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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334610/a-novel-mechanism-for-the-grid-to-place-cell-transformation-revealed-by-transgenic-depolarization-of-medial-entorhinal-cortex-layer-ii
#1
Benjamin R Kanter, Christine M Lykken, Daniel Avesar, Aldis Weible, Jasmine Dickinson, Benjamin Dunn, Nils Z Borgesius, Yasser Roudi, Clifford G Kentros
The spatial receptive fields of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex layer II (MECII) and in the hippocampus suggest general and environment-specific maps of space, respectively. However, the relationship between these receptive fields remains unclear. We reversibly manipulated the activity of MECII neurons via chemogenetic receptors and compared the changes in downstream hippocampal place cells to those of neurons in MEC. Depolarization of MECII impaired spatial memory and elicited drastic changes in CA1 place cells in a familiar environment, similar to those seen during remapping between distinct environments, while hyperpolarization did not...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334142/layer-specific-organization-of-local-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-connectivity-in-the-rat-presubiculum
#2
Yangfan Peng, Federico J Barreda Tomás, Constantin Klisch, Imre Vida, Jörg R P Geiger
The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329015/adaptive-control-paradigm-for-photovoltaic-and-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-in-a-grid-integrated-hybrid-renewable-energy-system
#3
Sidra Mumtaz, Laiq Khan
The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321278/risk-factors-for-anopheles-mosquitoes-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-blantyre-district-southern-malawi
#4
Themba Mzilahowa, Madalitso Luka-Banda, Veronica Uzalili, Don P Mathanga, Carl H Campbell, Mavuto Mukaka, John E Gimnig
BACKGROUND: Although urban malaria transmission is low and seasonal, it remains a major public health problem. This study aimed at demonstrating the presence of Anopheles mosquitoes and their potential to transmit malaria in urban settings. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Blantyre District, Malawi, during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2010, respectively. A map of Blantyre was divided into a grid of 400 cells, of which 60 cells were randomly selected...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#5
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314046/analysis-of-traffic-crashes-involving-pedestrians-using-big-data-investigation-of-contributing-factors-and-identification-of-hotspots
#6
Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Abdullah Kurkcu, Hong Yang
This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303745/grid-therapy-using-high-definition-multileaf-collimators-realizing-benefits-of-the-bystander-effect
#7
Valery Peng, Natalka Suchowerska, Linda Rogers, Elizabeth Claridge Mackonis, Samantha Oakes, David R McKenzie
BACKGROUND: In microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), parallel arrays of high-intensity synchrotron x-ray beams achieve normal tissue sparing without compromising tumor control. Grid-therapy using clinical linacs has spatial modulation on a larger scale and achieves promising results for palliative treatments of bulky tumors. The availability of high definition multileaf collimators (HDMLCs) with 2.5 mm leaves provides an opportunity for grid-therapy to more closely approach MRT. However, challenges to the wider implementation of grid-therapy remain because spatial modulation of the target volume runs counter to current radiotherapy practice and mechanisms for the beneficial effects of MRT are not fully understood...
March 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302156/mapping-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-giles-1901-diptera-culicidae-within-areas-of-japanese-encephalitis-risk
#8
Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Marianne E Sinka, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking, and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution. RESULTS: We assembled a contemporary database of Cx...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292833/mesoscale-architecture-shapes-initiation-and-richness-of-spontaneous-network-activity
#9
Samora Okujeni, Steffen Kandler, Ulrich Egert
Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275663/dataset-demonstrating-the-modeling-of-a-high-performance-cu-in-ga-se2-absorber-based-thin-film-photovoltaic-cell
#10
Md Asaduzzaman, Ali Newaz Bahar, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman Bhuiyan
The physical data of the semiconductor materials used in the design of a CIGS absorber based thin film photovoltaic cell have been presented in this data article. Besides, the values of the contact parameter and operating conditions of the cell have been reported. Furthermore, by conducting the simulation with data corresponding to the device structure: soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate/Mo back-contact/CIGS absorber/CdS buffer/intrinsic ZnO/Al-doped ZnO window/Al-grid front-contact, the solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage [Formula: see text], short circuit current density [Formula: see text], fill factor [Formula: see text], efficiency [Formula: see text], and collection efficiency [Formula: see text] have been analyzed...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270783/semi-supervised-learning-of-cartesian-factors-a-top-down-model-of-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-complex
#11
András Lőrincz, András Sárkány
The existence of place cells (PCs), grid cells (GCs), border cells (BCs), and head direction cells (HCs) as well as the dependencies between them have been enigmatic. We make an effort to explain their nature by introducing the concept of Cartesian Factors. These factors have specific properties: (i) they assume and complement each other, like direction and position and (ii) they have localized discrete representations with predictive attractors enabling implicit metric-like computations. In our model, HCs make the distributed and local representation of direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270018/therapeutic-benefits-in-grid-irradiation-on-tomotherapy-for-bulky-radiation-resistant-tumors
#12
Ganesh Narayanasamy, Xin Zhang, Ali Meigooni, Nava Paudel, Steven Morrill, Sanjay Maraboyina, Loverd Peacock, Jose Penagaricano
INTRODUCTION: Spatially fractionated radiation therapy (SFRT or grid therapy) has proven to be effective in management of bulky tumors. The aim of this project is to study the therapeutic ratio (TR) of helical Tomotherapy (HT)-based grid therapy using linear-quadratic cell survival model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HT-based grid (or HT-GRID) plan was generated using a patient-specific virtual grid pattern of high-dose cylindrical regions using MLCs. TR was defined as the ratio of normal tissue surviving fraction (SF) under HT-GRID irradiation to an open debulking field of an equivalent dose that result in the same tumor cell SF...
March 8, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268589/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#13
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262363/mapping-landslide-susceptibility-using-data-driven-methods
#14
J L Zêzere, S Pereira, R Melo, S C Oliveira, R A C Garcia
Most epistemic uncertainty within data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment results from errors in landslide inventories, difficulty in identifying and mapping landslide causes and decisions related with the modelling procedure. In this work we evaluate and discuss differences observed on landslide susceptibility maps resulting from: (i) the selection of the statistical method; (ii) the selection of the terrain mapping unit; and (iii) the selection of the feature type to represent landslides in the model (polygon versus point)...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253272/risk-mapping-of-clonorchiasis-in-the-people-s-republic-of-china-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-geostatistical-analysis
#15
Ying-Si Lai, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Zhi-Heng Pan, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions. METHODOLOGY: Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246664/design-of-fast-ion-conducting-cathode-materials-for-grid-scale-sodium-ion-batteries
#16
Lee Loong Wong, Haomin Chen, Stefan Adams
The obvious cost advantage as well as attractive electrochemical properties, including excellent cycling stability and the potential of high rate performance, make sodium-ion batteries prime candidates in the race to technically and commercially enable large-scale electrochemical energy storage. In this work, we apply our bond valence site energy modelling method to further the understanding of rate capabilities of a wide range of potential insertion-type sodium-ion battery cathode materials. We demonstrate how a stretched exponential function permits us to systematically quantify the rate performance, which in turn reveals guidelines for the design of novel sodium-ion battery chemistries suitable for high power, grid-scale applications...
March 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244115/finely-resolved-on-road-pm2-5-and-estimated-premature-mortality-in-central-north-carolina
#17
Shih Ying Chang, William Vizuete, Marc Serre, Lakshmi Pradeepa Vennam, Mohammad Omary, Vlad Isakov, Michael Breen, Saravanan Arunachalam
To quantify the on-road PM2.5 -related premature mortality at a national scale, previous approaches to estimate concentrations at a 12-km × 12-km or larger grid cell resolution may not fully characterize concentration hotspots that occur near roadways and thus the areas of highest risk. Spatially resolved concentration estimates from on-road emissions to capture these hotspots may improve characterization of the associated risk, but are rarely used for estimating premature mortality. In this study, we compared the on-road PM2...
February 28, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243788/quantifying-filopodia-in-cultured-astrocytes-by-an-algorithm
#18
Georg Aumann, Felix Friedländer, Matthias Thümmler, Fabian Keil, Robert Brunkhorst, Horst-Werner Korf, Amin Derouiche
Astrocytes in vivo extend thin processes termed peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), in particular around synapses where they can mediate glia-neuronal communication. The relation of PAPs to synapses is not based on coincidence, but it is not clear which stimuli and mechanisms lead to their formation and are active during process extension/ retraction in response to neuronal activity. Also, the molecular basis of the extremely fine PAP morphology (often 50 to 100 nm) is not understood. These open questions can be best investigated under in vitro conditions studying glial filopodia...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#19
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226767/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#20
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Gene J Yu, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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