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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222384/direct-catalytic-production-of-sorbitol-from-waste-cellulosic-materials
#1
Lucília Sousa Ribeiro, José J de Melo Órfão, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro Pereira
Cotton wool, cotton textile, tissue paper and printing paper, all potential waste cellulosic materials, were directly converted to sorbitol using a Ru/CNT catalyst in the presence of H2 and using only water as solvent, without any acids. Conversions up to 38% were attained for the raw substrates, with sorbitol yields below 10%. Ball-milling of the materials disrupted their crystallinity, allowing reaching 100% conversion of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper after 4h, with sorbitol yields around 50%...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222375/on-site-nutrient-recovery-and-removal-from-source-separated-urine-by-phosphorus-precipitation-and-short-cut-nitrification-denitrification
#2
Song Yao, Liping Chen, Detian Guan, Zhongguo Zhang, Xiujun Tian, Aimin Wang, Guotian Wang, Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng, Jiuyi Li
Source separation and treatment of human urine have been recognized as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional urban drainage, not only reducing nutrient loads on municipal wastewater treatment plants, but recovering valuable resources from waste streams. In this work, on-site phosphorus (P) recovery from real urine was carried out by using the brine from a reverse osmosis process as the flush water for urine-diverting toilets and a P precipitant, while nitrogen (N) was removed via short-cut nitrification-denitrification (SCND) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR)...
February 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#3
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222348/effects-of-bamboo-charcoal-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-chicken-manure-composting
#4
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222264/graphene-ink-laminate-structures-on-polyvinylidene-difluoride-pvdf-for-pyroelectric-thermal-energy-harvesting-and-waste-heat-recovery
#5
Daniel Zabek, Kris Seunarine, Chris Spacie, Chris R Bowen
Thermal energy can be effectively converted into electricity using pyroelectrics, which act as small scale power generator and energy harvesters providing nW to mW of electrical power. In this paper, a novel pyroelectric harvester based on free standing polyvinilidene difluoride (PVDF) was manufactured that exploits the high thermal radiation absorbance of a screen printed graphene-ink electrode structure to facilitate the conversion of the available thermal radiation energy into electrical energy. The interconnected graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) enable high thermal radiation absorbance and high electrical conductivity along with the ease of deposition using a screen print technique...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222195/autoantibodies-against-mono-and-tri-methylated-lysine-display-similar-but-also-distinctive-characteristics
#6
Zhiqiang Wang, Younan Ma, Fan Liu, Linjie Chen, Ruitong Gao, Wei Zhang
Autoantibodies can be either harmful or beneficial to the body. The beneficial autoantibodies play important roles in immunosurveillance, clearance of body waste and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Despite their importance, however, people's knowledge on the protective autoantibodies is still very limited. In the current study, we examined two autoantibodies that recognized epitopes with only one amino acid. One was against mono-methylated lysine (Kme) and the other was against tri-methylated lysine (Kme3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221786/chemical-trends-in-solid-alkali-pertechnetates
#7
Jamie Weaver, Chuck Z Soderquist, Nancy M Washton, Andrew S Lipton, Paul L Gassman, Wayne W Lukens, Albert A Kruger, Nathalie A Wall, John S McCloy
Insight into the solid-state chemistry of pure technetium-99 ((99)Tc) oxides is required in the development of a robust immobilization and disposal system for nuclear waste stemming from the radiopharmaceutical industry, from the production of nuclear weapons, and from spent nuclear fuel. However, because of its radiotoxicity and the subsequent requirement of special facilities and handling procedures for research, only a few studies have been completed, many of which are over 20 years old. In this study, we report the synthesis of pure alkali pertechnetates (sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and analysis of these compounds by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (static and magic angle spinning), and neutron diffraction...
February 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220353/exploitation-of-genus-rhodosporidium-for-microbial-lipid-production
#8
REVIEW
Jingyang Xu, Dehua Liu
Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220247/myeloid-cells-pave-the-way-for-lymphatic-system-development-and-maintenance
#9
REVIEW
Stoyan Ivanov, Gwendalyn J Randolph
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is indispensable for health. In particular, removal of toxic compounds from cells and organs is a vital process for the organism. The lymphatic vasculature works in order to ensure the efficient removal of tissue waste. Forbidden over the last decade when more attention was paid to the blood vasculature, studies on the lymphatic vasculature have gained momentum during the last couple of years. The lymphatic vasculature naturally runs parallel to the blood vasculature and their synergistic work is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis...
February 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219529/challenges-and-prospects-of-xylitol-production-with-whole-cell-bio-catalysis-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Diptarka Dasgupta, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari, Debashish Ghosh
Xylitol, as an alternative low calorie sweetener is well accepted in formulations of various confectioneries and healthcare products. Worldwide it is industrially produced by catalytic hydrogenation of pure d-xylose solution under high temperature and pressure. Biotechnological xylitol production is a potentially attractive replacement for chemical process, as it occurs under much milder process conditions and can be based on sugar mixtures derived from low-cost industrial and agri-waste. However, microbial fermentation route of xylitol production is not so far practiced industrially...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219320/microorganism-and-agricultural-based-biosorbents-towards-removal-of-cadmium-from-waste-water-an-overview
#11
Souvik Pal, Subhankar Mukherjee, Nabarun Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Non-degradable and persistent nature of Cadmium (Cd) poses high toxicity to human, plants and animals. Several industrial processes generated wastes are the main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters into the environment. Although, World Health Organization (WHO) has set the limit of Cd in drinking water is 0.005 mg L-1, the industrial activities release much higher concentrations of metal ions to the water stream than the prescribed limits, which leads to the increasing health hazards and environmental pollution...
February 20, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219300/solid-waste-collection-technology-trends-in-north-america
#12
Marc J Rogoff, David E Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219299/performance-evaluation-of-the-bioreactor-landfill-in-treatment-and-stabilisation-of-mechanically-biologically-treated-municipal-solid-waste
#13
P Lakshmikanthan, G L Sivakumar Babu
The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India...
March 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219298/microwave-assisted-surface-modification-for-the-separation-of-polycarbonate-from-polymethylmethacrylate-and-polyvinyl-chloride-waste-plastics-by-flotation
#14
Luoluo Huang, Hui Wang, Chongqing Wang, Junyao Zhao, Bo Zhang
Microwave-assisted potassium permanganate modification (MPPM) was used for the flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) waste plastics. The separation process was optimized by investigating the potassium permanganate concentration, treatment time, flotation time and frother concentration. MPPM selectively reduced the flotation recovery of PC. The optimum conditions were determined to be: potassium permanganate concentration, 2 mM/L; treatment time, 1 min; frother concentration, 17...
March 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219297/municipal-household-solid-waste-fee-based-on-an-increasing-block-pricing-model-in-beijing-china
#15
Zhujie Chu, Yunga Wu, Jun Zhuang
This article aims to design an increasing block pricing model to estimate the waste fee with the consideration of the goals and principles of municipal household solid waste pricing. The increasing block pricing model is based on the main consideration of the per capita disposable income of urban residents, household consumption expenditure, production rate of waste disposal industry, and inflation rate. The empirical analysis is based on survey data of 5000 households in Beijing, China. The results indicate that the current uniform price of waste disposal is set too high for low-income people, and waste fees to the household disposable income or total household spending ratio are too low for the medium- and high-income families...
March 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218909/a-twist2-dependent-progenitor-cell-contributes-to-adult-skeletal-muscle
#16
Ning Liu, Glynnis A Garry, Stephen Li, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Efrain Sanchez-Ortiz, Beibei Chen, John M Shelton, Priscilla Jaichander, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells...
February 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218842/medium-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-cps-dominate-in-australian-sewage-sludge
#17
Sicco Hendrik Brandsma, Louise van Mourik, Jake William O'Brien, Geoff Eaglesham, Pim E G Leonards, Jacob De Boer, Christie Gallen, Jochen F Mueller, Caroline Gaus, Christian Bogdal
To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218652/steady-%C3%AE-ray-effects-on-the-performance-of-ppp-botda-and-tw-cotdr-fiber-sensing
#18
Isabelle Planes, Sylvain Girard, Aziz Boukenter, Emmanuel Marin, Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Claude Marcandella, Youcef Ouerdane
We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones...
February 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218544/direct-imide-formation-from-thiophene-dicarboxylic-acids-gives-expanded-side-chain-selection-in-thienopyrrolediones
#19
Rylan M W Wolfe, John R Reynolds
The synthesis of thienopyrroledione (TPD) has been updated to reduce the number of synthetic steps, remove hazardous and toxic reagents, reduce the amount of byproduct waste, and reduce the use of solvents when unnecessary. Diverse functionalization is possible, introducing 16 examples in yields from 34% to 95%. This reaction scheme was shown to be general for thiophene imides, and a more thorough exploration into side chain engineering is presented with TPD acceptors often used in organic electronic applications...
February 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218272/decline-causes-of-koalas-in-south-east-queensland-australia-a-17-year-retrospective-study-of-mortality-and-morbidity
#20
Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Rachel Allavena, Allan McKinnon, Rebecca Larkin, Joerg Henning
Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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