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Grid Cell

Jukka Pappinen, Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Jouni Kurola
BACKGROUND: In Finland, hospital districts (HD) are required by law to determine the level and availability of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for each 1-km2 sized area (cell) within their administrative area. The cells are currently categorised into five risk categories based on the predicted number of missions. Methodological defects and insufficient instructions have led to incomparability between EMS services. The aim of this study was to describe a new, nationwide method for categorising the cells, analyse EMS response time data and describe possible differences in mission profiles between the new risk category areas...
May 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Linzhi Jing, Xiang Wang, Hang Liu, Yuyun Lu, Jinsong Bian, Jie Sun, Dejian Huang
Electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP) has attracted extensive interests as a powerful technology to fabricate micro to nanoscale fibrous scaffolds in a custom-tailored manner for biomedical applications. A few synthetic biopolymer inks are applicable to this EHDP technology, but the fabricated scaffolds suffered from low mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, a series of poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)/zein composite inks were developed and their printability was examined on a solution-based EHDP system for scaffold fabrication...
May 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alba Torres, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Elai Davicioni, Anuj Gupta, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Sarah J Wheelan, Jonathan I Epstein, Angelo M De Marzo, Tamara L Lotan
BACKGROUND: Rare prostate carcinomas aberrantly express p63 and have an immunophenotype intermediate between basal and luminal cells. Here, we performed gene expression profiling on p63-expressing prostatic carcinomas and compared them to usual-type adenocarcinoma. We identify ETS2 as highly expressed in p63-expressing prostatic carcinomas and benign prostate basal cells, with lower expression in luminal cells and primary usual-type adenocarcinomas. METHODS: A total of 8 p63-expressing prostate carcinomas at radical prostatectomy were compared to 358 usual-type adenocarcinomas by gene expression profiling performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue using Affymetrix 1...
May 15, 2018: Prostate
Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba, Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever-increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human-related factors on distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic (Central Europe)...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kiran Narayanan, Ravi Samtaney
We obtain numerical solutions of the two-fluid fluctuating compressible Navier-Stokes (FCNS) equations, which consistently account for thermal fluctuations from meso- to macroscales, in order to study the effect of such fluctuations on the mixing behavior in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The numerical method used was successfully verified in two stages: for the deterministic fluxes by comparison against air-SF_{6} RMI experiment, and for the stochastic terms by comparison against the direct simulation Monte Carlo results for He-Ar RMI...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Isla Rose Mary Barnard, Patrick Tierney, Catherine Louise Campbell, Lewis McMillan, Harry Moseley, Ewan Eadie, Christian Tom Alcuin Brown, Kenneth Wood
Non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are attributable to DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. One DNA photoproduct, the Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer (CPD), is believed to lead to DNA mutations caused by UV radiation. Using radiative transfer simulations, we compare the number of CPDs directly induced by UV irradiation from artificial and natural UV sources (a standard sunbed and the midday summer Mediterranean sun) for skin types I and II on the Fitzpatrick scale. We use Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) modelling to track the progression of UV photons through a multi-layered three dimensional (3D) grid that simulates the upper layers of the skin...
May 12, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Zhiwei Wang, Xin Yang, Kwang-Ting Cheng
Non-contact heart rate (HR) measurement from facial videos has attracted high interests due to its convenience and cost effectiveness. However, accurate and robust HR estimation under various realistic scenarios remain a very challenging problem. In this paper, we develop a novel system which can achieve a robust and accurate HR estimation under those challenging scenarios. First, to minimize tracking-artifacts arising from large head motions and facial expressions, we propose a joint face detection and alignment method which can produce alignment-friendly facial bounding boxes with reliable initial facial shapes, facilitating accurate and robust face alignment even in the presence of large pose variations and expressions...
2018: PloS One
Wei-Guo Wang, Lin Wang, Zhen-Hua Jiao, Bin Xue, Zhan-Wang Xu
Dexmedetomidine, a well‑known selective α‑2 adrenoceptor agonist, inhibits the apoptosis of neurons and protects other organs from oxidative damage. In the present study, the effect of dexmedetomidine on spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model was investigated. The SCI rat model was prepared using the weight‑drop method, and the effect of dexmedetomidine on locomotor activity was analyzed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. Western blot analysis was used to observe changes in the expression of apoptosis‑related proteins, including B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax)...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vishal Sahu, Lokesh Nigam, Vertica Agnihotri, Abhishek Gupta, Shashank Shekhar, Naidu Subbarao, Suman Bhaskar, Sharmistha Dey
Purpose: The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) play a crucial role in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and over-expression of it increase cytokines which promote cancer. Among four isoforms, p38α has been well studied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other cancers as a therapeutic target.p38δ has recently emerged as a potential disease-specific drug target. Elevated serum p38α level in HNSCC was reported earlier from our lab. This study aims to estimate the levels of p38 MAPK-isoforms in the serum of HNSCC and design peptide inhibitor targeting the same...
May 9, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Piotr Mirowski, Alexander Pritzel, Martin J Chadwick, Thomas Degris, Joseph Modayil, Greg Wayne, Hubert Soyer, Fabio Viola, Brian Zhang, Ross Goroshin, Neil Rabinowitz, Razvan Pascanu, Charlie Beattie, Stig Petersen, Amir Sadik, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis, Raia Hadsell, Dharshan Kumaran
Deep neural networks have achieved impressive successes in fields ranging from object recognition to complex games such as Go1,2 . Navigation, however, remains a substantial challenge for artificial agents, with deep neural networks trained by reinforcement learning3-5 failing to rival the proficiency of mammalian spatial behaviour, which is underpinned by grid cells in the entorhinal cortex 6 . Grid cells are thought to provide a multi-scale periodic representation that functions as a metric for coding space7,8 and is critical for integrating self-motion (path integration)6,7,9 and planning direct trajectories to goals (vector-based navigation)7,10,11 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Robert F Chew, Safaa Amer, Kasey Jones, Jennifer Unangst, James Cajka, Justine Allpress, Mark Bruhn
BACKGROUND: Conducting surveys in low- and middle-income countries is often challenging because many areas lack a complete sampling frame, have outdated census information, or have limited data available for designing and selecting a representative sample. Geosampling is a probability-based, gridded population sampling method that addresses some of these issues by using geographic information system (GIS) tools to create logistically manageable area units for sampling. GIS grid cells are overlaid to partition a country's existing administrative boundaries into area units that vary in size from 50 m × 50 m to 150 m × 150 m...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Nándor Fodor, Andreas Foskolos, Cairistiona F E Topp, Jon M Moorby, László Pásztor, Christine H Foyer
Dairy farming is one the most important sectors of United Kingdom (UK) agriculture. It faces major challenges due to climate change, which will have direct impacts on dairy cows as a result of heat stress. In the absence of adaptations, this could potentially lead to considerable milk loss. Using an 11-member climate projection ensemble, as well as an ensemble of 18 milk loss estimation methods, temporal changes in milk production of UK dairy cows were estimated for the 21st century at a 25 km resolution in a spatially-explicit way...
2018: PloS One
C Kumari, A Kumar, S K Sarangi, A Thirugnanam
BACKGROUND: Cryogen spray cooling is an effective method to treat nodular basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of spraying distance (z = 27 mm, 18 mm and 9 mm) on a nodular gel phantom and to validate the numerical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liquid nitrogen is sprayed on agarose gel phantom using 0.8 mm nozzle diameter. A two-dimensional Pennes equation with phase change is solved on the axisymmetric non-orthogonal grid...
March 2018: Cryo Letters
Xueying Zhang, Yiyi Chu, Yuxuan Wang, Kai Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The regulatory monitoring data of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5 ) in Texas have limited spatial and temporal coverage. The purpose of this study is to estimate the ground-level PM2.5 concentrations on a daily basis using satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the state of Texas. METHODS: We obtained the AOD values at 1-km resolution generated through the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm based on the images retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
XiaoBo Li, Min Huang, RenChao Zhao, ChunSong Zhao, Yao Liu, HaiQiang Zou, Ling Chen, YunQian Guan, Y Alex Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurotrophic effects and immunosuppression are the main therapeutic mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in stroke treatment. Neurotrophins are produced by graft cells, host neurons, astrocytes, and even microglia/macrophages. Meanwhile, MSCs can increase inflammation if they are not sufficiently induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined whether intravenously transplanted bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) increase inflammation in distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) rats, how long the increased inflammation effect persists for, and what the final therapeutic outcomes will be...
April 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hongshen Yi, Ming Liu, Peiyun Shi, Zhida Yang, Guanghui Zhu, Quanming Lu, Xuan Sun
A new medium-sized washer gun is developed for a plasma start-up in a fully axisymmetric mirror. The gun is positioned at the east end of the Keda Mirror with AXisymmetricity facility and operated in the pulsed mode with an arc discharging time of 1.2 ms and a typical arc current of 8.5 kA with 1.5 kV discharge voltage. To optimize the operation, a systematic scan of the neutral pressure, the arc voltage, the bias voltage on a mesh grid 6 cm in front of the gun and an end electrode located on the west end of mirror, and the mirror ratio was performed...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Christopher M Clark, Jennifer Phelan, Prakash Doraiswamy, John Buckley, James C Cajka, Robin L Dennis, Jason Lynch, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) has increased dramatically over pre-industrial levels, with many potential impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Quantitative thresholds, termed "critical loads" (CLs), have been developed to estimate the deposition rate above which damage is thought to occur. However, there remains no comprehensive comparison of when, where, and over what time periods individual CLs have been exceeded. We addressed this knowledge gap by combining several published data sources for historical and contemporary deposition, and overlaying these on six CL types from the National Critical Loads Database (NCLDv2...
May 1, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Saeedeh Rahimi Farahani, Mahmoud Reza Sohrabi, Jahan B Ghasemi
In the present study, a very thorough and in-depth three-dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) analysis has been implemented to make a correlation between the structural information of the ionic liquids (ILs) and their cytotoxicity towards Leukemia rat cell line IPC-81, as one of the ILs' toxicological consequences. To do this, alignment free GRid-INdependent Descriptors (GRINDs), which were derived from molecular interaction fields (MIFs), were correlated to the cytotoxicity values by partial least squares (PLS) and support vector regression (SVR)...
April 27, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yi-Hong Tan, Wei-Tang Yao, Tianwen Zhang, Tao Ma, Lei-Lei Lu, Fei Zhou, Hong-Bin Yao, Shu-Hong Yu
Currently, developing high voltage (beyond 2 V) rechargeable Mg-ion batteries still remains a great challenge owing to the limit of corrosive electrolyte and low compatibility of anode material. Here we report a facile one step solid state alloying route to synthesize nano-clustered Mg3Bi2 alloy as a high-performance anode to build up 2 V Mg-ion battery using noncorrosive electrolyte. The fabricated nano-clustered Mg3Bi2 anode delivers a high reversible specific capacity (360 mAh g-1) with excellent stability (90...
April 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Martin Riemer, Jonathan Shine, Thomas Wolbers
Cross-dimensional interference between spatial and temporal processing is well documented in humans, but the direction of these interactions remains unclear. The theory of metaphoric structuring states that space is the dominant concept influencing time perception, whereas time has little effect upon the perception of space. In contrast, theories proposing a common neuronal mechanism representing magnitudes argue for a symmetric interaction between space and time perception. Here, we investigated space-time interactions in realistic, large-scale virtual environments...
April 23, 2018: Hippocampus
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