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Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Pilar Guerrero, James Briscoe, Karen M Page
During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Yin-Shan Meng, Shang-Da Jiang, Bing-Wu Wang, Song Gao
Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) can retain their magnetization status preferentially after removal of the magnetic field below a certain temperature. The unique property, magnetic bistable status, enables the molecule-scale SMM to become the next-generation high-density information storage medium. SMMs' new applications are also involved in high-speed quantum computation and molecular spintronics. The development of coordination chemistry, especially in transition metal (3d) and lanthanide (4f) complexes, diversifies SMMs by introducing new ones...
October 21, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Tina M Mitre, Anmar Khadra, Massimo Pietropaolo
The expression level of tissue-restricted autoantigens (TSA) in the thymus is crucial for the negative selection of autoreactive T cells during central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator factor (AIRE) plays an important role in the positive regulation of these TSA in medullary thymic epithelial cells and, consequently, in the negative selection of high-avidity autoreactive T cells. Recent studies, however, revealed that thymic islet cell autoantigen (ICA69) expression level in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, prone to developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), is reduced due to an increase in the binding affinity of AIRE to the Ica1-promoter region, which regulates ICA69 protein synthesis...
October 17, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Jason Karslake, Jeff Maltas, Peter Brumm, Kevin B Wood
The inoculum effect (IE) is an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic as a function of the initial size of a microbial population. The IE has been observed in a wide range of bacteria, implying that antibiotic efficacy may depend on population density. Such density dependence could have dramatic effects on bacterial population dynamics and potential treatment strategies, but explicit measures of per capita growth as a function of density are generally not available. Instead, the IE measures MIC as a function of initial population size, and population density changes by many orders of magnitude on the timescale of the experiment...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Yunshun Zhang, Rencheng Zheng, Keisuke Shimono, Tsutomu Kaizuka, Kimihiko Nakano
The collection of clean power from ambient vibrations is considered a promising method for energy harvesting. For the case of wheel rotation, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a piezoelectric energy harvester, with the application of stochastic resonance to optimize the efficiency of energy harvesting. It is hypothesized that when the wheel rotates at variable speeds, the energy harvester is subjected to on-road noise as ambient excitations and a tangentially acting gravity force as a periodic modulation force, which can stimulate stochastic resonance...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Evgeniy Khain, Leonard M Sander
The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Zahia Hamidouche, Karen Rother, Jens Przybilla, Axel Krinner, Denis Clay, Lydia Hopp, Claire Fabian, Alexandra Stolzing, Hans Binder, Pierre Charbord, Joerg Galle
The molecular mechanisms by which heterogeneity, a major characteristic of stem cells, is achieved are yet unclear. We here study the expression of the membrane stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) in mouse bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) clones. We show that subpopulations with varying Sca-1 expression profiles regenerate the Sca-1 profile of the mother population within a few days. However, after extensive replication in vitro the expression profiles shift to lower values and the regeneration time increases...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells
Song Feng, Meritxell Sáez, Carsten Wiuf, Elisenda Feliu, Orkun S Soyer
Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their (re)engineering in synthetic biology. Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee the existence of multiple steady states...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Joel Pearson, Rocco Chiou, Sebastian Rogers, Marcus Wicken, Stewart Heitmann, Bard Ermentrout
Hallucinations occur in both normal and clinical populations. Due to their unpredictability and complexity, the mechanisms underlying hallucinations remain largely untested. Here we show that visual hallucinations can be induced in the normal population by visual flicker, limited to an annulus that constricts content complexity to simple moving grey blobs, allowing objective mechanistic investigation. Hallucination strength peaked at ~11 Hz flicker and was dependent on cortical processing. Hallucinated motion speed increased with flicker rate, when mapped onto visual cortex it was independent of eccentricity, underwent local sensory adaptation and showed the same bistable and mnemonic dynamics as sensory perception...
October 11, 2016: ELife
S Bozdech, K Krischer, D A Crespo-Yapur, E Savinova, A Bonnefont
The formation of a self-organized spatial domain during current-controlled CO oxidation, a kinetically bistable reaction, is investigated experimentally and by deterministic simulations as a function of the electrode size and of the supporting electrolyte concentration. Decreasing the microelectrode size leads to the suppression of the spatial instability at the electrode and thus stabilizes the S-NDR branch of the reaction. The critical microelectrode size capable of supporting sustained domain formation is shown to be strongly affected by the sulfuric acid concentration, the characteristic time of the positive feedback loop increasing with the sulfate concentration...
September 16, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The stream-bounce effect refers to a bistable motion stimulus that is interpreted as two targets either "streaming" past or "bouncing" off one another, and the manipulations that bias responses. Directional bias, according to Bertenthal et al., is an account of the effect proposing that low-level motion integration promotes streaming, and its disruption leads to bouncing, and it is sometimes cited either directly in a bottom-up fashion or indirectly under top-down control despite Sekuler and Sekuler finding evidence inconsistent with it...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Olena Kraieva, Carlos M Quintero, Iurii Suleimanov, Edna M Hernandez, Denis Lagrange, Lionel Salmon, William Nicolazzi, Gábor Molnár, Christian Bergaud, Azzedine Bousseksou
The working principle of a new kind of nanothermometer is experimentally demonstrated using bistable materials with thermal memory. This thermometry approach allows for acquiring sub-wavelength resolution images of fast, transient heating events.
September 30, 2016: Small
Wen-Jie Lan, Martin A Edwards, Long Luo, Rukshan T Perera, Xiaojian Wu, Charles R Martin, Henry S White
Ion current rectification (ICR) refers to the asymmetric potential-dependent rate of the passage of solution ions through a nanopore, giving rise to electrical current-voltage characteristics that mimic those of a solid-state electrical diode. Since the discovery of ICR in quartz nanopipettes two decades ago, synthetic nanopores and nanochannels of various geometries, fabricated in membranes and on wafers, have been extensively investigated to understand fundamental aspects of ion transport in highly confined geometries...
September 30, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sergey N Semenov, Lewis J Kraft, Alar Ainla, Mengxia Zhao, Mostafa Baghbanzadeh, Victoria E Campbell, Kyungtae Kang, Jerome M Fox, George M Whitesides
Networks of organic chemical reactions are important in life and probably played a central part in its origin. Network dynamics regulate cell division, circadian rhythms, nerve impulses and chemotaxis, and guide the development of organisms. Although out-of-equilibrium networks of chemical reactions have the potential to display emergent network dynamics such as spontaneous pattern formation, bistability and periodic oscillations, the principles that enable networks of organic reactions to develop complex behaviours are incompletely understood...
2016: Nature
Paolo Sessi, Thomas Bathon, Konstantin Aleksandrovich Kokh, Oleg Evgenievich Tereshchenko, Matthias Bode
The effective gating of topological insulators is demonstrated, through the coupling of molecules to their surface. By using electric fields, they allow for dynamic control of the interface charge state by adding or removing single electrons. This process creates a robust transconductance bistability resembling a single-electron transistor. These findings make hybrid molecule/topological interfaces functional elements while at the same time pushing miniaturization to its ultimate limit.
September 28, 2016: Advanced Materials
Pilkee Kim, Minh Sang Nguyen, Ojin Kwon, Young-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Min-Jun Gim, Dong Ki Yoon
We dynamically controlled the configuration of layering structures built by smectic A liquid crystal molecules using the combination method of the microchannel confinement and the in-plane electric field to realize the linearly polarized illuminator and bistable structures. Once a mild in-plane electric field (∼30 V) is applied between polymeric walls, the layer configuration was changed from the toric focal conic domains to periodic zigzag patterns of alternatively packed focal conic domains. The transformed zigzag patterns maintained their structures even after turning off the applied electric fields, revealing the ability for use in a bistable memory device...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Adila Rani, Dhinesh Babu Velusamy, Richard Hahnkee Kim, Kyungwha Chung, Filipe Marques Mota, Cheolmin Park, Dong Ha Kim
2D nanomaterials have been actively utilized in non-volatile resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices due to their high flexibility, 3D-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication, and low cost. Herein, it demonstrates re-writable, bistable, transparent, and flexible solution-processed crossbar ReRAM devices utilizing graphene oxide (GO) based multilayers as active dielectric layers. The devices employ single- or multi-component-based multilayers composed of positively charged GO (N-GO(+) or NS-GO(+)) with/without negatively charged GO(-) using layer-by-layer assembly method, sandwiched between Al bottom and Au top electrodes...
September 27, 2016: Small
Daozhou Gao, Travis C Porco, Shigui Ruan
A susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model that describes the coinfection and cotransmission of two infectious diseases spreading through a single population is studied. The host population consists of two subclasses: susceptible and infectious, and the infectious individuals are further divided into three subgroups: those infected by the first agent/pathogen, the second agent/pathogen, and both. The basic reproduction numbers for all cases are derived which completely determine the global stability of the system if the presence of one agent/pathogen does not affect the transmission of the other...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
W J Yu, H Sun, L Gao
We propose a mechanism to actively tune optical bistable behavior with the external magnetic field in nonlinear coated nanospheres with a magneto-optical (MO) shell and nonlinear metallic core. We show that such nanostructures can exhibit typical bistable phenomena near surface plasmon resonant wavelengths, which can be modified through the external magnetic fields B. We demonstrate numerically that the optical bistability exists only when the volume fraction η of the metallic core is larger than a critical one η<sub>c</sub>...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
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