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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934685/use-of-food-waste-fish-waste-and-food-processing-waste-for-china-s-aquaculture-industry-needs-and-challenge
#1
Wing Yin Mo, Yu Bon Man, Ming Hung Wong
China's aquaculture industry is growing dramatically in recent years and now accounts for 60.5% of global aquaculture production. Fish protein is expected to play an important role in China's food security. Formulated feed has become the main diet of farmed fish. The species farmed have been diversified, and a large amount of 'trash fish' is directly used as feed or is processed into fishmeal for fish feed. The use of locally available food waste as an alternative protein source for producing fish feed has been suggested as a means of tackling the problem of sourcing safe and sustainable feed...
September 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934676/simultaneous-biofiltration-of-btex-and-hg%C3%A2-from-a-petrochemical-waste-stream
#2
Mostafa Leili, Sima Farjadfard, George A Sorial, Bahman Ramavandi
A biofiltration system was developed to treat benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and Hg° vapour from a petrochemical waste stream during overhaul maintenance. The biofilter compost bed was inoculated with a microbial consortium provided by a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. The effect of the a BTEX concentration (192.6-973.8 g/m(3)h) and empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 20-100 s were studied under the conditions of steady state, transient, shock BTEX-loading, and off-restart. The findings revealed that during a biofilter start-up, an increase in the influent BTEX concentration to around 334...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934673/an-analysis-of-chemicals-and-other-constituents-found-in-produced-water-from-hydraulically-fractured-wells-in-california-and-the-challenges-for-wastewater-management
#3
Emily A Chittick, Tanja Srebotnjak
As high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HF) has grown substantially in the United States over the past decade, so has the volume of produced water (PW), i.e., briny water brought to the surface as a byproduct of oil and gas production. According to a recent study (Groundwater Protection Council, 2015), more than 21 billion barrels of PW were generated in 2012. In addition to being high in TDS, PW may contain hydrocarbons, PAH, alkylphenols, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), metals, and other organic and inorganic substances...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934657/characterisation-of-artisanal-mine-waste-on-buru-island-indonesia-and-toxicity-to-the-brittle-star-amphipholis-squamata
#4
Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, Bernard Thomas, Pelli L Howe, Yusthinus Male, Malcolm W Clark
Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation commenced on Buru Island, Indonesia, in 2012, but was halted in 2015 due to concerns of widespread Hg contamination. Much of the Hg used in the mining process is lost to trommel waste which is disposed of in settlement ponds that drain into adjacent waterways and into Kayeli Bay. Several thousand unmanaged trommel sites and associated tailing ponds exist on Buru Island. This study shows that waste from the Marloso trommel at the Gogrea site contained 203 mg/kg total Hg (THg), with a negligible proportion present as bioavailable methyl Hg (MeHg) and a low total organic carbon content...
September 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934653/mixed-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-enriched-microbial-fuel-cells-for-the-treatment-of-wastewater-containing-copper
#5
Waheed Miran, Jiseon Jang, Mohsin Nawaz, Asif Shahzad, Sang Eun Jeong, Che Ok Jeon, Dae Sung Lee
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been widely investigated for organic-based waste/substrate conversion to electricity. However, toxic compounds such as heavy metals are ubiquitous in organic waste and wastewater. In this work, a sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)-enriched anode is used to study the impact of Cu(2+) on MFC performance. This study demonstrates that MFC performance is slightly enhanced at concentrations of up to 20 mg/L of Cu(2+), owing to the stimulating effect of metals on biological reactions...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934117/new-zno-cardanol-porphyrin-composite-nanomaterials-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-capability-under-solar-light-irradiation
#6
Viviane Gomes Pereira Ribeiro, Ana Maria Pereira Marcelo, Kássia Teixeira da Silva, Fernando Luiz Firmino da Silva, João Paulo Ferreira Mota, João Paulo Costa do Nascimento, Antonio Sérgio Bezerra Sombra, Claudenilson da Silva Clemente, Giuseppe Mele, Luigi Carbone, Selma Elaine Mazzetto
This work describes the synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of new composite nanomaterials based on ZnO nanostructures impregnated by lipophlilic porphyrins derived from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). The obtained nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and steady-state photoluminescence spectra (PL). The results confirm nanostructures showing average diameter of 55 nm and an improved absorption in the visible region...
September 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934004/development-of-functional-composts-using-spent-coffee-grounds-poultry-manure-and-biochar-through-microbial-bioaugmentation
#7
S Aalfin Emmanuel, Jangyeon Yoo, Eok-Jo Kim, Jae-Soo Chang, Young-In Park, Sung-Cheol Koh
Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m(2) g(-1). Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933836/heat-generation-and-accumulation-in-municipal-solid-waste-landfills
#8
Zisu Hao, Mei Sun, Joel Ducoste, Craig H Benson, Scott Luettich, Marco J Castaldi, Morton A Barlaz
There have been reports of North American landfills that are experiencing temperatures in excess of 80 - 100°C. However, the processes causing elevated temperatures are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to describe the generation, consumption and release of heat from landfills, to predict landfill temperatures, and to understand the relative importance of factors that contribute to heat generation and accumulation. Modeled heat sources include energy from aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation, anaerobic metal corrosion, ash hydration and carbonation, and acid-base neutralization...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933527/caring-about-power-analyses
#9
Jennifer E Murray, Scott T Barrett, Rebecca L Brock, Rick A Bevins
Everyone should care deeply about statistical power and effect size given that the current estimates of wasted nonreproducible and exaggerated research findings range from 50 to 85%, combined with the mandates from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that proposal reviewers focus on scientific rigor and investigators consider sex as a biological variable. In this Viewpoint, we provide recommendations and resources regarding power analyses aimed at enhancing rigor, and hence decreasing waste, when designing experiments...
September 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933421/severe-childhood-malnutrition
#10
REVIEW
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, James A Berkley, Robert H J Bandsma, Marko Kerac, Indi Trehan, André Briend
The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children <5 years of age living in low-income and middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933152/retired-electric-vehicle-ev-batteries-integrated-waste-management-and-research-needs
#11
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933111/-effect-of-herb-residues-compost-on-growth-and-phenols-of-perilla-frutescens
#12
Mei-Lan Chen, Ye Shen, Xiu-Teng Zhou, Peng-Ying Li, Guang Yang
Herb residue is post-decoction material that can be used as organic fertilizer. Unfortunately, it is currently disposed of as solid waste. This method of disposal is a waste of this resource and a source of environmental pollution. For this case,we studied effects of six different herb residues compost on growth and phenols of Perilla frutescens by pot experiment. Our results show that all six herb residues can improve the growth of P. frutescens. The order of their efficiencies was as follows: Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix residue>Hordei Fructus germinates residue>Forsythia fructus residue>Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizome residue>Sophorae Flavescentis Redix residue and Moutan cortex residue...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933019/effects-of-municipal-solid-waste-and-sewage-sludge-compost-based-growing-media-on-the-yield-and-heavy-metal-content-of-four-lettuce-cultivars
#13
Concetta Eliana Gattullo, Carlo Mininni, Angelo Parente, Francesco Fabiano Montesano, Ignazio Allegretta, Roberto Terzano
Compost has been recently suggested as an alternative to peat for the preparation of growing substrates in soilless cultivation systems. However, some physico-chemical properties of compost may reduce plant performance and endanger the quality of productions, in particular for possible heavy metal accumulation in edible parts. This study aims at evaluating the suitability of a municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) as components of growing media for the soilless cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932978/biobutanol-production-from-apple-pomace-the-importance-of-pretreatment-methods-on-the-fermentability-of-lignocellulosic-agro-food-wastes
#14
María Hijosa-Valsero, Ana I Paniagua-García, Rebeca Díez-Antolínez
Apple pomace was studied as a possible raw material for biobutanol production. Five different soft physicochemical pretreatments (autohydrolysis, acids, alkalis, organic solvents and surfactants) were compared in a high-pressure reactor, whose working parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration) were optimised to maximise the amount of simple sugars released and to minimise inhibitor generation. The pretreated biomass was subsequently subjected to a conventional enzymatic treatment to complete the hydrolysis...
September 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932844/environmental-performance-of-bio-based-and-biodegradable-plastics-the-road-ahead
#15
REVIEW
Scott Lambert, Martin Wagner
Future plastic materials will be very different from those that are used today. The increasing importance of sustainability promotes the development of bio-based and biodegradable polymers, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'bioplastics'. Because both terms imply "green" sources and "clean" removal, this paper aims at critically discussing the sometimes-conflicting terminology as well as renewable sources with a special focus on the degradation of these polymers in natural environments. With regard to the former we review innovations in feedstock development (e...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932827/partitioning-based-mechanisms-under-personalized-differential-privacy
#16
Haoran Li, Li Xiong, Zhanglong Ji, Xiaoqian Jiang
Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical aggregate analysis as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. A limitation of the model is that it provides the same privacy protection for all individuals in the database. However, it is common that data owners may have different privacy preferences for their data. Consequently, a global differential privacy parameter may provide excessive privacy protection for some users, while insufficient for others. In this paper, we propose two partitioning-based mechanisms, privacy-aware and utility-based partitioning, to handle personalized differential privacy parameters for each individual in a dataset while maximizing utility of the differentially private computation...
May 2017: Adv Knowl Discov Data Min (2017)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932769/microrna-expression-in-a-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumour
#17
Darrell Green, Irina Mohorianu, Isabelle Piec, Jeremy Turner, Clare Beadsmoore, Andoni Toms, Richard Ball, John Nolan, Iain McNamara, Tamas Dalmay, William D Fraser
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932182/concurrence-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-and-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndromes-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Bo Shen, Lin Li, Ting Li
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) as the two most common neuroendocrine diseases, have been recognized and understood by many neurologists. Although SIADH and CSWS are the common causes of central hyponatremia after traumatic brain injury (TBI), a few cases are mixed, with the coexistence of the two pathological pathomechanism. However, the mixed type of both SIADH and CSWS has not been clearly reported in any literature. Here, we present the first description of the concurrent syndrome of SIADH and CSWS after TBI in four patients who underwent standard diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow up...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931829/peer-punishment-promotes-enforcement-of-bad-social-norms
#19
Klaus Abbink, Lata Gangadharan, Toby Handfield, John Thrasher
Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931751/essential-role-of-kir5-1-channels-in-renal-salt-handling-and-blood-pressure-control
#20
Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Tengis S Pavlov, Oleh M Pochynyuk, Howard J Jacob, Aron M Geurts, Matthew R Hodges, Alexander Staruschenko
Supplementing diets with high potassium helps reduce hypertension in humans. Inwardly rectifying K+ channels Kir4.1 (Kcnj10) and Kir5.1 (Kcnj16) are highly expressed in the basolateral membrane of distal renal tubules and contribute to Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion through the direct control of transepithelial voltage. To define the importance of Kir5.1 in blood pressure control under conditions of salt-induced hypertension, we generated a Kcnj16 knockout in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats (SSKcnj16-/-). SSKcnj16-/- rats exhibited hypokalemia and reduced blood pressure, and when fed a high-salt diet (4% NaCl), experienced 100% mortality within a few days triggered by salt wasting and severe hypokalemia...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
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