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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424398/-brodmann-areas-27-28-36-and-37-the-parahippocampal-and-the-fusiform-gyri
#1
Satoshi Eifuku
First, Brodmann areas 27, 28, 36 and 37, were anatomically defined in the beginning of this review. These areas exist in the parahippocampal or fusiform gyrus of the ventral temporal lobe in humans. Subsequently, the current understanding of their functions was summarized on the basis of recent findings mainly through human functional neuroimaging studies and animal studies. Rodent studies have shown the existence of neuronal activities for representing space, such as those involving head-direction cells or grid cells, in areas 27 (the parasubicular cortex) and 28 (the ventral entorhinal cortex)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423313/power-grid-protection-of-the-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum
#2
Brian Glancy, Lisa M Hartnell, Christian A Combs, Armel Fenmou, Junhui Sun, Elizabeth Murphy, Sriram Subramaniam, Robert S Balaban
Mitochondrial network connectivity enables rapid communication and distribution of potential energy throughout the cell. However, this connectivity puts the energy conversion system at risk, because damaged elements could jeopardize the entire network. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms for mitochondrial network protection in heart and skeletal muscle (SKM). We find that the cardiac mitochondrial reticulum is segmented into subnetworks comprising many mitochondria linked through abundant contact sites at highly specific intermitochondrial junctions (IMJs)...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418593/nonparametric-tree-based-predictive-modeling-of-storm-outages-on-an-electric-distribution-network
#3
Jichao He, David W Wanik, Brian M Hartman, Emmanouil N Anagnostou, Marina Astitha, Maria E B Frediani
This article compares two nonparametric tree-based models, quantile regression forests (QRF) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART), for predicting storm outages on an electric distribution network in Connecticut, USA. We evaluated point estimates and prediction intervals of outage predictions for both models using high-resolution weather, infrastructure, and land use data for 89 storm events (including hurricanes, blizzards, and thunderstorms). We found that spatially BART predicted more accurate point estimates than QRF...
March 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406206/a-living-mesoscopic-cellular-automaton-made-of-skin-scales
#4
Liana Manukyan, Sophie A Montandon, Anamarija Fofonjka, Stanislav Smirnov, Michel C Milinkovitch
In vertebrates, skin colour patterns emerge from nonlinear dynamical microscopic systems of cell interactions. Here we show that in ocellated lizards a quasi-hexagonal lattice of skin scales, rather than individual chromatophore cells, establishes a green and black labyrinthine pattern of skin colour. We analysed time series of lizard scale colour dynamics over four years of their development and demonstrate that this pattern is produced by a cellular automaton (a grid of elements whose states are iterated according to a set of rules based on the states of neighbouring elements) that dynamically computes the colour states of individual mesoscopic skin scales to produce the corresponding macroscopic colour pattern...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396399/context-dependent-spatially-periodic-activity-in-the-human-entorhinal-cortex
#5
Zoltan Nadasdy, T Peter Nguyen, Ágoston Török, Jason Y Shen, Deborah E Briggs, Pradeep N Modur, Robert J Buchanan
The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392071/a-multiplexed-heterogeneous-and-adaptive-code-for-navigation-in-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#6
Kiah Hardcastle, Niru Maheswaranathan, Surya Ganguli, Lisa M Giocomo
Medial entorhinal grid cells display strikingly symmetric spatial firing patterns. The clarity of these patterns motivated the use of specific activity pattern shapes to classify entorhinal cell types. While this approach successfully revealed cells that encode boundaries, head direction, and running speed, it left a majority of cells unclassified, and its pre-defined nature may have missed unconventional, yet important coding properties. Here, we apply an unbiased statistical approach to search for cells that encode navigationally relevant variables...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383917/local-fitting-of-the-kohn-sham-density-in-a-gaussian-and-plane-waves-scheme-for-large-scale-density-functional-theory-simulations
#7
Dorothea Golze, Marcella Iannuzzi, Juerg Hutter
A local resolution-of-the-identity (LRI) approach is introduced in combination with the Gaussian and plane waves (GPW) scheme to enable large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations. In GPW, the computational bottleneck is typically the description of the total charge density on real-space grids. Introducing the LRI approximation, the linear scaling of the GPW approach with respect to system size is retained, while the prefactor for the grid operations is reduced. The density fitting is an O(N) scaling process implemented by approximating the atomic pair densities by an expansion in one-center fit functions...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380248/development-of-an-asset-value-map-for-disaster-risk-assessment-in-china-by-spatial-disaggregation-using-ancillary-remote-sensing-data
#8
Jidong Wu, Ying Li, Ning Li, Peijun Shi
The extent of economic losses due to a natural hazard and disaster depends largely on the spatial distribution of asset values in relation to the hazard intensity distribution within the affected area. Given that statistical data on asset value are collected by administrative units in China, generating spatially explicit asset exposure maps remains a key challenge for rapid postdisaster economic loss assessment. The goal of this study is to introduce a top-down (or downscaling) approach to disaggregate administrative-unit level asset value to grid-cell level...
April 5, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371135/climate-and-geochemistry-as-drivers-of-eucalypt-diversification-in-australia
#9
E N Bui, A H Thornhill, C E González-Orozco, N Knerr, J T Miller
Eucalypts cover most of Australia. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of climate and geochemistry to the distribution and diversity of eucalypts. Using geostatistics, we estimate major element concentrations, pH, and electrical conductivity at sites where eucalypts have been recorded. We compare the median predicted geochemistry and reported substrate for individual species that appear associated with extreme conditions; this provides a partial evaluation of the predictions. We generate a site-by-species matrix by aggregating observations to the centroids of 100-km-wide grid cells, calculate diversity indices, and use numerical ecology methods (ordination, variation partitioning) to investigate the ecology of eucalypts and their response to climatic and geochemical gradients...
May 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370671/multiscale-mapping-of-species-diversity-under-changed-land-use-using-imaging-spectroscopy
#10
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Tamir Caras, Ittai Herrmann, Moshe Shachak, Arnon Karnieli
Land-use changes are one of the most important factors causing environmental transformations and species diversity alterations. The aim of the current study was to develop a geoinformatics-based framework to quantify alpha and beta diversity indices in two sites in Israel with different land-uses, i.e., an agricultural system of fruit orchards, an afforestation system of planted groves, and an unmanaged system of groves. The framework comprises four scaling steps: (1) classification of a tree species distribution (SD) map using imaging spectroscopy (IS) at a pixel size of 1 m; (2) estimation of local species richness by calculating the alpha diversity index for 30-m grid cells; (3) calculation of beta diversity for different land-use categories and sub-categories at different sizes; and (4) calculation of the beta diversity difference between the two sites...
March 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362872/evaluating-methods-for-estimating-home-ranges-using-gps-collars-a-comparison-using-proboscis-monkeys-nasalis-larvatus
#11
Danica J Stark, Ian P Vaughan, Diana A Ramirez Saldivar, Senthilvel K S S Nathan, Benoit Goossens
The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358077/mapping-of-a-non-spatial-dimension-by-the-hippocampal-entorhinal-circuit
#12
Dmitriy Aronov, Rhino Nevers, David W Tank
During spatial navigation, neural activity in the hippocampus and the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is correlated to navigational variables such as location, head direction, speed, and proximity to boundaries. These activity patterns are thought to provide a map-like representation of physical space. However, the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit is involved not only in spatial navigation, but also in a variety of memory-guided behaviours. The relationship between this general function and the specialized spatial activity patterns is unclear...
March 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357992/adsorption-and-diffusion-of-mono-di-and-trivalent-ions-on-two-dimensional-tis2
#13
Abdus Samad, Aamir Shafique, Young-Han Shin
A comparative study of the monovalent (Li, Na, and K) and multivalent (Be, Mg, Ca, and Al) metal ion adsorption and diffusion on an electronically semi-metallic two-dimensional nanosheet of 1T structured TiS2 is presented here to contribute to the search for abundant, cheap, and nontoxic ingredients for efficient rechargeable metal ion batteries. The total formation energy of the metal ion adsorption and the Bader charge analysis show that the divalent Mg and Ca ions can have a charge storage density double that of the monovalent Li, Na, and K ions, while the Be and Al ions form metallic clusters even at a low adsorption density because of their high bulk energies...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349134/sodium-ion-batteries-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Jang-Yeon Hwang, Seung-Taek Myung, Yang-Kook Sun
Energy production and storage technologies have attracted a great deal of attention for day-to-day applications. In recent decades, advances in lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology have improved living conditions around the globe. LIBs are used in most mobile electronic devices as well as in zero-emission electronic vehicles. However, there are increasing concerns regarding load leveling of renewable energy sources and the smart grid as well as the sustainability of lithium sources due to their limited availability and consequent expected price increase...
March 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344929/comparing-regional-precipitation-and-temperature-extremes-in-climate-model-and-reanalysis-products
#15
Oliver Angélil, Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Lisa V Alexander, Dáithí Stone, Markus G Donat, Michael Wehner, Hideo Shiogama, Andrew Ciavarella, Nikolaos Christidis
A growing field of research aims to characterise the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the likelihood of extreme weather and climate events. These analyses can be sensitive to the shapes of the tails of simulated distributions. If tails are found to be unrealistically short or long, the anthropogenic signal emerges more or less clearly, respectively, from the noise of possible weather. Here we compare the chance of daily land-surface precipitation and near-surface temperature extremes generated by three Atmospheric Global Climate Models typically used for event attribution, with distributions from six reanalysis products...
September 2016: Weather and Climate Extremes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343867/grid-and-nongrid-cells-in-medial-entorhinal-cortex-represent-spatial-location-and-environmental-features-with-complementary-coding-schemes
#16
Geoffrey W Diehl, Olivia J Hon, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has been identified as a hub for spatial information processing by the discovery of grid, border, and head-direction cells. Here we find that in addition to these well-characterized classes, nearly all of the remaining two-thirds of mEC cells can be categorized as spatially selective. We refer to these cells as nongrid spatial cells and confirmed that their spatial firing patterns were unrelated to running speed and highly reproducible within the same environment. However, in response to manipulations of environmental features, such as box shape or box color, nongrid spatial cells completely reorganized their spatial firing patterns...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339650/convenient-method-for-better-preservation-of-fine-structures-of-cultured-macrophages-and-engulfed-yeast-cells-by-freeze-substitution-fixation
#17
Masashi Yamaguchi, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Yuko Aida, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Hiroji Chibana
Rapid freeze-freeze substitution after glutaraldehyde fixation (CF-FS method) obtained the natural and fine structures of macrophages and engulfed yeast cells. Culturing macrophages on single hole molybdenum grids placed in culture dishes made possible the rapid freezing of cells by the 'open sandwich method'. This method may be convenient when rapid-freezing cannot be performed immediately, or when a rapid-freezing device is not available in the lab.
February 18, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334610/a-novel-mechanism-for-the-grid-to-place-cell-transformation-revealed-by-transgenic-depolarization-of-medial-entorhinal-cortex-layer-ii
#18
Benjamin R Kanter, Christine M Lykken, Daniel Avesar, Aldis Weible, Jasmine Dickinson, Benjamin Dunn, Nils Z Borgesius, Yasser Roudi, Clifford G Kentros
The spatial receptive fields of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex layer II (MECII) and in the hippocampus suggest general and environment-specific maps of space, respectively. However, the relationship between these receptive fields remains unclear. We reversibly manipulated the activity of MECII neurons via chemogenetic receptors and compared the changes in downstream hippocampal place cells to those of neurons in MEC. Depolarization of MECII impaired spatial memory and elicited drastic changes in CA1 place cells in a familiar environment, similar to those seen during remapping between distinct environments, while hyperpolarization did not...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334142/layer-specific-organization-of-local-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-connectivity-in-the-rat-presubiculum
#19
Yangfan Peng, Federico J Barreda Tomás, Constantin Klisch, Imre Vida, Jörg R P Geiger
The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously...
April 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329015/adaptive-control-paradigm-for-photovoltaic-and-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-in-a-grid-integrated-hybrid-renewable-energy-system
#20
Sidra Mumtaz, Laiq Khan
The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system...
2017: PloS One
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