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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650143/coupled-carbonization-strategy-towards-advanced-hard-carbon-for-high-energy-sodium-ion-battery
#1
Huimin Zhang, Hai Ming, Wenfeng Zhang, Gaoping Cao, Yusheng Yang
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are expected to be a promising commercial alternative to lithium-ion batteries for grid electricity storage due to their potential low cost in the near future. Up to the present, the anode material still remains a great challenge for the application of SIBs, especially at room temperature. The graphite has an obvious limitation to store larger radius sodium ions (Na+) in comparison with lithium ions (Li+), while the hard carbon with large interlayer distance can demonstrate a relatively high storage capability and durable cycle life...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640608/numerical-diculties-computing-electrostatic-potentials-near-interfaces-with-the-poisson-boltzmann-equation
#2
Marcia Oliveira Fenley, Alexander H Boschitsch, Robert C Harris
Many researchers compute surface maps of the electrostatic potential with the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation to relate the structural information obtained from X-ray and NMR experiments to biomolecular functions. Here we demonstrate that the usual method of obtaining these surface maps of electrostatic potential, by interpolating from neighboring grid points on the solution grid generated by a PB solver, generates large errors because of the large discontinuity in the dielectric constant (and thus in the normal derivative of the electrostatic potential) at the surface...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632847/pattern-recognition-analysis-of-age-related-retinal-ganglion-cell-signatures-in-the-human-eye
#3
Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Sieu K Khuu, Bryan W Jones, Rebecca L Pfeiffer, Robert E Marc, Michael Kalloniatis
Purpose: To characterize macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) changes with age and provide a framework to assess changes in ocular disease. This study used data clustering to analyze macular GCL patterns from optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a large cohort of subjects without ocular disease. Methods: Single eyes of 201 patients evaluated at the Centre for Eye Health (Sydney, Australia) were retrospectively enrolled (age range, 20-85); 8 × 8 grid locations obtained from Spectralis OCT macular scans were analyzed with unsupervised classification into statistically separable classes sharing common GCL thickness and change with age...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628647/an-efficient-coding-theory-for-a-dynamic-trajectory-predicts-non-uniform-allocation-of-entorhinal-grid-cells-to-modules
#4
Noga Mosheiff, Haggai Agmon, Avraham Moriel, Yoram Burak
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex encode the position of an animal in its environment with spatially periodic tuning curves with different periodicities. Recent experiments established that these cells are functionally organized in discrete modules with uniform grid spacing. Here we develop a theory for efficient coding of position, which takes into account the temporal statistics of the animal's motion. The theory predicts a sharp decrease of module population sizes with grid spacing, in agreement with the trend seen in the experimental data...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628104/active-dendritic-integration-as-a-mechanism-for-robust-and-precise-grid-cell-firing
#5
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Gabija Toleikyte, Laurence Aitchison, Arnd Roth, Beverley A Clark, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser
Understanding how active dendrites are exploited for behaviorally relevant computations is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are an attractive model system for addressing this question, as the computation they perform is clear: they convert synaptic inputs into spatially modulated, periodic firing. Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input-output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608546/developing-potentiometric-surfaces-and-flow-fields-with-a-head-specified-modflow-model
#6
Daniel B Abrams, George S Roadcap, Devin Mannix
Investigating changes in an aquifer system often involves comparison of observed heads from different synoptic measurements, generally with potentiometric surfaces developed by hand or a statistical approach. Alternatively, head-specified MODFLOW models, in which constant head cells simulate observed heads, generate gridded potentiometric surfaces that explicitly account for Darcy's Law and mass balance. We developed a transient head-specified MODFLOW model for the stratified Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone aquifer system of northeastern Illinois to analyze flow within its 275 m deep cone of depression...
June 13, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607181/clean-energy-and-the-hydrogen-economy
#7
N P Brandon, Z Kurban
In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599195/evaluation-of-a-data-fusion-approach-to-estimate-daily-pm2-5-levels-in-north-china
#8
Fengchao Liang, Meng Gao, Qingyang Xiao, Gregory R Carmichael, Xiaochuan Pan, Yang Liu
PM2.5 air pollution has been a growing concern worldwide. Previous studies have conducted several techniques to estimate PM2.5 exposure spatiotemporally in China, but all these have limitations. This study was to develop a data fusion approach and compare it with kriging and Chemistry Module. Two techniques were applied to create daily spatial cover of PM2.5 in grid cells with a resolution of 10km in North China in 2013, respectively, which was kriging with an external drift (KED) and Weather Research and Forecast Model with Chemistry Module (WRF-Chem)...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593558/combined-effect-of-pulse-density-and-grid-cell-size-on-predicting-and-mapping-aboveground-carbon-in-fast-growing-eucalyptus-forest-plantation-using-airborne-lidar-data
#9
Carlos Alberto Silva, Andrew Thomas Hudak, Carine Klauberg, Lee Alexandre Vierling, Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke, Samuel de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Estraviz Rodriguez, Adrián Cardil
BACKGROUND: LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#10
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591796/histamine-enhances-theta-coupled-spiking-and-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-consistent-with-successful-spatial-recognition
#11
Quanhui Chen, Fenlan Luo, Faguo Yue, Jianxia Xia, Qin Xiao, Xiang Liao, Jun Jiang, Jun Zhang, Bo Hu, Dong Gao, Chao He, Zhian Hu
Encoding of spatial information in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (sMEC) involves theta-modulated spiking and gamma oscillations, as well as spatially tuned grid cells and border cells. Little is known about the role of the arousal-promoting histaminergic system in the modification of information encoded in the sMEC in vivo, and how such histamine-regulated information correlates with behavioral functions. Here, we show that histamine upregulates the neural excitability of a significant proportion of neurons (16...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590592/decadal-changes-in-habitat-characteristics-influence-population-trajectories-of-southern-elephant-seals
#12
Mark A Hindell, Michael Sumner, Sophie Bestley, Simon Wotherspoon, Robert G Harcourt, Mary-Anne Lea, Rachael Alderman, Clive R McMahon
Understanding divergent biological responses to climate change is important for predicting ecosystem level consequences. We use species habitat models to predict the winter foraging habitats of female southern elephant seals and investigate how changes in environmental variables within these habitats may be related to observed decreases in the Macquarie Island population. There were three main groups of seals that specialised in different ocean realms (the sub-Antarctic, the Ross Sea and the Victoria Land Coast)...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579695/self-powered-autonomous-biological-oxygen-demand-biosensor-for-online-water-quality-monitoring
#13
Grzegorz Pasternak, John Greenman, Ioannis Ieropoulos
Standard Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis requires 5 days to complete. To date, microbial fuel cell biosensors used as an alternative method for BOD assessment requires external apparatus, which limits their use for on-line monitoring in remote, off-grid locations. In this study, a self-powered, floating biosensor was developed for online water quality monitoring. This approach eliminated the need for external apparatus and maintenance that would otherwise be required by other techniques. The biosensor was able to detect urine in freshwater and turn ON a visual and sound cues (85 dB)...
June 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578475/intussusception-reduction-effect-of-air-vs-liquid-enema-on-radiation-dose
#14
Summer L Kaplan, Dennise Magill, Marc A Felice, J Christopher Edgar, Sudha A Anupindi, Xiaowei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Both air and radiopaque liquid contrast are used to reduce ileocolic intussusception under fluoroscopy. Some suggest air lowers radiation dose due to shorter procedure times. However, air enema likely lowers radiation dose regardless of fluoroscopy time due to less density over the automatic exposure control cells. OBJECTIVES: We test the hypothesis that air enema reduction of ileocolic intussusception results in lower radiation dose than liquid contrast enema independent of fluoroscopy time...
June 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577991/inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Jun Zhang, Hongjian Pu, Haiyue Zhang, Zhishuo Wei, Xiaoyan Jiang, Mingyue Xu, Lili Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Jialin Liu, Hengxing Meng, R Anne Stetler, Dandan Sun, Jun Chen, Yanqin Gao, Ling Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to long-term motor and cognitive dysfunction, which can be at least partly attributed to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The mechanisms underlying post-TBI BBB disruption, however, are poorly understood thus far. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) is a universally expressed ion transporter that maintains intracellular ion homeostasis by increasing intracellular K(+) and Cl(-). Having been characterized in stroke models, NKCC1 is activated in various cell types in the ischemic brain, and is thought to mediate BBB disruption, brain edema, and neuronal cell death...
May 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576331/rapid-preparation-and-single-cell-analysis-of-concentrated-blood-smears-using-a-high-throughput-blood-cell-separator-and-a-microfabricated-grid-film
#16
Dongwon You, Sein Oh, Byeongyeon Kim, Young Ki Hahn, Sungyoung Choi
Cytological examination of peripheral white blood cells inhomogeneously distributed on a blood smear is currently limited by the low abundance and random sampling of the target cells. To address the challenges, we present a new approach to prepare and analyze concentrated blood smears by rapidly enriching white blood cells up to 32-fold with 92% recovery on average at a high throughput (1mL/min) using a deterministic migration-based separator and by systematically analyzing a large number of the cells distributed over a blood slide using a microfabricated grid film...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565771/erythropoietin-facilitates-the-recruitment-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-sites-of-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Jun Li, Weichun Guo, Min Xiong, Shuangjie Zhang, Heng Han, Jie Chen, Dan Mao, Hualong Yu, Yun Zeng
Despite the successes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injuries, only a small fraction of grafted cells migrate to the target areas. Therefore, there remains a need for more efficient strategies of BMSC delivery. The present study was designed to explore this. Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were established and exposed to phosphate buffered saline (control), BMSCs or BMSCs + erythropoietin (EPO). Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and grid walk tests were then utilized to estimate neurological rehabilitation...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562670/increased-threshold-of-short-latency-motor-evoked-potentials-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-channelrhodopsin-2
#18
Wei Wu, Wenhui Xiong, Ping Zhang, Lifang Chen, Jianqiao Fang, Christopher Shields, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoming Jin
Transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 or its variants provide a powerful tool for optogenetic study of the nervous system. Previous studies have established that introducing such exogenous genes usually does not alter anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral properties of neurons in these mice. However, in a line of Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice (line 9, Jackson lab), we found that short-latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation had a longer latency and much lower amplitude than that of wild type mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561343/pan-arctic-sea-ice-algal-chl-a-biomass-and-suitable-habitat-are-largely-underestimated-for-multiyear-ice
#19
Benjamin A Lange, Hauke Flores, Christine Michel, Justin F Beckers, Anne Bublitz, John Alec Casey, Giulia Castellani, Ido Hatam, Anke Reppchen, Svenja A Rudolph, Christian Haas
There is mounting evidence that multiyear ice (MYI) is a unique component of the Arctic Ocean and may play a more important ecological role than previously assumed. This study improves our understanding of the potential of MYI as a suitable habitat for sea ice algae on a pan-Arctic scale. We sampled sea ice cores from MYI and first-year sea ice (FYI) within the Lincoln Sea during four consecutive spring seasons. This included four MYI hummocks with a mean chl a biomass of 2.0 mg/m(2) , a value significantly higher than FYI and MYI refrozen ponds...
May 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557568/a-grid-based-nucleus-counting-method-for-estimates-of-the-density-of-superficial-conjunctival-cells-from-impression-cytology-samples-taken-from-normal-healthy-human-eyes
#20
Michael J Doughty
PURPOSE: To develop and validate an easily procured objective estimate of the cell density of the superficial epithelial cells of the normal bulbar conjunctiva using conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). METHODS: From 20 healthy non-contact lens-wearing young adults, CIC was undertaken off the nasal aspect of the exposed bulbar conjunctiva, the filters stained with Giemsa, and images taken at 200× that only included an all-but-contiguous monolayer of epithelial cells...
May 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
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