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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#1
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073437/a-high-resolution-hydrodynamic-model-system-suitable-for-novel-harmful-algal-bloom-modelling-in-areas-of-complex-coastline-and-topography
#2
Dmitry Aleynik, Andrew C Dale, Marie Porter, Keith Davidson
Fjordic coastlines provide sheltered locations for finfish and shellfish aquaculture, and are often subject to harmful algal blooms (HABs) some of which develop offshore and are then advected to impact nearshore aquaculture. Numerical models are a potentially important tool for providing early warning of such HAB events. However, the complex topography of fjordic shelf regions is a significant challenge to modelling. This is frequently compounded by complex bathymetry and local weather patterns. Existing structured grid models do not provide the resolution needed to represent these coastlines in their wider shelf context...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067005/phosphorus-in-agricultural-soils-drivers-of-its-distribution-at-the-global-scale
#3
Bruno Ringeval, Laurent Augusto, Hervé Monod, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Lex Bouwman, Xiaojuan Yang, David L Achat, Louise P Chini, Kristof Van Oost, Bertrand Guenet, Rong Wang, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Nesme, Sylvain Pellerin
Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale...
January 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061369/employing-image-processing-techniques-for-cancer-detection-using-microarray-images
#4
Nastaran Dehghan Khalilabad, Hamid Hassanpour
Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes...
December 21, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054560/metal-free-supercapacitor-with-aqueous-electrolyte-and-low-cost-carbon-materials
#5
Nicklas Blomquist, Thomas Wells, Britta Andres, Joakim Bäckström, Sven Forsberg, Håkan Olin
Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049778/immunolocalization-of-proteins-in-fission-yeast-by-electron-microscopy
#6
Mary K Morphew, Thomas H Giddings, J Richard McIntosh
Electron microscopy (EM) immunolocalization of antigens in fission yeast can be accomplished with cells processed by rapid freezing and freeze-substitution followed by embedding in acrylic or methacrylate resins. Microtome sections of embedded cells are collected onto EM grids. Primary antibodies to the antigen of interest, followed by secondary antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold, are allowed to bind to antigens at the surface of these plastic sections. This type of postembed labeling provides information on antigen localization to a resolution of 10-20 nm, depending on the size of the metal particle used, the form of the antibody (Fab vs...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048587/tu-h-brc-07-therapeutic-benefit-in-spatially-fractionated-radiotherapy-grid-using-helical-tomotherapy
#7
G Narayanasamy, X Zhang, A Meigooni, X Liang, N Paudel, S Morrill, S Maraboyina, L Peacock, J Penagaricano
PURPOSE: The aim of this project is to study the therapeutic ratio (TR) for helical Tomotherapy (HT) based spatially fractionated radiotherapy (GRID). Estimation of TR was based on the linear-quadratic cell survival model by comparing the normal cell survival in a HT GRID to that of a uniform dose delivery in an open-field for the same tumor survival. METHODS: HT GRID plan was generated using a patient specific virtual GRID block pattern of non-divergent, cylinder shaped holes using MLCs...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046541/su-c-brc-02-accelerating-linear-boltzmann-transport-equation-by-an-asymptotic-preserving-scheme
#8
G Chen, H Chen, X Hong, M Tang, H Gao
PURPOSE: Linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) is as accurate as the Monte Carlo method for dose calculation. This work is to develop an asymptotic-preserving (AP) scheme to accelerate the LBTE, i.e., to achieve the same accuracy with significantly reduced number of spatial grids. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study, two-dimensional LBTE is solved by the discrete ordinate method. The Level-Symmetric (LQn) quadrature set is employed for angular discretization of LBTE...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034697/the-representation-of-space-in-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029433/mmp-1-and-mmp-8-expression-in-giant-cell-fibroma-and-inflammatory-fibrous-hyperplasia
#10
Henrique Climeck de Oliveira, André Tschoeke, Gabriele Claudino da Cruz, Lúcia Noronha, Rafaela Scariot de Moraes, Ricardo Alves Mesquita, Maria Cássia Ferreira de Aguiar, Patrícia Carlos Caldeira, Marina de Oliveira Ribas, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio, Luciana Reis Azevedo Alanis, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Jean Nunes Dos Santos, Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann
The aim of this study is to compare the immunoexpression of metalloproteinases 1 and 8 in giant-cell fibroma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and normal mucosa. Twenty-two cases of giant-cell fibroma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and oral mucosa (control) each were subjected to immunohistochemistry using anti-metalloproteinase-1 and anti-metalloproteinase-8 antibodies. Eight images of each case were captured and analysed through the a) application of a count grid to count the number of positive neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and blood vessels to obtain the percentage of staining and b) semi-automated segmentation quantifying the stained area in square micrometres...
October 15, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025983/grid-cells-need-for-speed
#11
Alfredo Gonzalez-Sulser, Matthew F Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024751/assessing-the-environmental-impacts-of-freshwater-thermal-pollution-from-global-power-generation-in-lca
#12
Catherine E Raptis, Justin M Boucher, Stephan Pfister
Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12...
December 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004916/liquid-organic-hydrogen-carriers-lohcs-toward-a-hydrogen-free-hydrogen-economy
#13
Patrick Preuster, Christian Papp, Peter Wasserscheid
The need to drastically reduce CO2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent...
December 22, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001122/spatial-and-temporal-variability-in-desert-dust-and-anthropogenic-pollution-in-iraq-1997-2010
#14
A Alexandra Chudnovsky, Petros Koutrakis, Alex Kostinski, Susan P Proctor, Eric Garshick
: Satellite imaging has emerged as a method for monitoring regional air pollution and detecting areas of high dust concentrations. Unlike ground observations, continuous data monitoring is available with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. In this study we test the utility of different sources of satellite data to assess air pollution concentrations in Iraq. SeaWiFS and MODIS Deep Blue (DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products were evaluated and used to characterize the spatial and temporal pollution levels from the late 1990s through 2010...
January 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996891/mapping-air-quality-zones-for-coastal-urban-centers
#15
Brian Freeman, Bahram Gharabaghi, Jesse Thé, Mohammad Munshed, Shah Faisal, Meshal Abdullah, Athari Al Aseed
This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cells of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of one-hour prognostic weather data...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977021/correlated-fluorescence-microscopy-and-cryo-electron-tomography-of-virus-infected-or-transfected-mammalian-cells
#16
Cheri M Hampton, Joshua D Strauss, Zunlong Ke, Rebecca S Dillard, Jason E Hammonds, Eric Alonas, Tanay M Desai, Mariana Marin, Rachel E Storms, Fredrick Leon, Gregory B Melikyan, Philip J Santangelo, Paul W Spearman, Elizabeth R Wright
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) combines spatiotemporal information from fluorescence light microscopy (fLM) with high-resolution structural data from cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). These technologies provide opportunities to bridge knowledge gaps between cell and structural biology. Here we describe our protocol for correlated cryo-fLM, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and cryo-ET (i.e., cryo-CLEM) of virus-infected or transfected mammalian cells. Mammalian-derived cells are cultured on EM substrates, using optimized conditions that ensure that the cells are spread thinly across the substrate and are not physically disrupted...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943643/the-development-of-spatial-and-memory-circuits-in-the-rat
#17
REVIEW
Hui Min Tan, Thomas Joseph Wills, Francesca Cacucci
We provide a concise review of recent studies related to the development of neural circuits supporting spatial navigation and memory in the rat. We chart the relative timeline of the emergence of the four main classes of spatially tuned neurons within the hippocampus and related limbic areas: head direction cells emerge earliest (postnatal day 12, P12), before the eyes of the rats are even open, followed by place cells and boundary responsive cells; grid cells emerge last, around the age of weaning (P21). The rate of maturation is unique to each type of neuron, with the head direction and grid cells showing rapid developmental spurts, in contrast to place cells, which show a more gradual trend of maturation...
December 12, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943206/imaging-and-quantification-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-transmission-electron-microscopy
#18
Romain Linares, Sisareuth Tan, Céline Gounou, Alain R Brisson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles that are present in blood and other body fluids. EVs raise major interest for their diverse physiopathological roles and their potential biomedical applications. However, the characterization and quantification of EVs constitute major challenges, mainly due to their small size and the lack of methods adapted for their study. Electron microscopy has made significant contributions to the EV field since their initial discovery. Here, we describe the use of two transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for imaging and quantifying EVs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941523/3-d-spatial-memory-and-navigation-functions-and-disorders
#19
Thomas Brandt, Andreas Zwergal, Stefan Glasauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report on the specialized neuronal systems mediating spatial orientation and navigation discovered in animal experiments. These findings have important implications for the clinical management of patients with vestibular disorders or dementia and for translational research in these fields. RECENT FINDINGS: The following anatomically and functionally separate, but nevertheless cooperative cell types have been characterized: angular head velocity cells and head direction cells, which depend on vestibular input and interact with place cells and grid cells, which represent position and distance...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940253/heterogeneous-spatial-representation-by-different-subpopulations-of-neurons-in-the-subiculum
#20
J R Brotons-Mas, S Schaffelhofer, C Guger, S M O'Mara, M V Sanchez-Vives
The subiculum is a pivotal structure located in the hippocampal formation that receives inputs from grid and place cells and that mediates the output from the hippocampus to cortical and sub-cortical areas. Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of boundary vector cells (BVC) in the subiculum, as well as exceptional stability during recordings conducted in the dark, suggesting that the subiculum is involved in the coding of allocentric cues and also in path integration. In order to better understand the role of the subiculum in spatial processing and the coding of external cues, we recorded subicular units in freely moving rats while performing two experiments: the "size experiment" in which we modified the arena size, and the "barrier experiment" in which we inserted new barriers in a familiar open field thus dividing the enclosure into four comparable sub-chambers...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscience
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