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Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Aijie Cai, Wusheng Guo, Luis Martínez-Rodríguez, Arjan W Kleij
The first general asymmetric synthesis of alfa,alfa-disubstituted allylic amines based on a palladium-catalyzed allylic amination has been developed. The protocol uses highly modular vinyl cyclic carbonates and unactivated aromatic amine nucleophiles as substrates. The catalytic process features minimal waste production, ample scope in reaction partners, high asymmetric induction up to 97% ee and operational simplicity.
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xu Han, Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. RESULTS: The effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M'hamed Seklaoui, Abdelhak Boutaleb, Hanafi Benali, Fadila Alligui, Walter Prochaska
To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nicole Bandow, Franz-Georg Simon
BACKGROUND: An Annex XV restriction dossier for cadmium in artists' paints was submitted by an EU member state to the European Chemicals Agency ECHA. By cleaning, used brushes under the tap cadmium can enter the food chain via waste water treatment and subsequent agricultural application of the sewage sludge. It was estimated that 110 kg Cd per year is spread on agricultural land via this exposure route. Other sources of Cd amount to almost 120 tons per year. RESULTS: The mobility of Cd from pigments was studied in a field-like scenario by leaching experiments using soil samples amended with sewage sludge and spiked with Cd pigments in percolation columns...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Kirsten Beck, Elaine Albert, Andrew Johnsen, Courtney Newhouse, John McGuire
Medical rounds in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) took about four hours each day to complete. The length of rounds was affecting the advancement of care of the patients, the engagement of sub-specialty providers who needed to be present on other rounds, and the engagement of the PICU faculty and staff due to overburdening waste created by the long duration of rounds. Specific interventions were identified aimed at reducing the duration of rounds each day, increasing engagement of the rounding team and satisfying the needs of the patients and families...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Alice Willison, Vicki Tully, Peter Davey
The urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) detects abnormal levels of protein in the urine and should be performed annually to detect kidney disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. UK national audits show that 25% of patients do not have annual tests and our data suggested that some patients had more than one test per year. Data from 20 patients showed that 55% had more than one UACR test per year, with a total of 19 unnecessary tests at an estimated cost of £20,000 per year. However 20% had not had a UACR in the previous year, so unreliable testing was potentially causing harm as well as waste...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Nouf Al Saleem, Khaled Al-Surimi
Frequent, preventable medical errors can have an adverse effect on patient safety and quality as well as leading to wasted resources. In the laboratory, errors can occur at any stage of sample processing; pre-analytical, analytical, and post analytical stages. However evidence shows most of the laboratory errors occur during the pre-analytical stage. The receipt and processing of specimens is one of the main steps in the pre-analytical stage. Errors in this stage could be due to mislabeling, incorrect test entry and entering the wrong location, among other reasons...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Tiina Vuorinen, Juha Niittynen, Timo Kankkunen, Thomas M Kraft, Matti Mäntysalo
Epidermal electronic systems (EESs) are skin-like electronic systems, which can be used to measure several physiological parameters from the skin. This paper presents materials and a simple, straightforward fabrication process for skin-conformable inkjet-printed temperature sensors. Epidermal temperature sensors are already presented in some studies, but they are mainly fabricated using traditional photolithography processes. These traditional fabrication routes have several processing steps and they create a substantial amount of material waste...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah L Smith, Christopher Boothman, Heather A Williams, Beverly L Ellis, Joanna Wragg, Julia M West, Jonathan R Lloyd
Geological disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is planned to involve the use of cementitious materials, facilitating the formation of an alkali-disturbed zone within the host rock. The biogeochemical processes that will occur in this environment, and the extent to which they will impact on radionuclide migration, are currently poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of biogeochemical processes on the mobility of the radionuclide technetium, in column experiments designed to be representative of aspects of the alkali-disturbed zone...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Jaai Kim, Hakchan Kim, Gahyun Baek, Changsoo Lee
Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Bo Yuan, Jianjie Fu, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C10 and C11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Zisheng Zhao, Yaobin Zhang, Yang Li, Huimin Zhao, Xie Quan
Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to useful chemicals is an attractive strategy to cut its emission in atmosphere. However, high overpotential and energy consumption required in the electrochemical reduction are the major barriers of this process. In this study, a new CO2 reduction technique for production of formic acid was proposed from waste activated sludge digestion in a microbial electrosynthesis system (MES) with iron plate and carbon pillar as the electrodes. Compared with other reactors, methane production of the Fe-C MES reactor was slightly lower and CO2 was undetectable...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Tahnee L Kennedy, Kristy Swiderski, Kate T Murphy, Stefan M Gehrig, Claire L Curl, Chanchal Chandramouli, Mark A Febbraio, Lea M D Delbridge, René Koopman, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and progressive striated muscle wasting disorder that leads to premature death from respiratory and/or cardiac failure. We have previously shown that treatment of young dystrophic mdx and dystrophin/utrophin null (dko) mice with BGP-15, a coinducer of heat shock protein 72, ameliorated the dystrophic pathology. We therefore tested the hypothesis that later-stage BGP-15 treatment would similarly benefit older mdx and dko mice when the dystrophic pathology was already well established...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Ivana Tlak Gajger, Marina Kosanović, Nina Bilandžić, Marija Sedak, Bruno Čalopek
Beeswax foundations are a necessary material in intensive modern beekeeping. Heavy metals can accumulate in these foundations for decades, as it is a common beekeeping practice to recycle wax. Beeswax samples were analysed using GFAAS for As, Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations during the production of beeswax foundations using casting technology with a prolonged cooling and sedimentation phase. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb (p<0.01, all), and Hg (p<0.05) between the three levels of wax in a double-walled steel casting container and comb foundations (CF) during the processing stage...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Rulin Sun, Santao Zhang, Xing Lu, Wenjun Hu, Ning Lou, Yan Zhao, Jia Zhou, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-induced muscle wasting, which commonly occurs in cancer cachexia, is characterized by impaired quality of life and poor patient survival. To identify an appropriate treatment, research on the mechanism underlying muscle wasting is essential. Thus far, studies on muscle wasting using cancer cachectic models have generally focused on early cancer cachexia (ECC), before severe body weight loss occurs. In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
S Vichaphund, V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong
Fly ash-derived HZSM-5 catalyst was first applied in the catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. The catalytic performance of HZSM-5 catalysts prepared from chemicals including conventional hydrothermal HZSM-5, Ni/HZSM-5 by ion exchange, and commercial HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 30) was evaluated for comparison. Catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues with HZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in terms of product yields and qualities of bio-oil and bio-char. The liquid yield produced from fly ash-derived HZSM-5 was 29...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
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