 35 orders, grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. Many Caryophyllales species exhibited abnormally large [Na]shoot when grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#3
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913288/autofluorescence-lifetime-variation-in-the-cuticle-of-the-bedbug-cimex-lectularius
#4
Klaus Reinhardt, Hans Georg Breunig, Karsten König
The decay time of the fluorescence of excited molecules, called fluorescence lifetime, can provide information about the cuticle composition additionally to widely used spectral characteristics. We compared autofluorescence lifetimes of different cuticle regions in the copulatory organ of females of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius. After two-photon excitation at 720 nm, regions recently characterised as being rich in resilin showed a longer bimodal distribution of the mean autofluorescence lifetime τm (tau-m) at 0...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911933/driving-cells-to-the-desired-state-in-a-bimodal-distribution-through-manipulation-of-internal-noise-with-biologically-practicable-approaches
#5
Che-Chi Shu, Chen-Chao Yeh, Wun-Sin Jhang, Shih-Chiang Lo
The stochastic nature of gene regulatory networks described by Chemical Master Equation (CME) leads to the distribution of proteins. A deterministic bistability is usually reflected as a bimodal distribution in stochastic simulations. Within a certain range of the parameter space, a bistable system exhibits two stable steady states, one at the low end and the other at the high end. Consequently, it appears to have a bimodal distribution with one sub-population (mode) around the low end and the other around the high end...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906395/regioselective-plasmonic-nano-assemblies-for-bimodal-sub-femtomolar-dopamine-detection
#6
Fengli Gao, Liqiang Liu, Gang Cui, Liguang Xu, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
Reliable and ultrasensitive quantification of dopamine (DA) is essential in the precise diagnotherapy of neurological diseases. In this study, dual mode counterpropagating-responsive gold@silver nanoparticle-gold nanorod (Au@AgNP-AuNR) nano-assemblies were fabricated for the precise quantification of DA. The plasmonic Au@AgNP-AuNR assemblies possessed high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and strong fluorescence quenching, due to the prominent electromagnetic enhancement between the hotspots of the assemblies...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905683/prolonged-neutropenia-due-to-antihuman-neutrophil-antigen-2-cd177-antibody-after-bone-marrow-transplantation
#7
Taizo Wada, Satoshi Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Yusuke Matsuda, Tomoko Toma, Kohsuke Imai, Masatoshi Takagi, Tomohiro Morio, Akihiro Yachie
We describe a patient who presented with prolonged neutropenia due to anti-human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-2 (CD177) antibody after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. A granulocyte immunofluorescence test showed bimodal expression of antineutrophil antibody that resulted from specific binding of anti-HNA-2 to CD177(+) neutrophils from healthy donors. The patient did not respond to granulocyte colony stimulating factor, which is able to upregulate CD177 expression on neutrophils. The low percentage of CD177(+) cells in the few remaining neutrophils supports the possibility of elimination of CD177-upregulated neutrophils...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905035/interactions-of-bimodal-magnetic-and-fluorescent-nanoparticles-based-on-carbon-quantum-dots-and-iron-carbon-nanocomposites-with-cell-cultures
#8
A S Minin, A V Belousova, L T Smolyuk, M V Ulitko, M A Uimin, I V Byzov
Interactions of bimodal (fluorescent and magnetic) nanoparticles with HeLa cells were studied. The nanoparticles, characterized by high magnetic moment and relaxing capacity, exhibited fluorescence sufficient for their use as labels in confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Penetration of these nanoparticles into the cell depended on their surface charge: positively charged nanoparticles of this structure penetrated inside, while negatively charged particles were not found in the cells.
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903876/handicap-principle-implies-emergence-of-dimorphic-ornaments
#9
Sara M Clifton, Rosemary I Braun, Daniel M Abrams
Species spanning the animal kingdom have evolved extravagant and costly ornaments to attract mating partners. Zahavi's handicap principle offers an elegant explanation for this: ornaments signal individual quality, and must be costly to ensure honest signalling, making mate selection more efficient. Here, we incorporate the assumptions of the handicap principle into a mathematical model and show that they are sufficient to explain the heretofore puzzling observation of bimodally distributed ornament sizes in a variety of species...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903261/discrete-phenotypes-are-not-underpinned-by-genome-wide-genetic-differentiation-in-the-squat-lobster-munida-gregaria-crustacea-decapoda-munididae-a-multi-marker-study-covering-the-patagonian-shelf
#10
Chen Wang, Shobhit Agrawal, Jürgen Laudien, Vreni Häussermann, Christoph Held
BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has demonstrated that many discrete phenotypes are in fact genetically distinct (pseudo)cryptic species. Genetically identical, isogenic individuals, however, can also express similarly different phenotypes in response to a trigger condition, e.g. in the environment. This alternative explanation to cryptic speciation often remains untested because it requires considerable effort to reject the hypothesis that the observed underlying genetic homogeneity of the different phenotypes may be trivially caused by too slowly evolving molecular markers...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901049/glucocorticoid-receptor-and-histone-deacetylase-6-mediate-the-differential-effect-of-dexamethasone-during-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-mscs
#11
Marilyn G Rimando, Hao-Hsiang Wu, Yu-An Liu, Chien-Wei Lee, Shu-Wen Kuo, Yin-Ping Lo, Kuo-Fung Tseng, Yi-Shiuan Liu, Oscar Kuang-Sheng Lee
Lineage commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts in vitro is enhanced by a potent synthetic form of glucocorticoid (GC), dexamethasone (Dex). Paradoxically, when used chronically in patients, GCs exert negative effects on bone, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in clinical practice. The mechanism on how GC differentially affects bone precursor cells to become mature osteoblasts during osteogenesis remains elusive. In this study, the dose and temporal regulation of Dex on MSC differentiation into osteoblasts were investigated...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896265/social-mechanisms-to-get-people-outdoors-bimodal-distribution-of-interest-in-nature
#12
Ralf Christopher Buckley, Diane Westaway, Paula Brough
We report results from a post-program survey (n = 930) of participants in a non-profit outdoor health program targeted principally at women with families in Australia's metropolitan cities. We analyze communications, motivations, experiences, satisfaction, and intentions. The program involves 3 months' outdoor training in scenic locations, culminating in a single-day event. Training includes social opportunities and peer-group support. Event entry is in teams and includes charitable fundraising and personal challenges...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895375/clinical-profile-treatment-and-survival-outcomes-of-peadiatric-germ-cell-tumours-a-pakistani-perspective
#13
Irfan Ul Islam Nasir, Muhammad Ijaz Ashraf, Nouman Ahmed, Muhammad Fahd Shah, Muhammad Taqi Pirzada, Amir Ali Syed, Abid Quddus Qazi
Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) are rare tumours. Generally 80% are benign and 20% malignant with a bimodal age distribution. The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised all paediatric patients below 18 years of age who received treatment for histology-proven GCT from 2006 to 2014. Of the 207 patients, 98(42.3%) were males and 109(52.7%) were females. The most common GCT was yolk sac tumour in 90(43.5%) children followed by mixed GCT in 40(19.3%) and dysgerminoma in 34(16...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893868/three-boundary-conditions-for-computing-the-fixed-point-property-in-binary-mixture-data
#14
Leendert van Maanen, Joaquina Couto, Mael Lebreton
The notion of "mixtures" has become pervasive in behavioral and cognitive sciences, due to the success of dual-process theories of cognition. However, providing support for such dual-process theories is not trivial, as it crucially requires properties in the data that are specific to mixture of cognitive processes. In theory, one such property could be the fixed-point property of binary mixture data, applied-for instance- to response times. In that case, the fixed-point property entails that response time distributions obtained in an experiment in which the mixture proportion is manipulated would have a common density point...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886371/why-babies-die-in-unplanned-out-of-institution-births-an-enquiry-into-perinatal-deaths-in-norway-1999-2013
#15
Björn Gunnarsson, Sigurd Fasting, Eirik Skogvoll, Alexander Kr Smárason, Kjell Å Salvesen
INTRODUCTION: The aims were to describe causes of death associated with unplanned out-of-institution births, and to study if they could be prevented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective population-based observational study based on data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and medical records. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2013, 69 perinatal deaths among 6027 unplanned out-of-institution births, whether unplanned at home, during transportation, or unspecified, were selected for enquiry...
November 25, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885978/factors-affecting-daily-cochlear-implant-use-in-children-datalogging-evidence
#16
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Joseph Sanfilippo, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883907/bimodal-concentration-dependent-reactivity-pattern-of-a-glycosyl-donor-is-the-solution-structure-involved
#17
Leonid O Kononov, Ksenia G Fedina, Anna V Orlova, Nikolay N Kondakov, Polina I Abronina, Nikita M Podvalnyy, Alexander O Chizhov
Changes in concentration (0.001-0.1 M) of an arabinofuranosyl donor (1) have been shown to modulate the temperature T at which activation of 1 occurs (from -23 °C to +7 °C), the reaction time (from 1.5 h to 3 days) and the yield of the disaccharide formed (from 14% to 82%). At concentrations exceeding 0.01 M, these parameters, as well as the specific optical rotation of the solution of 1, virtually do not depend on concentration suggesting formation of reacting species (supramers) of glycosyl donor with similar structures, hence reactivities, but considerably different from those formed in more dilute solutions...
November 12, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881096/a-step-toward-essential-tremor-gene-discovery-identification-of-extreme-phenotype-and-screening-of-htra2-and-ano3
#18
Mathilde Renaud, Christophe Marcel, Gabrielle Rudolf, Mickaël Schaeffer, Ouhaïd Lagha-Boukbiza, Jean-Baptiste Chanson, Jamel Chelly, Mathieu Anheim, Christine Tranchant
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by a frequent family history. No monogenic form of ET has been identified. We aimed at exploring ET patients to identify distinct subgroups and facilitate the identification of ET genes. We tested for the presence of HTRA2 p.G399S, and ANO3 p. W490C, p. R484 W and p. S685G mutations. METHODS: Between June 2011 and November 2013, all consecutive patients suspected with ET were prospectively included in a prospective, monocentric study...
November 23, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876848/novel-structure-in-sciaenid-fish-skulls-indicates-continuous-production-of-the-cephalic-neuromast-cupula
#19
Maíra Pombo, Alexander Turra
The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876511/modulation-of-microsaccades-by-spatial-frequency-during-object-categorization
#20
Matt Craddock, Frank Oppermann, Matthias M Müller, Jasna Martinovic
The organization of visual processing into a coarse-to-fine information processing based on the spatial frequency properties of the input forms an important facet of the object recognition process. During visual object categorization tasks, microsaccades occur frequently. One potential functional role of these eye movements is to resolve high spatial frequency information. To assess this hypothesis, we examined the rate, amplitude and speed of microsaccades in an object categorization task in which participants viewed object and non-object images and classified them as showing either natural objects, man-made objects or non-objects...
December 1, 2016: Vision Research
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