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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533968/changes-in-the-spatial-and-temporal-pattern-of-natural-forest-cover-on-hainan-island-from-the-1950s-to-the-2010s-implications-for-natural-forest-conservation-and-management
#1
Siliang Lin, Yaozhu Jiang, Jiekun He, Guangzhi Ma, Yang Xu, Haisheng Jiang
The study of the past, present, and future state and dynamics of the tropical natural forest cover (NFC) might help to better understand the pattern of deforestation and fragmentation as well as the influence of social and natural processes. The obtained information will support the development of effective conservation policies and strategies. In the present study, we used historical data of the road network, topography, and climatic productivity to reconstruct NFC maps of Hainan Island, China, from the 1950s to the 2010s, using the random forest algorithm...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528630/correlation-of-live-cell-imaging-with-volume-scanning-electron-microscopy
#2
Miriam S Lucas, Maja Günthert, Anne Greet Bittermann, Alex de Marco, Roger Wepf
Live-cell imaging is one of the most widely applied methods in live science. Here we describe two setups for live-cell imaging, which can easily be combined with volume SEM for correlative studies. The first procedure applies cell culture dishes with a gridded glass support, which can be used for any light microscopy modality. The second approach is a flow-chamber setup based on Ibidi μ-slides. Both live-cell imaging strategies can be followed up with serial blockface- or focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515661/improving-large-area-population-mapping-using-geotweet-densities
#3
Nirav N Patel, Forrest R Stevens, Zhuojie Huang, Andrea E Gaughan, Iqbal Elyazar, Andrew J Tatem
Many different methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities to construct finer scale, gridded population data sets. These methods often involve a range of high resolution geospatial covariate datasets on aspects such as urban areas, infrastructure, land cover and topography; such covariates, however, are not directly indicative of the presence of people. Here we tested the potential of geo-located tweets from the social media application, Twitter, as a covariate in the production of population maps...
April 2017: Transactions in GIS: TG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513716/combining-light-harvesting-with-detachability-in-high-efficiency-thin-film-silicon-solar-cells
#4
Sanjay K Ram, Derese Desta, Rita Rizzoli, Michele Bellettato, Folmer Lyckegaard, Pia B Jensen, Bjarke R Jeppesen, Jacques Chevallier, Caterina Summonte, Arne Nylandsted Larsen, Peter Balling
Efforts to realize thin-film solar cells on unconventional substrates face several obstacles in achieving good energy-conversion efficiency and integrating light-management into the solar cell design. In this report a technique to circumvent these obstacles is presented: transferability and an efficient light-harvesting scheme are combined for thin-film silicon solar cells by the incorporation of a NaCl layer. Amorphous silicon solar cells in p-i-n configuration are fabricated on reusable glass substrates coated with an interlayer of NaCl...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511360/refined-2013-based-vehicle-emission-inventory-and-its-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-in-zhengzhou-china
#5
Mimi Gong, Shasha Yin, Xingke Gu, Yuanqian Xu, Nan Jiang, Ruiqin Zhang
Vehicle emission is becoming one of the most important pollution sources because of the increase in vehicle population and activity in China. A more reasonable and complete vehicle emission inventory in Zhengzhou for the year 2013 was developed in this study. This inventory is suitable for local emission factors and vehicle kilometers of travel. Estimates show that the total carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOX), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were 291Gg, 35Gg, 106Gg, 6Gg, 7Gg, and 3Gg, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505707/numerical-heating-of-electrons-in-particle-in-cell-simulations-of-fully-magnetized-plasmas
#6
M Horký, W J Miloch, V A Delong
The role of spatial resolution of the electron gyroradius in electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is studied. It is demonstrated that resolving the gyroradius is crucial for simulations of strongly magnetized plasmas and that nonresolving it results in substantial anisotropic heating of electrons. The numerical heating can, in some cases, be suppressed by the higher-order weighting to the grid, but it cannot be avoided. Possible mechanisms behind this numerical heating are discussed. The study is carried out with a fully three dimensional electrostatic PIC code with an external magnetic and electric fields...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#7
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary Irwin, Autumn Bullard, David Thompson, Nicole Bentley, William Stacey, Parag Patil, Cynthia Chestek
OBJECTIVE:  Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494861/excitatory-microcircuits-within-superficial-layers-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#8
Jochen Winterer, Nikolaus Maier, Christian Wozny, Prateep Beed, Jörg Breustedt, Roberta Evangelista, Yangfan Peng, Tiziano D'Albis, Richard Kempter, Dietmar Schmitz
The distinctive firing pattern of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) supports its role in the representation of space. It is widely believed that the hexagonal firing field of grid cells emerges from neural dynamics that depend on the local microcircuitry. However, local networks within the MEC are still not sufficiently characterized. Here, applying up to eight simultaneous whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices, we demonstrate the existence of unitary excitatory connections between principal neurons in the superficial layers of the MEC...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494114/a-sustainable-redox-flow-battery-with-an-aluminum-based-deep-eutectic-solvent-anolyte
#9
Changkun Zhang, Yu Ding, Leyuan Zhang, Xuelan Wang, Yu Zhao, Xiaohong Zhang, Guihua Yu
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are an emerging energy storage technology for grid storage systems, but the development of anolyte has lagged far behind the catholyte. In this work, an aluminum-based deep-eutectic-solvent is investigated as anolyte for redox flow batteries. The aluminum-based deep-eutectic solvent demonstrated a significantly enhanced concentration ~3.2 M in the anolyte. The electrochemical measurements highlight that a reversible volumetric capacity of 145 Ah L-1 and an energy density of 189 Wh L-1 or 165 W h kg-1 have been achieved when coupled with I3-/I- catholyte...
May 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493881/shinyheatmap-ultra-fast-low-memory-heatmap-web-interface-for-big-data-genomics
#10
Bohdan B Khomtchouk, James R Hennessy, Claes Wahlestedt
BACKGROUND: Transcriptomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, and other various next-generation sequencing (-omics) fields are known for their production of large datasets, especially across single-cell sequencing studies. Visualizing such big data has posed technical challenges in biology, both in terms of available computational resources as well as programming acumen. Since heatmaps are used to depict high-dimensional numerical data as a colored grid of cells, efficiency and speed have often proven to be critical considerations in the process of successfully converting data into graphics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487969/applicability-of-electrospun-polypropylene-carbonate-polymers-as-a-drug-carrier-for-sirolimus
#11
Hourong Sun, Xinghua Gu, Kai Liu, Changcun Fang, Mengmeng Tang
Polypropylene carbonate (PPC), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, exhibits one particular advantage over other polyesters, which is that following degradation in vivo, it primarily produces H2O and CO2, causing minimal side effects. Although PPC exhibits limited mechanical strength, and is therefore not able to serve as a scaffold to support tissue regeneration, it may be suitable for drug delivery; however, this requires further investigation. In the present study, electrospinning was applied to generate PPC polymers containing sirolimus, a cell growth‑inhibiting drug which is used to treat restenosis...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476973/excluded-volume-effects-in-on-and-off-lattice-reaction-diffusion-models
#12
Lina Meinecke, Markus Eriksson
Mathematical models are important tools to study the excluded volume effects on reaction-diffusion systems, which are known to play an important role inside living cells. Detailed microscopic simulations with off-lattice Brownian dynamics become computationally expensive in crowded environments. In this study, the authors therefore investigate to which extent on-lattice approximations, the so-called cellular automata models, can be used to simulate reactions and diffusion in the presence of crowding molecules...
April 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475472/research-on-the-optimization-of-air-quality-monitoring-station-layout-based-on-spatial-grid-statistical-analysis-method
#13
Tianxin Li, Xingkun Zhou, Harrison Odion Ikhumhen, An Difei
In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012-2014, the monthly mean PM10 concentration in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471120/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-1-crystal-violet-nuclear-fast-red-stain-compared-to-haematoxyline-eosin-stain-for-assessing-mitotic-figures-in-oral-premalignant-and-malignant-lesions
#14
Gauri Motiwale, Shradha Jaiswal, Ashok Vikey, Tejas Motiwale, Bhupesh Bagulkar, Atul Bhat, Prakhar Kapoor
Various chromosomal arrangements in cells undergoing division are referred to as Mitotic figure (MF). The abnormal excess of mitotic figures is commonly seen in oral epithelial dysplasia (ED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In present study, we compared the number of mitotic figures in normal oral mucosa, epithelial dysplasia & OSCC sections with haematoxyline & eosine (H&E) and 1%Crystal Violet & Nuclear Fast Red (CV&NFR) stain, also the efficacy of the CV&NFR stain as compared to H & E stain. We investigated the correlation between the number of mitotic figures & grades of OSCC...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467409/a-pilot-study-to-delimit-tsetse-target-populations-in-zimbabwe
#15
Gerald Chikowore, Ahmadou H Dicko, Peter Chinwada, Moses Zimba, William Shereni, François Roger, Jérémy Bouyer, Laure Guerrini
BACKGROUND: Tsetse (Glossina sensu stricto) are cyclical vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses, that are presently targeted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) coordinated by the African Union. In order to achieve effective control of tsetse, there is need to produce elaborate plans to guide intervention programmes. A model intended to aid in the planning of intervention programmes and assist a fuller understanding of tsetse distribution was applied, in a pilot study in the Masoka area, Mid-Zambezi valley in Zimbabwe, and targeting two savannah species, Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina pallidipes...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464279/clean-transfer-of-large-graphene-single-crystals-for-high-intactness-suspended-membranes-and-liquid-cells
#16
Jincan Zhang, Li Lin, Luzhao Sun, Yucheng Huang, Ai Leen Koh, Wenhui Dang, Jianbo Yin, Mingzhan Wang, Congwei Tan, Tianran Li, Zhenjun Tan, Zhongfan Liu, Hailin Peng
The atomically thin 2D nature of suspended graphene membranes holds promising in numerous technological applications. In particular, the outstanding transparency to electron beam endows graphene membranes great potential as a candidate for specimen support of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, major hurdles remain to be addressed to acquire an ultraclean, high-intactness, and defect-free suspended graphene membrane. Here, a polymer-free clean transfer of sub-centimeter-sized graphene single crystals onto TEM grids to fabricate large-area and high-quality suspended graphene membranes has been achieved...
May 2, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454032/identifying-spatial-clusters-of-flood-exposure-to-support-decision-making-in-risk-management
#17
Veronika Röthlisberger, Andreas P Zischg, Margreth Keiler
A sound understanding of flood risk drivers (hazard, exposure and vulnerability) is essential for the effective and efficient implementation of risk-reduction strategies. In this paper, we focus on 'exposure' and study the influence of different methods and parameters of flood exposure analyses in Switzerland. We consider two types of exposure indicators and two different spatial aggregation schemes: the density of exposed assets (exposed numbers per km(2)) and the ratios of exposed assets (share of exposed assets compared to total amount of assets in a specific region) per municipality and per grid cells of similar size as the municipalities...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450227/spatial-phylogenetics-of-the-vascular-flora-of-chile
#18
Rosa A Scherson, Andrew H Thornhill, Rafael Urbina-Casanova, William A Freyman, Patricio A Pliscoff, Brent D Mishler
Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448253/a-map-of-abstract-relational-knowledge-in-the-human-hippocampal-entorhinal-cortex
#19
Mona M Garvert, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy Ej Behrens
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424398/-brodmann-areas-27-28-36-and-37-the-parahippocampal-and-the-fusiform-gyri
#20
Satoshi Eifuku
First, Brodmann areas 27, 28, 36 and 37, were anatomically defined in the beginning of this review. These areas exist in the parahippocampal or fusiform gyrus of the ventral temporal lobe in humans. Subsequently, the current understanding of their functions was summarized on the basis of recent findings mainly through human functional neuroimaging studies and animal studies. Rodent studies have shown the existence of neuronal activities for representing space, such as those involving head-direction cells or grid cells, in areas 27 (the parasubicular cortex) and 28 (the ventral entorhinal cortex)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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