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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455902/online-social-network-response-to-studies-on-antidepressant-use-in-pregnancy
#1
Simone N Vigod, Ebrahim Bagheri, Fattane Zarrinkalam, Hilary K Brown, Muhammad Mamdani, Joel G Ray
BACKGROUND: About 8% of U.S women are prescribed antidepressant medications around the time of pregnancy. Decisions about medication use in pregnancy can be swayed by the opinion of family, friends and online media, sometimes beyond the advice offered by healthcare providers. Exploration of the online social network response to research on antidepressant use in pregnancy could provide insight about how to optimize decision-making in this complex area. METHODS: For all 17 research articles published on the safety of antidepressant use in pregnancy in 2012, we sought to explore online social network activity regarding antidepressant use in pregnancy, via Twitter, in the 48h after a study was published, compared to the social network activity in the same period 1week prior to each article's publication...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453272/building-the-child-safety-collaborative-innovation-and-improvement-network-how-does-it-work-and-what-is-it-achieving
#2
Jennifer B Leonardo, Rebecca S Spicer, Maria Katradis, Jennifer Allison, Rebekah Thomas
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the Child Safety Collaborative Innovation and Improvement Network (CS CoIIN) framework could be applied in the field of injury and violence prevention to reduce fatalities, hospitalizations and emergency department visits among 0-19 year olds. SAMPLE: Twenty-one states/jurisdictions were accepted into cohort 1 of the CS CoIIN, and 14 were engaged from March 2016 through April 2017. A quality improvement framework was used to test, implement and spread evidence-based change ideas (strategies and programs) in child passenger safety, falls prevention, interpersonal violence prevention, suicide and self-harm prevention and teen driver safety...
February 16, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451697/optimizing-case-reports-and-case-series-guidance-on-how-to-improve-quality
#4
REVIEW
I Garcia-Doval, J Albrecht, C Flohr, J Batchelor, J R Ingram
Case reports and case series remain an important part of journals and are often first to document medical breakthroughs. This article reviews their characteristics, aims and limitations. It provides information on how to increase the validity of the bedside decision-making process that these studies report, using tools such as validated outcomes and split body or n-of-1 trials. A section describing tools to improve writing of case reports and case series provides suggestions for detailed reporting and good evaluation of novelty, validity and relevance...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438070/successfully-reducing-newborn-asphyxia-in-the-labour-unit-in-a-large-academic-medical-centre-a-quality-improvement-project-using-statistical-process-control
#5
Rikke von Benzon Hollesen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal Johansen, Christina Rørbye, Louise Munk, Pierre Barker, Anette Kjaerbye-Thygesen
BACKGROUND: A safe delivery is part of a good start in life, and a continuous focus on preventing harm during delivery is crucial, even in settings with a good safety record. In January 2013, the labour unit at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, undertook a quality improvement (QI) project to prevent asphyxia and reduced the percentage of newborns with asphyxia by 48%. METHODS: The change theory consisted of two primary elements: (1) the clinical content, including three clinical bundles of evidence-based care, a 'delivery bundle', an 'oxytocin bundle' and a 'vacuum extraction bundle'; (2) an implementation theory, including improving skills in interpretation of cardiotocography, use of QI methods and participation in a national learning network...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433912/factors-influencing-emergency-department-care-of-young-children-at-risk-for-clinically-important-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Tara Rhine, Shari L Wade, Nanhua Zhang, Huaiyu Zang, Stephanie Kennebeck, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVES: Care decisions for young children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with head injury are often challenging (e.g. whether to obtain neuroimaging). We sought to identify factors associated with acute management of children at-risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and describe symptom management. METHODS: Observational evaluation of children, ages 0-4years, presenting to a pediatric ED following minor head injury. Children with ≥1 risk element per the Pediatric Emergency Care Academic Research Network's decision rule were deemed "at-risk" for ciTBI...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433449/the-use-of-public-performance-reporting-by-general-practitioners-a-study-of-perceptions-and-referral-behaviours
#7
Khic-Houy Prang, Rachel Canaway, Marie Bismark, David Dunt, Margaret Kelaher
BACKGROUND: Public performance reporting (PPR) of hospital data aims to improve quality of care in hospitals and to inform consumer choice. In Australia, general practitioners (GPs) are gatekeepers to secondary care with patients requiring their referral for non-emergency access. Despite their intermediary role, GPs have been generally overlooked as potential users of PPR of hospital data, with the majority of the PPR research focussing on consumers, surgeons and hospitals. METHODS: We examined the use of PPR of hospital data by GPs when referring patients to hospitals...
February 12, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428347/optimizing-the-management-of-spasticity-in-people-with-spinal-cord-damage-a-clinical-care-pathway-for-assessment-and-treatment-decision-making-from-the-ability-network-an-international-initiative
#8
Indira Lanig, Peter New, Anthony S Burns, Gerald Bilsky, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Djamel Bensmail, Michael Yochelson
The recognition, evaluation and management of disabling spasticity in persons with spinal cord damage (SCD) is a challenge for healthcare providers, health systems and patients. To guide the assessment and management of disabling spasticity in individuals with SCD, the Ability Network, an international panel of clinical experts, developed a clinical care pathway. The aim of this pathway is to facilitate treatment decisions that take into account the impact of disabling spasticity on health status, individual preferences and treatment goals, tolerance for adverse events, and burden on caregivers...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428192/expanding-access-to-primary-healthcare-for-women-through-a-microfinance-institution-a-case-study-from-rural-guatemala
#9
Marcela Colom, Kirsten Austad, Neftali Sacuj, Karen Larson, Peter Rohloff
The utilization of existing social networks is increasingly being recognized as a powerful strategy for delivering healthcare services to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. In Guatemala, multiple barriers prevent access to healthcare services for rural and indigenous populations, and strategies for delivering healthcare in more efficient ways are needed. The case study we describe here is a unique collaboration between a microfinance institution (Friendship Bridge) and a primary care organization (Wuqu' Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance) to scale up healthcare through an existing lending-borrowing social network...
February 7, 2018: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428045/genetic-testing-for-hereditary-breast-cancer-the-decision-to-decline
#10
V Brook White, Kendall K Walsh, Kimberly Showers Foss, Lisa Amacker-North, Stacy Lenarcic, Lindsay McNeely, Richard L White
Genetic testing is important for comprehensive cancer care. Commercial analysis of the BRCA1/2 genes has been available since 1996, and testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is well established. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines identify individuals for whom BRCA1/2 analysis is appropriate and define management recommendations for mutation carriers. Despite recommendations, not all who meet NCCN criteria undergo genetic testing. We assess the frequency that individuals meeting NCCN criteria decline BRCA1/2 analysis, as well as factors that affect the decision-making process...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423440/optimal-information-networks-application-for-data-driven-integrated-health-in-populations
#11
Joseph L Servadio, Matteo Convertino
Development of composite indicators for integrated health in populations typically relies on a priori assumptions rather than model-free, data-driven evidence. Traditional variable selection processes tend not to consider relatedness and redundancy among variables, instead considering only individual correlations. In addition, a unified method for assessing integrated health statuses of populations is lacking, making systematic comparison among populations impossible. We propose the use of maximum entropy networks (MENets) that use transfer entropy to assess interrelatedness among selected variables considered for inclusion in a composite indicator...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415263/scepath-energy-landscape-based-inference-of-transition-probabilities-and-cellular-trajectories-from-single-cell-transcriptomic-data
#12
Suoqin Jin, Adam L MacLean, Tao Peng, Qing Nie
Motivation: Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers unprecedented resolution for studying cellular decision-making processes. Robust inference of cell state transition paths and probabilities is an important yet challenging step in the analysis of these data. Results: Here we present scEpath, an algorithm that calculates energy landscapes and probabilistic directed graphs in order to reconstruct developmental trajectories. We quantify the energy landscape using "single-cell energy" and distance-based measures, and find that the combination of these enables robust inference of the transition probabilities and lineage relationships between cell states...
February 5, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411037/guidelines-for-inclusion-of-patient-reported-outcomes-in-clinical-trial-protocols-the-spirit-pro-extension
#13
Melanie Calvert, Derek Kyte, Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Anita Slade, An-Wen Chan, Madeleine T King, Amanda Hunn, Andrew Bottomley, Antoine Regnault, An-Wen Chan, Carolyn Ells, Daniel O'Connor, Dennis Revicki, Donald Patrick, Doug Altman, Ethan Basch, Galina Velikova, Gary Price, Heather Draper, Jane Blazeby, Jane Scott, Joanna Coast, Josephine Norquist, Julia Brown, Kirstie Haywood, Laura Lee Johnson, Lisa Campbell, Lori Frank, Maria von Hildebrand, Michael Brundage, Michael Palmer, Paul Kluetz, Richard Stephens, Robert M Golub, Sandra Mitchell, Trish Groves
Importance: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from clinical trials can provide valuable evidence to inform shared decision making, labeling claims, clinical guidelines, and health policy; however, the PRO content of clinical trial protocols is often suboptimal. The SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) statement was published in 2013 and aims to improve the completeness of trial protocols by providing evidence-based recommendations for the minimum set of items to be addressed, but it does not provide PRO-specific guidance...
February 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410852/a-reader-unit-of-the-chemical-computer
#14
Pavel S Smelov, Vladimir K Vanag
We suggest the main principals and functional units of the parallel chemical computer, namely, (i) a generator (which is a network of coupled oscillators) of oscillatory dynamic modes, (ii) a unit which is able to recognize these modes (a 'reader') and (iii) a decision-making unit, which analyses the current mode, compares it with the external signal and sends a command to the mode generator to switch it to the other dynamical regime. Three main methods of the functioning of the reader unit are suggested and tested computationally: (a) the polychronization method, which explores the differences between the phases of the generator oscillators; (b) the amplitude method which detects clusters of the generator and (c) the resonance method which is based on the resonances between the frequencies of the generator modes and the internal frequencies of the damped oscillations of the reader cells...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408524/dissociating-neural-variability-related-to-stimulus-quality-and-response-times-in-perceptual-decision-making
#15
Stefan Bode, Daniel Bennett, David K Sewell, Bryan Paton, Gary F Egan, Philip L Smith, Carsten Murawski
According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted. On each trial, participants judged whether an image presented under conditions of high, medium, or low visual noise showed a piano or a chair...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400410/discussion-group-networks-in-occupational-medicine-a-tool-for-continuing-education-to-promote-the-integration-of-workers-with-disabilities
#16
Lilah Rinsky-Halivni, Yehuda Lerman
BACKGROUND: Despite their legal rights, individuals with disabilities face numerous obstacles to integration in the workplace which can result in their discharge from the labor force. Currently occupational physicians have few resources to help decide whether to integrate disabled workers in pre-placement, or in cases of return-to-work. METHODS: A network of 13 discussion groups comprised of the occupational physicians of each regional clinic of a large Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel was created to deal with disability management dilemmas...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399533/pathogenesis-of-thrombosis-cellular-and-pharmacogenetic-contributions
#17
REVIEW
Dileep D Monie, Emma P DeLoughery
Our understanding of thrombosis formation has evolved significantly ever since physician Rudolf Virchow proposed his "triad" theory in 1856. Modern science has elucidated the mechanisms of stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial dysfunction. Today, we have a firm understanding of the key molecular factors involved in the coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic system, as well as the underlying genetic influences. This knowledge of cellular and genetic contributors has been translated into diverse pharmaceutical interventions...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398494/machine-learning-in-medical-imaging
#18
Maryellen L Giger
Advances in both imaging and computers have synergistically led to a rapid rise in the potential use of artificial intelligence in various radiological imaging tasks, such as risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response, as well as in multi-omics disease discovery. A brief overview of the field is given here, allowing the reader to recognize the terminology, the various subfields, and components of machine learning, as well as the clinical potential. Radiomics, an expansion of computer-aided diagnosis, has been defined as the conversion of images to minable data...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398362/small-networks-encode-decision-making-in-primary-auditory-cortex
#19
Nikolas A Francis, Daniel E Winkowski, Alireza Sheikhattar, Kevin Armengol, Behtash Babadi, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory detection tasks enhance representations of behaviorally meaningful stimuli in primary auditory cortex (A1). However, it remains unclear how A1 encodes decision-making. Neurons in A1 layer 2/3 (L2/3) show heterogeneous stimulus selectivity and complex anatomical connectivity, and receive input from prefrontal cortex. Thus, task-related modulation of activity in A1 L2/3 might differ across subpopulations. To study the neural coding of decision-making, we used two-photon imaging in A1 L2/3 of mice performing a tone-detection task...
January 30, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396569/controlled-information-transfer-through-an-in-vivo-nervous-system
#20
Naveed A Abbasi, Dilan Lafci, Ozgur B Akan
The nervous system holds a central position among the major in-body networks. It comprises of cells known as neurons that are responsible to carry messages between different parts of the body and make decisions based on those messages. In this work, further to the extensive theoretical studies, we demonstrate the first controlled information transfer through an in vivo nervous system by modulating digital data from macro-scale devices onto the nervous system of common earthworms and conducting successful transmissions...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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