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Decision making networks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636405/conventional-polysomnography-is-not-necessary-for-the-management-of-most-patients-with-suspected-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Jaime Corral, Maria-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Carmen Carmona-Bernal, Ángeles Sánchez-Armengol, Alicia Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Joaquín Durán-Cantolla, Carlos J Egea, Neus Salord, Carmen Monasterio, Joaquín Terán, M Luz Alonso-Alvarez, Jesús Muñoz-Méndez, Eva M Arias, Marta Cabello, Josep M Montserrat, Mónica De la Peña, José C Serrano, Ferran Barbe, Juan F Masa
RATIONALE: Home respiratory polygraphy may be a simpler alternative to in-laboratory polysomnography for the management of more symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea patients, but its effectiveness has not been evaluated across a broad clinical spectrum. OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term effectiveness (6 months) of home respiratory polygraphy and polysomnography management protocols in patients with intermediate to high sleep apnea suspicion (most patients requiring a sleep study)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634467/brain-network-activation-technology-does-not-assist-with-concussion-diagnosis-and-return-to-play-in-football-athletes
#2
Steven P Broglio, Richelle Williams, Andrew Lapointe, Ashley Rettmann, Brandon Moore, Sean K Meehan, James T Eckner
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis and management remains a largely subjective process. This investigation sought to evaluate the utility of a novel neuroelectric measure for concussion diagnosis and return to play decision-making. HYPOTHESIS: Brain Network Activation (BNA) scores obtained within 72-h of injury will be lower than the athlete's preseason evaluation and that of a matched control athlete; and the BNA will demonstrate ongoing declines at the return to play and post-season time points, while standard measures will have returned to pre-injury and control athlete levels...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626019/neural-mechanisms-of-updating-under-reducible-and-irreducible-uncertainty
#3
Kenji Kobayashi, Ming Hsu
Adaptive decision-making depends on agents' ability to make use of environmental signals to reduce uncertainty. However, because there exist multiple types of uncertainty, agents should take into account not only the extent to which signals violate prior expectancy but also whether uncertainty can be reduced in the first place. Here we studied how the human brain of both sexes responds to signals under conditions of reducible and irreducible uncertainty. We show behaviorally that subjects' value updating was sensitivity to the reducibility of uncertainty, and could be quantitative characterized by a Bayesian model where agents ignore expectancy violations that do not update beliefs or values...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620286/audience-effects-in-territorial-defense-of-male-cichlid-fish-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-activation-of-the-brain-social-decision-making-network
#4
António Roleira, Gonçalo A Oliveira, João S Lopes, Rui F Oliveira
Animals communicate by exchanging signals frequently in the proximity of other conspecifics that may detect and intercept signals not directed to them. There is evidence that the presence of these bystanders modulates the signaling behavior of interacting individuals, a phenomenon that has been named audience effect. Research on the audience effect has predominantly focused on its function rather than on its proximate mechanisms. Here, we have investigated the physiological and neuromolecular correlates of the audience effect in a cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619541/can-renal-resistive-index-predict-acute-kidney-injury-after-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-repair
#5
Hai-Bo Wu, Huai Qin, Wei-Guo Ma, Hong-Lei Zhao, Jun Zheng, Jian-Rong Li, Li-Zhong Sun
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine whether assessment of the renal resistive index (RRI) can predict the short-term reversibility of acute kidney injury (AKI) after repair of acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD). METHODS: This prospective study included 62 patients undergoing repair of acute TAAD. Doppler-based RRIs were obtained preoperatively, immediately after the surgical procedure, and 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. The occurrence of AKI was evaluated daily according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619260/neural-correlates-of-decision-making-on-whole-body-yaw-rotation-an-fnirs-study
#6
K N de Winkel, A Nesti, H Ayaz, H H Bülthoff
Prominent accounts of decision making state that decisions are made on the basis of an accumulation of sensory evidence, orchestrated by networks of prefrontal and parietal neural populations. Here we assess whether these findings generalize to decisions on self-motion. Participants were presented with whole body yaw rotations of different durations in a 2-Interval-Forced-Choice paradigm, and tasked to discriminate motions on the basis of their amplitude. The cortical hemodynamic response was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants were performing the task...
June 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614395/eeg-based-motor-network-biomarkers-for-identifying-target-patients-with-stroke-for-upper-limb-rehabilitation-and-its-construct-validity
#7
Chun-Chuan Chen, Si-Huei Lee, Wei-Jen Wang, Yu-Chen Lin, Mu-Chun Su
Rehabilitation is the main therapeutic approach for reducing poststroke functional deficits in the affected upper limb; however, significant between-patient variability in rehabilitation efficacy indicates the need to target patients who are likely to have clinically significant improvement after treatment. Many studies have determined robust predictors of recovery and treatment gains and yielded many great results using linear approachs. Evidence has emerged that the nonlinearity is a crucial aspect to study the inter-areal communication in human brains and abnormality of oscillatory activities in the motor system is linked to the pathological states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613390/autoihc-scoring-a-machine-learning-framework-for-automated-allred-scoring-of-molecular-expression-in-er-and-pr-stained-breast-cancer-tissue
#8
S Tewary, I Arun, R Ahmed, S Chatterjee, C Chakraborty
In prognostic evaluation of breast cancer Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers namely, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are widely used. The expert pathologist investigates qualitatively the stained tissue slide under microscope to provide the Allred score; which is clinically used for therapeutic decision making. Such qualitative judgment is time-consuming, tedious and more often suffers from interobserver variability. As a result, it leads to imprecise IHC score for ER and PR. To overcome this, there is an urgent need of developing a reliable and efficient IHC quantifier for high throughput decision making...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#9
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608451/commissioning-and-equity-in-primary-care-in-australia-views-from-primary-health-networks
#10
Julie Henderson, Sara Javanparast, Tamara MacKean, Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Anna Ziersch
This paper reports findings from 55 stakeholder interviews undertaken in six Primary Health Networks (PHNs) in Australia as part of a study of the impact of population health planning in regional primary health organisations on service access and equity. Primary healthcare planning is currently undertaken by PHNs which were established in 2015 as commissioning organisations. This was a departure from the role of Medicare Locals, the previous regional primary health organisations which frequently provided services...
June 12, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602816/neurobiological-correlates-of-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-lower-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-but-greater-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical-circuitry
#11
Cole Korponay, Daniela Dentico, Tammi Kral, Martina Ly, Ayla Kruis, Robin Goldman, Antoine Lutz, Richard J Davidson
Studies consistently implicate aberrance of the brain's reward-processing and decision-making networks in disorders featuring high levels of impulsivity, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use disorder, and psychopathy. However, less is known about the neurobiological determinants of individual differences in impulsivity in the general population. In this study of 105 healthy adults, we examined relationships between impulsivity and three neurobiological metrics - gray matter volume, resting-state functional connectivity, and spontaneous eye-blink rate, a physiological indicator of central dopaminergic activity...
June 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595667/experiences-in-adapting-european-network-for-health-technology-assessment-rapid-reviews-to-inform-local-decision-making
#12
Karen Macpherson, Lorna Thompson
OBJECTIVES: The Scottish Health Technologies Group (SHTG) produces rapid reviews on nonmedicine technologies to inform advice for decision making in the National Health Service in Scotland (NHSScotland). This study describes our experiences and lessons learned in adapting for NHSScotland two rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessments (REAs) produced as part of the European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) project to test collaborative preparation and then local adaptation...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594070/labor-delivery-and-anesthesia-experiences-of-women-with-physical-disability
#13
Suzanne C Smeltzer, Amy J Wint, Jeffrey L Ecker, Lisa I Iezzoni
BACKGROUND: Although many women with physical disabilities report poor quality reproductive health care, little research has addressed labor, delivery, and anesthesia experiences of these women. This study was conducted to explore these experiences in women with significant mobility disabilities. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 22 women from the United States who had delivered newborns within the prior 10 years. All had significant mobility disabilities...
June 8, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592317/modeling-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-porcine-reproductive-respiratory-syndrome-cases-at-farm-level-using-geographical-distance-and-pig-trade-network-matrices
#14
Sara Amirpour Haredasht, Dale Polson, Rodger Main, Kyuyoung Lee, Derald Holtkamp, Beatriz Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases for the swine industry. A better understanding of the disease dynamics and the transmission pathways under diverse epidemiological scenarios is a key for the successful PRRS control and elimination in endemic settings. In this paper we used a two step parameter-driven (PD) Bayesian approach to model the spatio-temporal dynamics of PRRS and predict the PRRS status on farm in subsequent time periods in an endemic setting in the US...
June 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591771/the-use-of-twitter-to-facilitate-sharing-of-clinical-expertise-in-urology
#15
Kevan M Sternberg, Stacy L Loeb, David Canes, Laura Donnelly, Mitchell H Tsai
The use of social media in the urologic community is common and increasing. Although the potential benefits of platforms like Twitter have been described in the literature, the use of social media in the clinical context of Urology has not been explored.In this case report, we describe how we used Twitter to share ideas about the clinical management of a complex urologic patient. By posting a clinical scenario, a timely discussion was generated with global participation and expert suggestions. This knowledge was applied to the surgical management of a patient with positive clinical outcomes...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590520/developing-multicenter-consortia-in-liver-disease-in-latin-america-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Manuel Mendizabal, Marcelo O Silva
Developmentof consortiums have been useful for exploringchallengingscenarios and unchartered territoriesin liver diseases. Several consortia already developed in the United States and Europehave become key factors in patient care decision making processes, medical education and also impacting upon policy makers decisions. In Latin America the situation is different. As a result of a combination of different factors our region has not been able to take off in terms of networking advantages in research and education in liver diseases...
June 7, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587695/hyper-responsivity-to-losses-in-the-anterior-insula-during-economic-choice-scales-with-depression-severity
#17
J B Engelmann, G S Berns, B W Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Commonly observed distortions in decision-making among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may emerge from impaired reward processing and cognitive biases toward negative events. There is substantial theoretical support for the hypothesis that MDD patients overweight potential losses compared with gains, though the neurobiological underpinnings of this bias are uncertain. METHODS: Twenty-one unmedicated patients with MDD were compared with 25 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) together with an economic decision-making task over mixed lotteries involving probabilistic gains and losses...
June 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585163/engaging-multilevel-stakeholders-in-an-implementation-trial-of-evidence-based-quality-improvement-in-va-women-s-health-primary-care
#18
Alison B Hamilton, Julian Brunner, Cindy Cain, Emmeline Chuang, Tana M Luger, Ismelda Canelo, Lisa Rubenstein, Elizabeth M Yano
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has undertaken primary care transformation based on patient-centered medical home (PCMH) tenets. VHA PCMH models are designed for the predominantly male Veteran population, and require tailoring to meet women Veterans' needs. We used evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI), a stakeholder-driven implementation strategy, in a cluster randomized controlled trial across 12 sites (eight EBQI, four control) that are members of a Practice-Based Research Network. EBQI involves engaging multilevel, inter-professional leaders and staff as stakeholders in reviewing evidence and setting QI priorities...
June 5, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584968/informing-environmental-water-management-decisions-using-conditional-probability-networks-to-address-the-information-needs-of-planning-and-implementation-cycles
#19
Avril C Horne, Joanna M Szemis, J Angus Webb, Simranjit Kaur, Michael J Stewardson, Nick Bond, Rory Nathan
One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583183/design-and-implementation-of-a-decision-aid-for-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-medication-choices
#20
William B Brinkman, Ellen A Lipstein, Janalee Taylor, Pamela J Schoettker, Katherine Naylor, Karla Jones, Sheetal S Vora, Catherine C Mims, Elizabeth Roth-Wojcicki, Beth Gottlieb, Nancy Griffin, Carole Lannon, Esi Morgan
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of patient decision aids to facilitate shared decision making in clinical situations with multiple medically reasonable options for treatment. However, little is known about how best to implement these tools into routine clinical practice. In addition, reliable implementation of decision aids has been elusive and spread within pediatrics has been slow. We sought to develop and reliably implement a decision aid for treatment of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis...
June 5, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
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