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Schnitzer M

Ashley I Naimi, Mireille E Schnitzer, Erica E M Moodie, Lisa M Bodnar
Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Laura Martínez-Izquierdo, María M García, Jennifer S Powers, Stefan A Schnitzer
Lianas are a common plant growth form in tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, decreasing tree recruitment, growth, and survival. If the detrimental effects of lianas vary significantly with tree species identity, as is often assumed, then lianas may influence tree species diversity and community composition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that liana abundance and biomass are increasing relative to trees in neotropical forests, which will likely magnify the detrimental effects of lianas and may ultimately alter tree species diversity, relative abundances, and community composition...
January 2016: Ecology
Tamara K Berdyyeva, E Paxon Frady, Jonathan J Nassi, Leah Aluisio, Yauheniya Cherkas, Stephani Otte, Ryan M Wyatt, Christine Dugovic, Kunal K Ghosh, Mark J Schnitzer, Timothy Lovenberg, Pascal Bonaventure
Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
E Vachon-Presseau, M V Centeno, W Ren, S E Berger, P Tétreault, M Ghantous, A Baria, M Farmer, M N Baliki, T J Schnitzer, A V Apkarian
Human neuroimaging studies and complementary animal experiments now identify the gross elements of the brain involved in the chronification of pain. We briefly review these advances in relation to somatic and orofacial persistent pain conditions. First, we emphasize the importance of reverse translational research for understanding chronic pain-that is, the power of deriving hypotheses directly from human brain imaging of clinical conditions that can be invasively and mechanistically studied in animal models...
June 2016: Journal of Dental Research
G Ruedl, M Schnitzer, W Kirschner, R Spiegel, H Platzgummer, M Kopp, M Burtscher, E Pocecco
BACKGROUND: The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. AIM: To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). METHODS: All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form...
May 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Carlos M Monreal, Amarpreet Chahal, Morris Schnitzer, Owen Rowland
Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Stefan A Schnitzer, Geertje M F van der Heijden, Jennifer S Powers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Geertje M F van der Heijden, Jennifer S Powers, Stefan A Schnitzer
Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth...
October 27, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antoine Adamantidis, Silvia Arber, Jaideep S Bains, Ernst Bamberg, Antonello Bonci, György Buzsáki, Jessica A Cardin, Rui M Costa, Yang Dan, Yukiko Goda, Ann M Graybiel, Michael Häusser, Peter Hegemann, John R Huguenard, Thomas R Insel, Patricia H Janak, Daniel Johnston, Sheena A Josselyn, Christof Koch, Anatol C Kreitzer, Christian Lüscher, Robert C Malenka, Gero Miesenböck, Georg Nagel, Botond Roska, Mark J Schnitzer, Krishna V Shenoy, Ivan Soltesz, Scott M Sternson, Richard W Tsien, Roger Y Tsien, Gina G Turrigiano, Kay M Tye, Rachel I Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nature Neuroscience
M Vardi, B L Cryer, M Cohen, A Lanas, T J Schnitzer, P Lapuerta, M A Goldsmith, L Laine, G Doros, Y Liu, A I McIntosh, C P Cannon, D L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet therapy with clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin increases the risk for gastrointestinal clinical events. Omeprazole has been shown to significantly reduce these events without compromising cardiovascular safety in patients treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Whether or not omeprazole improves patient-reported outcomes is undetermined. AIM: To assess the impact of prophylactic omeprazole with background dual anti-platelet therapy on patient-reported symptoms of dyspepsia compared to placebo...
August 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tim Schumann, Till Adhikary, Annika Wortmann, Florian Finkernagel, Sonja Lieber, Evelyn Schnitzer, Nathalie Legrand, Yvonne Schober, W Andreas Nockher, Philipp M Toth, Wibke E Diederich, Andrea Nist, Thorsten Stiewe, Uwe Wagner, Silke Reinartz, Sabine Müller-Brüsselbach, Rolf Müller
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor associated with macrophage polarization. However, its function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has not been investigated to date. Here, we report the PPARβ/δ-regulated transcriptome and cistrome for TAMs from ovarian carcinoma patients. Comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages shows that the vast majority of direct PPARβ/δ target genes are upregulated in TAMs and largely refractory to synthetic agonists, but repressible by inverse agonists...
May 30, 2015: Oncotarget
Evgeniy Stoyanov, Guy Ludwig, Lina Mizrahi, Devorah Olam, Temima Schnitzer-Perlman, Elena Tasika, Gabriele Sass, Gisa Tiegs, Yong Jiang, Ting Nie, James Kohler, Raymond F Schinazi, Paula M Vertino, Howard Cedar, Eithan Galun, Daniel Goldenberg
Chronic liver inflammation precedes the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here, we explore the connection between chronic inflammation and DNA methylation in the liver at the late precancerous stages of HCC development in Mdr2(-/-) (Mdr2/Abcb4-knockout) mice, a model of inflammation-mediated HCC. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization with "CpG islands" (CGIs) microarrays, we found specific CGIs in 76 genes which were hypermethylated in the Mdr2(-/-) liver compared to age-matched healthy controls...
May 10, 2015: Oncotarget
J Krammer, A Schnitzer, C G Kaiser, K A Buesing, E Sperk, J Brade, S Wasgindt, M Suetterlin, S O Schoenberg, E J Sutton, K Wasser
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of whole-body (18) F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. METHODS: This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10)...
August 2015: European Radiology
James Anderst, Paul Teran, M Denise Dowd, Steve Simon, Patricia Schnitzer
Supervisory neglect is often considered in medical settings when a child presents with an unintentional injury. The Rapid Assessment of Supervision Scale (RASS) is a clinical decision-making tool for the assessment of supervision of young children. As the next step in the development of the RASS, we assessed the association of RASS scores with unintentional injury. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a case-crossover study, which examined the association of parental supervision and unintentional injury in children...
May 2015: Child Maltreatment
Mireille E Schnitzer, Mark J van der Laan, Erica E M Moodie, Robert W Platt
The PROmotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) cluster-randomized a program encouraging breastfeeding to new mothers in hospital centers. The original studies indicated that this intervention successfully increased duration of breastfeeding and lowered rates of gastrointestinal tract infections in newborns. Additional scientific and popular interest lies in determining the causal effect of longer breastfeeding on gastrointestinal infection. In this study, we estimate the expected infection count under various lengths of breastfeeding in order to estimate the effect of breastfeeding duration on infection...
June 2014: Annals of Applied Statistics
Carlos M Monreal, Amarpreet Chahal, Owen Rowland, Myron Smith, Morris Schnitzer
Little is known about the fungal metabolism of nC10 and nC11 fatty acids and their conversion into lipids. A mixed batch culture of soil fungi, T. koningii and P. janthinellum, was grown on undecanoic acid (UDA), a mixture of UDA and potato dextrose broth (UDA+PDB), and PDB alone to examine their metabolic conversion during growth. We quantified seven intracellular and extracellular lipid classes using Iatroscan thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID). Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify 42 individual fatty acids...
2014: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Patricia G Schnitzer, M Denise Dowd, Robin L Kruse, Barbara A Morrongiello
OBJECTIVE: Assess the association between caregiver supervision and acute unintentional injury in young children; evaluate whether lower levels of supervision result in more severe injury. METHODS: A case cross-over study was conducted. Parents of children aged ≤4 years whose injuries required emergency department (ED sample) treatment or admission to the hospital (inpatient sample) were interviewed. Information on supervision (3 dimensions: proximity, attention, continuity) at the time of injury and 1 h before the injury (control time) was collected...
April 2015: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Ory Schnitzer, Ehud Yariv
The response of an electrolyte solution bounded between two blocking electrodes subjected to an ac voltage is considered. We focus on the pertinent thin-double-layer limit, where this response is governed by a reduced dynamic model [L. Højgaard Olesen, M. Z. Bazant, and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011501 (2010)]. During a transient stage, the system is nonlinearly entrained towards periodic oscillations of the same frequency as that of the applied voltage. Employing a strained-coordinate perturbation scheme, valid for moderately large values of the applied voltage amplitude V, we obtain a closed-form asymptotic approximation for the periodic orbit which is in remarkable agreement with numerical computations...
March 2014: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Thomas J Schnitzer, Evan F Ekman, Egilius L H Spierings, H Scott Greenberg, Michael D Smith, Mark T Brown, Christine R West, Kenneth M Verburg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether subjects with knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) pain on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) received greater benefit when tanezumab monotherapy replaced or was coadministered with NSAIDs. METHODS: Subjects (N=2700) received intravenous tanezumab (5 or 10 mg) or placebo every 8 weeks with or without oral naproxen 500 mg twice daily or celecoxib 100 mg twice daily. Efficacy was assessed as change from baseline to week 16 in three co-primary endpoints: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain, WOMAC Physical Function and Patient's Global Assessment (PGA) of OA...
June 2015: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Mireille E Schnitzer, Erica E M Moodie, Mark J van der Laan, Robert W Platt, Marina B Klein
Despite modern effective HIV treatment, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) which has emerged as the primary cause of death in this population. Clinical interest lies in determining the impact of clearance of HCV on risk for ESLD. In this case study, we examine whether HCV clearance affects risk of ESLD using data from the multicenter Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study. Complications in this survival analysis arise from the time-dependent nature of the data, the presence of baseline confounders, loss to follow-up, and confounders that change over time, all of which can obscure the causal effect of interest...
March 2014: Biometrics
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