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Decision making networks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103564/mograms-a-network-based-methodology-for-visualizing-the-set-of-nondominated-solutions-in-multiobjective-optimization
#1
Krzysztof Trawinski, Manuel Chica, David P Pancho, Sergio Damas, Oscar Cordon
An appropriate visualization of multiobjective nondominated solutions is a valuable asset for decision making. Although there are methods for visualizing the solutions in the design space, they do not provide any information about their relationship. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology that allows the visualization of the nondominated solutions in the design space and their relationships by means of a network. The nodes represent the solutions in the objective space while the edges show the relationships among the solutions in the design space...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#2
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101758/applying-collaborative-learning-and-quality-improvement-to-public-health-lessons-from-the-collaborative-improvement-and-innovation-network-coiin-to-reduce-infant-mortality
#3
Reem M Ghandour, Katherine Flaherty, Ashley Hirai, Vanessa Lee, Deborah Klein Walker, Michael C Lu
OBJECTIVES: Infant mortality remains a significant public health problem in the U.S. The Collaborative Improvement & Innovation Network (CoIIN) model is an innovative approach, using the science of quality improvement and collaborative learning, which was applied across 13 Southern states in Public Health Regions IV and VI to reduce infant mortality and improve birth outcomes. We provide an in-depth discussion of the history, development, implementation, and adaptation of the model based on the experience of the original CoIIN organizers and participants...
January 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#4
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100720/audience-affects-decision-making-in-a-marmoset-communication-network
#5
Camille R Toarmino, Lauren Wong, Cory T Miller
An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099953/social-networks-among-the-older-chinese-population-in-the-usa-findings-from-the-pine-study
#6
XinQi Dong, E-Shien Chang
BACKGROUND: Social network research has become central to studies of health and aging. Its results may yield public health insights that are actionable and improve the quality of life of older adults. However, little is known about the social networks of older immigrant adults, whose social relationships often develop in the context of migration, compounded by cultural and linguistic barriers. OBJECTIVES: This report aims to describe the structure, composition, and emotional components of social networks in the Chinese aging population of the USA, and to explore ways in which their social networks may be critical to their health decision-making...
January 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093976/chemoinformatics-profiling-of-the-chromone-nucleus-as-a-mao-b-a2aar-dual-binding-scaffold
#7
Maykel Cruz-Monteagudo, Fernanda Borges, M Natália D S Cordeiroc, Aliuska Morales Helguerad, Eduardo Tejerab, Cesar Paz-Y-Miñob, Aminael Sánchez-Rodrígueze, Yunier Perera-Sardiñaf, Yunierkis Perez-Castillo
BACKGROUND: In the context of the current drug discovery efforts to find disease modifying therapies for Parkinson´s disease (PD) the current single target strategy has proved inefficient. Consequently, the search for multi-potent agents is attracting more and more attention due to the multiple pathogenetic factors implicated in PD. Multiple evidences points to the dual inhibition of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), as well as adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR) blockade, as a promising approach to prevent the neurodegeneration involved in PD...
January 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093472/social-status-dependent-shift-in-neural-circuit-activation-affects-decision-making
#8
Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Choongseok Park, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A Issa
: In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093278/similar-patterns-of-brain-activation-abnormalities-during-emotional-and-non-emotional-judgments-of-faces-in-a-schizophrenia-family-study
#9
Michael J Spilka, Vina M Goghari
Schizophrenia patients have impaired performance and abnormal brain activation during facial emotion recognition, which may represent a marker of genetic liability to schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment is specific to recognizing emotion from faces or is instead attributable to more generalized dysfunction. The current study aimed to distinguish between specific and generalized neural dysfunction underlying impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia and examine associations with genetic liability...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081211/development-and-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-bacteremia-among-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-in-outpatient-settings
#10
Sho Sasaki, Takeshi Hasegawa, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Atsushi Nomura, Daisuke Uchida, Takahiro Imaizumi, Masahide Furusho, Hiroki Nishiwaki, Shingo Fukuma, Yugo Shibagaki, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no reliable clinical prediction rule (CPR) for identifying bacteremia in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been established. The aim of this study was to develop a CPR for bacteremia in maintenance HD patients visiting the outpatient department. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study involved consecutive maintenance HD patients who visited the outpatient clinic or emergency room of seven Japanese institutions between August 2011 and July 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081201/complex-network-analysis-for-characterizing-global-value-chains-in-equipment-manufacturing
#11
Hao Xiao, Tianyang Sun, Bo Meng, Lihong Cheng
The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called "outsourcing", "fragmentation production", and "trade in tasks" has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#12
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076659/an-empirical-agent-based-model-to-simulate-the-adoption-of-water-reuse-using-the-social-amplification-of-risk-framework
#14
Venu Kandiah, Andrew R Binder, Emily Z Berglund
Water reuse can serve as a sustainable alternative water source for urban areas. However, the successful implementation of large-scale water reuse projects depends on community acceptance. Because of the negative perceptions that are traditionally associated with reclaimed water, water reuse is often not considered in the development of urban water management plans. This study develops a simulation model for understanding community opinion dynamics surrounding the issue of water reuse, and how individual perceptions evolve within that context, which can help in the planning and decision-making process...
January 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#15
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068319/fbxo32-suppresses-breast-cancer-tumorigenesis-through-targeting-klf4-to-proteasomal-degradation
#16
H Zhou, Y Liu, R Zhu, F Ding, Y Wan, Y Li, Z Liu
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, GKLF) is a zinc-finger transcription factor involved in a large variety of cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, as well as stem cell renewal. KLF4 is critical for cell fate decision and has an ambivalent role in tumorigenesis. Emerging data keep reminding us that KLF4 dysregulation either facilitates or impedes tumor progression, making it important to clarify the regulating network of KLF4. Like most transcription factors, KLF4 has a rather short half-life within the cell and its turnover must be carefully orchestrated by ubiquitination and ubiquitin-proteasome system...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067773/a-systems-biological-view-of-life-and-death-decision-with-respect-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-the-role-of-perk-pathway
#17
Margita Márton, Anita Kurucz, Beáta Lizák, Éva Margittai, Gábor Bánhegyi, Orsolya Kapuy
Accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to the activation of three branches (Protein kinase (RNA)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], Inositol requiring protein 1 [IRE-1] and Activating trascription factor 6 [ATF6], respectively) of unfolded protein response (UPR). The primary role of UPR is to try to drive back the system to the former or a new homeostatic state by self-eating dependent autophagy, while excessive level of ER stress results in apoptotic cell death...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065182/increased-fronto-striatal-reward-prediction-errors-moderate-decision-making-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
T U Hauser, R Iannaccone, R J Dolan, J Ball, J Hättenschwiler, R Drechsler, M Rufer, D Brandeis, S Walitza, S Brem
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to functional abnormalities in fronto-striatal networks as well as impairments in decision making and learning. Little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms causing these decision-making and learning deficits in OCD, and how they relate to dysfunction in fronto-striatal networks. METHOD: We investigated neural mechanisms of decision making in OCD patients, including early and late onset of disorder, in terms of reward prediction errors (RPEs) using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057725/the-neuro-computational-architecture-of-value-based-selection-in-the-human-brain
#19
Philippe Domenech, Jérôme Redouté, Etienne Koechlin, Jean-Claude Dreher
Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the "valuation" of each option under consideration to the "selection" of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057662/exploring-the-adoption-of-schwartz-center-rounds-as-an-organisational-innovation-to-improve-staff-well-being-in-england-2009-2015
#20
Glenn Robert, Julia Philippou, Mary Leamy, Ellie Reynolds, Shilpa Ross, Laura Bennett, Cath Taylor, Caroline Shuldham, Jill Maben
OBJECTIVES: Schwartz Center Rounds ('Rounds') are a multidisciplinary forum in which healthcare staff within an organisation discuss the psychological, emotional and social challenges associated with their work in a confidential and safe environment. Implemented in over 375 North American organisations, since 2009, they have been increasingly adopted in England. This study aimed to establish how many and what types of organisations have adopted Rounds in England, and to explore why they did so...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
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