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Grid Cell

Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables visualization of the ultrastructure of the myelin sheath. Schwann cells on the posterior lateral line nerves and motor nerves can be imaged by TEM. Here, we detail the multiday processing of larval trunks and dissected posterior lateral line for TEM, as well as how to trim embedded samples, section, and stain grids for imaging.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Niklas Wilming, Peter König, Seth König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex allow for the precise decoding of position in space. Along with potentially playing an important role in navigation, grid cells have recently been hypothesized to make a general contribution to mental operations. A prerequisite for this hypothesis is that grid cell activity does not critically depend on physical movement. Here, we show that movement of covert attention, without any physical movement, also elicits spatial receptive fields with a triangular tiling of space...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Kendra J Alfson, Anthony Griffiths
Complete inactivation of infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) is required before a sample may be removed from a Biosafety Level 4 laboratory. The United States Federal Select Agent Program regulations require that procedures used to demonstrate chemical inactivation must be validated in-house to confirm complete inactivation. The objective of this study was to develop a method for validating chemical inactivation of EBOV and then demonstrate the effectiveness of several commonly-used inactivation methods. Samples containing infectious EBOV ( Zaire ebolavirus ) in different matrices were treated, and the sample was diluted to limit the cytopathic effect of the inactivant...
March 13, 2018: Viruses
Caitlin S Mallory, Lisa M Giocomo
The discovery of place cells provided fundamental insight into the neural basis by which the hippocampus encodes spatial memories and supports navigation and prompted the development of computational models to explain the emergence of their spatial selectively. Many such works posit that input from entorhinal grid cells is critical to the formation of place fields, a prediction that has received mixed experimental support. Potentially reconciling seemingly conflicting findings is recent work indicating that subpopulations of pyramidal neurons are functionally distinct and may be driven to varying degrees by different inputs...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
K W Oleson, G B Anderson, B Jones, S A McGinnis, B Sanderson
Previous studies examining future changes in heat/cold waves using climate model ensembles have been limited to grid cell-average quantities. Here, we make use of an urban parameterization in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that represents the urban heat island effect, which can exacerbate extreme heat but may ameliorate extreme cold in urban relative to rural areas. Heat/cold wave characteristics are derived for U.S. regions from a bias-corrected CESM 30-member ensemble for climate outcomes driven by the RCP8...
February 2018: Climatic Change
Robert Naumann, Patricia Preston-Ferrer, Michael Brecht, Andrea Burgalossi
Following the groundbreaking discovery of grid cells, the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has become the focus of intense anatomical, physiological, and computational investigations. Whether and how grid activity maps onto cell types and cortical architecture is still an open question. Fundamental similarities in microcircuits, function and connectivity suggest a homology between rodent MEC and human posteromedial entorhinal cortex. Both are specialized for spatial processing and display similar cellular organization, consisting of layer 2 pyramidal/calbindin cell patches superimposed on scattered stellate neurons...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Chiara Badaloni, Giorgio Cattani, Francesca De' Donato, Alessandra Gaeta, Gianluca Leone, Paola Michelozzi, Marina Davoli, Francesco Forastiere, Massimo Stafoggia
OBJECTIVES: to define a national geographic domain, with high spatial (1 km²) and temporal (daily) resolution, and to build a list of georeferenced environmental and temporal indicators useful for environmental epidemiology applications at national level. DESIGN: geographic study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: study domain: Italian territory divided into 307,635 1-km² grid cells; study period: 2006-2012, divided into 2,557 daily time windows...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Francisco J Luquero, Heather S McKay, Rebecca Grais, Myriam Henkens, Martin Mengel, Jessica Dunoyer, Maurice M'bangombe, Elizabeth C Lee, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Bertrand Sudre, Didier Bompangue, Robert S M Fraser, Abdinasir Abubakar, William Perea, Dominique Legros, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a persistent health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. Cholera can be controlled through appropriate water and sanitation, or by oral cholera vaccination, which provides transient (∼3 years) protection, although vaccine supplies remain scarce. We aimed to map cholera burden in sub-Saharan Africa and assess how geographical targeting could lead to more efficient interventions. METHODS: We combined information on cholera incidence in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea) from 2010 to 2016 from datasets from WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, ProMED, ReliefWeb, ministries of health, and the scientific literature...
March 1, 2018: Lancet
Ranjita Ghosh Moulick, Gregor Panaitov, Liping Du, Dirk Mayer, Andreas Offenhäusser
Biomimetic membranes create opportunities for various applications, including the possibility of replacing interacting cells in a cell-cell contact. Here we have fractionated synthetic membranes using metal nano-grid structures where EphrinA5 (EA5), a neuronal adhesion promoter, was anchored via its Fc domain (immunoglobulin G (IgG)-domain). FRAP experiments were performed to check the confinement of the synthetic membrane within these nano-structures. Rat cortical primary neurons were cultured and live cell imaging techniques were used to monitor the neuronal interaction with these fractionated synthetic membranes...
March 2, 2018: Nanoscale
Yang Li, Jing Chen, Liyun Jiang, Gexia Qiao
Patterns of biodiversity and endemism are important and form the foundation for biogeography and conservation studies. Hormaphidinae is an aphid group mainly distributed in the Sino-Japanese, Oriental, and Nearctic zoogeographic realms. To infer the areas of endemism of Hormaphidinae aphids in the Sino-Japanese and Oriental realms, we employed a geographical distribution dataset covering all 225 species in subfamily Hormaphidinae. In total, 1,245 distribution occurrence records for all species were analyzed in addition to the number of species in a certain grid cell to calculate species richness...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Chunlan Zhang, Qing Quan, Yongjie Wu, Youhua Chen, Peng He, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei
Large-scale patterns of species richness have gained much attention in recent years; however, the factors that drive high species richness are still controversial in local regions, especially in highly diversified montane regions. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the surrounding mountains are biodiversity hot spots due to a high number of endemic montane species. Here, we explored the factors underlying this high level of diversity by studying the relationship between species richness and environmental variables...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Ming Lun Wu, Mohanchandra K Panduranga, Gregory P Carman
In this paper, we present the effect of micron size holes on proliferation and growth of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Square shaped micron size holes (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μm) separated by 10 μm wide struts are fabricated on 5 μm thick sputter deposited Nitinol films. HAECs are seeded onto these micropatterned films and analyzed after 30 days with fluorescence microscopy. Captured images are used to quantify the nucleus packing density, size, and aspect ratio. The films with holes ranging from 10 to 20 μm produce the highest cell packing densities with cell nucleus contained within the hole...
February 27, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
A Yuda, W S Lee, P Petrovic, C A McCulloch
Cell extensions are critical structures that enable matrix remodeling in wound healing and cancer invasion but the regulation of their formation is not well-defined. We searched for new proteins that mediated cell extension formation over collagen by tandem mass tagged mass spectrometry analysis of purified extensions in 3T3 fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, importin-5, ENH isoform 1b (PDLIM5) and 26 S protease regulatory subunit 6B (PSMC4) were more abundant (> 10-fold) in membrane-penetrating cell extensions than cell bodies, which was confirmed by immunostaining and immunoblotting and also observed in human gingival fibroblasts...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Nana Wang, Yun-Xiao Wang, Xun Xu, Ting Liao, Yi Du, Zhongchao Bai, Shixue Dou
Room-temperature sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been regarded as promising candidates for grid-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide distribution of sodium sources. The main scientific challenge for their practical application is to develop suitable anodes with long-term cycling stability and high rate capacity. Here, novel hierarchical 3D porous carbon materials are synthesized through a simple in-situ template carbonization process. Electrochemical examination demonstrates that the carbonization temperature is a key factor that affects Na+ ion storage performance, owing to the consequent differences in surface area, pore volume, and degree of crystallinity...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S I S Pinto, J B L M Campos, E Azevedo, C F Castro, L C Sousa
The definition of a suitable mesh to simulate blood flow in the human carotid bifurcation has been investigated. In this research, a novel mesh generation method is proposed: hexahedral cells at the centre of the vessel and a fine grid of tetrahedral cells near the artery wall, in order to correctly simulate the large blood velocity gradients associated with specific locations. The selected numerical examples to show the pertinence of the novel generation method are supported by carotid ultrasound (US) image data of a patient-specific case...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Simon Nikolaus Weber, Henning Sprekeler
Neurons in the hippocampus and adjacent brain areas show a large diversity in their tuning to location and head direction. The underlying circuit mechanisms are not resolved. In particular, it is unclear why certain cell types are selective to one spatial variable, but invariant to another. For example, place cells are typically invariant to head direction. We propose that all observed spatial tuning patterns - in both their selectivity and their invariance - arise from the same mechanism: Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity that is driven by the spatial tuning statistics of synaptic inputs...
February 21, 2018: ELife
Floyd D Wilson, Deirdre I Johnson, Danny L Magee, Frederic J Hoerr
Testicular histomorphometric methods were developed for the investigation of fertility and hatchability problems in commercial broiler-breeder roosters. Sertoli cell (SC) evaluations were emphasized in view of their role in influencing embryonic testicular organogenesis and spermatogenesis in adults. H&E stained sections prepared from formalized tissues were examined. SC evaluations were mostly made from computer generated images using image analysis software, but were also compared to direct counting with ocular grid reticle...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Xiangchuan Meng, Xiaotian Hu, Xia Yang, Jingping Yin, Qingxia Wang, Liqiang Huang, Zoukangning Yu, Ting Hu, Licheng Tan, Weihua Zhou, Yiwang Chen
Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) are an indispensable component for flexible optoelectronic devices. In this work, the meter-scale composite transparent electrode (CTEs) composing of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and Ag-grid/PET with optimized mechanical and optical properties is demonstrated by slot-die roll-to-roll technique with solution printing method under a low cost (2.8 $ for per square meter), via control of the viscosity and surface energy of PEDOT:PSS ink as well as the printing parameters...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Masaaki Yoshida, Shiho Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to calculate a predicted integrated visual field (IVF) based on predicted monocular visual fields (MVFs) derived, with a new method, from wide-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Visual field testing used the central (6 × 4) 24 points of the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 program. OCT scans of a corresponding retinal area, centered on the fovea, were divided into a 6 × 4 grid. The thickness of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and mRNFL + GCIPL (GCC) was measured in each grid area...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ying Rao, Yanghua Wang
The contrast of elastic properties across a subsurface interface imposes a dominant influence on the seismic wavefield, which includes transmitted and reflected waves from the interface. Therefore, for an accurate waveform simulation, it is necessary to have an accurate representation of the subsurface interfaces within the numerical model. Accordingly, body-fitted gridding is used to partition subsurface models so that the grids coincide well with both the irregular surface and fluctuating interfaces of the Earth...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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