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Schnitzer M

Evan M Gora, Phillip M Bitzer, Jeffrey C Burchfield, Stefan A Schnitzer, Stephen P Yanoviak
The effects of lightning on trees range from catastrophic death to the absence of observable damage. Such differences may be predictable among tree species, and more generally among plant life history strategies and growth forms. We used field-collected electrical resistivity data in temperate and tropical forests to model how the distribution of power from a lightning discharge varies with tree size and identity, and with the presence of lianas. Estimated heating density (heat generated per volume of tree tissue) and maximum power (maximum rate of heating) from a standardized lightning discharge differed 300% among tree species...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Susy M Kim, Peggy H Faix, Jan E Schnitzer
Poor delivery efficiency continues to hamper the effectiveness of cancer therapeutics engineered to destroy solid tumors using different strategies such as nanocarriers, targeting agents, and matching treatments to specific genetic mutations. All contemporary systemic anti-cancer agents are dependent upon passive transvascular mechanisms for their delivery into solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacies of our current drug arsenal could be significantly improved with an active delivery strategy. Here, we discuss how drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy are greatly hindered by barriers presented by the vascular endothelial cell layer and by the aberrant nature of tumor blood vessels in general...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sara M Müller, Shanshan Wang, Wilena Telman, Michael Liebthal, Helena Schnitzer, Andrea Viehhauser, Carsten Sticht, Carolina Delatorre, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Karl-Josef Dietz
The integration of redox- and reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling and metabolic activities is fundamental to plant acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). The functionality of this COPS module is influenced by redox stimuli and oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which is the precursor for jasmonic acid...
June 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2 ): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tony Hyun Kim, Yanping Zhang, Jérôme Lecoq, Juergen C Jung, Jane Li, Hongkui Zeng, Cristopher M Niell, Mark J Schnitzer
A major technological goal in neuroscience is to enable the interrogation of individual cells across the live brain. By creating a curved glass replacement to the dorsal cranium and surgical methods for its installation, we developed a chronic mouse preparation providing optical access to an estimated 800,000-1,100,000 individual neurons across the dorsal surface of neocortex. Post-surgical histological studies revealed comparable glial activation as in control mice. In behaving mice expressing a Ca2+ indicator in cortical pyramidal neurons, we performed Ca2+ imaging across neocortex using an epi-fluorescence macroscope and estimated that 25,000-50,000 individual neurons were accessible per mouse across multiple focal planes...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
M Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, Gil Bohrer, Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, Jennifer S Powers, Stefan A Schnitzer
Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, where they reduce tree growth, fecundity, and survival. Competition for light from lianas may be intense; however, the amount of light that lianas intercept is poorly understood. We used a large-scale liana-removal experiment to quantify light interception by lianas in a Panamanian secondary forest. We measured the change in plant area index (PAI) and forest structure before and after cutting lianas (for 4 yr) in eight 80 m × 80 m plots and eight control plots (16 plots total)...
December 2016: Ecology
Chun Xu, Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Paolo Botta, Jonathan P Fadok, Fumitaka Osakada, Dieter Saur, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, Edward M Callaway, Andreas Lüthi
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways...
November 3, 2016: Cell
Ashley I Naimi, Mireille E Schnitzer, Erica E M Moodie, Lisa M Bodnar
Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Laura Martínez-Izquierdo, María M García, Jennifer S Powers, Stefan A Schnitzer
Lianas are a common plant growth form in tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, decreasing tree recruitment, growth, and survival. If the detrimental effects of lianas vary significantly with tree species identity, as is often assumed, then lianas may influence tree species diversity and community composition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that liana abundance and biomass are increasing relative to trees in neotropical forests, which will likely magnify the detrimental effects of lianas and may ultimately alter tree species diversity, relative abundances, and community composition...
January 2016: Ecology
Tamara K Berdyyeva, E Paxon Frady, Jonathan J Nassi, Leah Aluisio, Yauheniya Cherkas, Stephani Otte, Ryan M Wyatt, Christine Dugovic, Kunal K Ghosh, Mark J Schnitzer, Timothy Lovenberg, Pascal Bonaventure
Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
E Vachon-Presseau, M V Centeno, W Ren, S E Berger, P Tétreault, M Ghantous, A Baria, M Farmer, M N Baliki, T J Schnitzer, A V Apkarian
Human neuroimaging studies and complementary animal experiments now identify the gross elements of the brain involved in the chronification of pain. We briefly review these advances in relation to somatic and orofacial persistent pain conditions. First, we emphasize the importance of reverse translational research for understanding chronic pain-that is, the power of deriving hypotheses directly from human brain imaging of clinical conditions that can be invasively and mechanistically studied in animal models...
June 2016: Journal of Dental Research
G Ruedl, M Schnitzer, W Kirschner, R Spiegel, H Platzgummer, M Kopp, M Burtscher, E Pocecco
BACKGROUND: The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. AIM: To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). METHODS: All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form...
May 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Carlos M Monreal, Amarpreet Chahal, Morris Schnitzer, Owen Rowland
Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Stefan A Schnitzer, Geertje M F van der Heijden, Jennifer S Powers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Geertje M F van der Heijden, Jennifer S Powers, Stefan A Schnitzer
Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth...
October 27, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antoine Adamantidis, Silvia Arber, Jaideep S Bains, Ernst Bamberg, Antonello Bonci, György Buzsáki, Jessica A Cardin, Rui M Costa, Yang Dan, Yukiko Goda, Ann M Graybiel, Michael Häusser, Peter Hegemann, John R Huguenard, Thomas R Insel, Patricia H Janak, Daniel Johnston, Sheena A Josselyn, Christof Koch, Anatol C Kreitzer, Christian Lüscher, Robert C Malenka, Gero Miesenböck, Georg Nagel, Botond Roska, Mark J Schnitzer, Krishna V Shenoy, Ivan Soltesz, Scott M Sternson, Richard W Tsien, Roger Y Tsien, Gina G Turrigiano, Kay M Tye, Rachel I Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nature Neuroscience
M Vardi, B L Cryer, M Cohen, A Lanas, T J Schnitzer, P Lapuerta, M A Goldsmith, L Laine, G Doros, Y Liu, A I McIntosh, C P Cannon, D L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet therapy with clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin increases the risk for gastrointestinal clinical events. Omeprazole has been shown to significantly reduce these events without compromising cardiovascular safety in patients treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Whether or not omeprazole improves patient-reported outcomes is undetermined. AIM: To assess the impact of prophylactic omeprazole with background dual anti-platelet therapy on patient-reported symptoms of dyspepsia compared to placebo...
August 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tim Schumann, Till Adhikary, Annika Wortmann, Florian Finkernagel, Sonja Lieber, Evelyn Schnitzer, Nathalie Legrand, Yvonne Schober, W Andreas Nockher, Philipp M Toth, Wibke E Diederich, Andrea Nist, Thorsten Stiewe, Uwe Wagner, Silke Reinartz, Sabine Müller-Brüsselbach, Rolf Müller
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor associated with macrophage polarization. However, its function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has not been investigated to date. Here, we report the PPARβ/δ-regulated transcriptome and cistrome for TAMs from ovarian carcinoma patients. Comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages shows that the vast majority of direct PPARβ/δ target genes are upregulated in TAMs and largely refractory to synthetic agonists, but repressible by inverse agonists...
May 30, 2015: Oncotarget
Evgeniy Stoyanov, Guy Ludwig, Lina Mizrahi, Devorah Olam, Temima Schnitzer-Perlman, Elena Tasika, Gabriele Sass, Gisa Tiegs, Yong Jiang, Ting Nie, James Kohler, Raymond F Schinazi, Paula M Vertino, Howard Cedar, Eithan Galun, Daniel Goldenberg
Chronic liver inflammation precedes the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here, we explore the connection between chronic inflammation and DNA methylation in the liver at the late precancerous stages of HCC development in Mdr2(-/-) (Mdr2/Abcb4-knockout) mice, a model of inflammation-mediated HCC. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization with "CpG islands" (CGIs) microarrays, we found specific CGIs in 76 genes which were hypermethylated in the Mdr2(-/-) liver compared to age-matched healthy controls...
May 10, 2015: Oncotarget
J Krammer, A Schnitzer, C G Kaiser, K A Buesing, E Sperk, J Brade, S Wasgindt, M Suetterlin, S O Schoenberg, E J Sutton, K Wasser
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of whole-body (18) F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. METHODS: This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10)...
August 2015: European Radiology
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