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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434067/sediment-metal-contamination-in-the-kafue-river-of-zambia-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#1
Ethel M'kandawire, Kennedy Choongo, John Yabe, Maxwell Mwase, Ngonda Saasa, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Claudia A Blindauer
Zambia's Kafue River receives wastes from various sources, resulting in metal pollution. This study determined the degree of contamination of 13 metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb) in Kafue River sediment and the associated ecological risks at six sites in three different seasons. The level of contamination for most metals showed significant site and seasonal differences. The contamination factor and pollution load index indicated that concentrations of most metals particularly copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) were very high at sites within the Copperbelt mining area...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433916/a-novel-method-for-contributing-to-composting-start-up-at-low-temperature-by-inoculating-cold-adapted-microbial-consortium
#2
Xin-Yu Xie, Yue Zhao, Qing-Hong Sun, Xue-Qin Wang, Hong-Yang Cui, Xu Zhang, Yan-Jie Li, Zi-Min Wei
Low temperature climate presented a technical challenge to start-up composting in northern region of China. This study investigated if the cold-adapted microbial consortium (CAMC) could promote composting start-up at low temperature. In this work, the CAMC was inoculated when food waste was composted at 10°C. The results showed that inoculating CAMC accelerated the piles temperature effectively, the piles passed through the start-up period within 37h. Moreover, the inoculants could enhance the abundances of dominant strains related to organic matters degradation rate...
April 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433915/stimulation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-the-dry-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-ofmsw-with-carbon-based-conductive-materials
#3
Yan Dang, Dezhi Sun, Trevor L Woodard, Li-Ying Wang, Kelly P Nevin, Dawn E Holmes
Growth of bacterial and archaeal species capable of interspecies electron exchange was stimulated by addition of conductive materials (carbon cloth or granular activated carbon (GAC)) to anaerobic digesters treating dog food (a substitute for the dry-organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)). Methane production (772-1428mmol vs <80mmol), volatile solids removal (78%-81% vs 54%-64%) and COD removal efficiencies (∼80% vs 20%-30%) were all significantly higher in reactors amended with GAC or carbon cloth than controls...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433909/culturing-of-selenastrum-on-diluted-composting-fluids-conversion-of-waste-to-valuable-algal-biomass-in-presence-of-bacteria
#4
Marika Tossavainen, Anne Nykänen, Kalle Valkonen, Anne Ojala, Silja Kostia, Martin Romantschuk
Growth and fatty acid production of microalga Selenastrum sp. with associated bacteria was studied in lab-scale experiments in three composting leachate liquids. Nutrient reduction in cultures was measured at different initial substrate strengths. A small, pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was used to verify lab-scale results. Similar growth conditions supported growth of both Selenastrum and bacteria. CO2 feed enhanced the production of biomass and lipids in PBR (2.4gL(-1) and 17% DW) compared to lab-scale (0...
April 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433907/rapid-generation-of-volatile-fatty-acids-vfa-through-anaerobic-acidification-of-livestock-organic-waste-at-low-hydraulic-residence-time-hrt
#5
Kranti Kuruti, Shalini Nakkasunchi, Sameena Begum, Sudharshan Juntupally, Vijayalakshmi Arelli, Gangagni Rao Anupoju
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and F/M (Food to Microorganism) ratios for the rapid generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from livestock organic wastes (cattle manure (CM) and poultry litter (PL)) through an anaerobic acidification process at a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Experiments were organized using CM and PL in batch reactors (1L and 25L) with and with no pre-treatment of substrate at F/M ratios (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1). Among various existing pre-treatments methods, thermal-acidic (120°C; 1% H2SO4) pre-treatment was found effective...
April 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433899/sustainable-production-of-a-new-generation-biofuel-by-lipase-catalyzed-esterification-of-fatty-acids-from-liquid-industrial-waste-biomass
#6
Athanasios Foukis, Olga A Gkini, Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou, Vasilios A Sakkas, Agapi Dima, Konstantina Boura, Athanasios Koutinas, Emmanuel M Papamichael
In this work we suggest a methodology comprising the design and use of cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly process for biofuel production compatible with the market demands. A new generation biofuel is produced using fatty acids, which were generated from acidogenesis of industrial wastes of bioethanol distilleries, and esterified with selected alcohols by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase-B. Suitable reactors with significant parameters and conditions were studied through experimental design, and novel esterification processes were suggested; among others, the continuous removal of the produced water was provided...
April 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433819/environmentally-and-economically-efficient-utilization-of-coal-processing-waste
#7
Margarita A Dmitrienko, Pavel A Strizhak
High concentrations of hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides) from solid fuel combustion in coal burning plants cause environmental problems that have been especially pressing over the last 20-30 years. A promising solution to these problems is a switch from conventional pulverized coal combustion to coal-water slurry fuel. In this paper, we pay special attention to the environmental indicators characterizing the combustion of different coal ranks (gas, flame, coking, low-caking, and nonbaking coals) and coal-water slurry fuels based on the coal processing waste - filter cakes...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433765/geochemical-processes-controlling-the-distribution-and-concentration-of-metals-in-soils-from-a-patagonian-argentina-salt-marsh-affected-by-mining-residues
#8
Yanina L Idaszkin, María Del Pilar Alvarez, Eleonora Carol
Heavy metal pollution that affects salt marshes is a major environmental concern due to its toxic nature, persistence, and potential risk to organisms and to human health. Mining waste deposits originated four decades ago, by the metallurgical extraction of heavy metals, are found near to the San Antonio salt marsh in Patagonia. The aim of the work was to determine the geochemical processes that control the distribution and concentration of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in the soils of this Patagonian salt marsh. A survey of the mining waste deposits was carried out where three dumps were identified...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433683/municipal-wastewater-sludge-as-a-sustainable-bioresource-in-the-united-states
#9
Timothy E Seiple, André M Coleman, Richard L Skaggs
Within the United States and Puerto Rico, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) process 130.5 Gl/d (34.5 Bgal/d) of wastewater, producing sludge as a waste product. Emerging technologies offer novel waste-to-energy pathways through whole sludge conversion into biofuels. Assessing the feasibility, scalability and tradeoffs of various energy conversion pathways is difficult in the absence of highly spatially resolved estimates of sludge production. In this study, average wastewater solids concentrations and removal rates, and site specific daily average influent flow are used to estimate site specific annual sludge production on a dry weight basis for >15,000 POTWs...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433659/carbonic-anhydrase-xii-functions-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Abdul Waheed, William S Sly
Human CAXII was initially identified as a cancer marker in different cancers and tumors. Expression of CAXII is regulated by hypoxia and estrogen receptors. CAXII expression has been also detected in several tissues, whereas in cancer and tumor tissues its expression is several fold higher. In brain tumors, an alternatively spliced form of CAXII is expressed. Higher expression of CAXII in breast cancer is indicative of lower grade disease. CAXII plays a key role in several physiological functions. Mutation in the CAXII gene causes cystic fibrosis-like syndrome and salt wasting disease...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433639/optimization-of-atrazine-and-imidacloprid-removal-from-water-using-biochars-designing-single-or-multi-staged-batch-adsorption-systems
#11
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh
BACKGROUND: Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. However, high amounts of adsorbent required in single stage-batch sorption plant increases the cost of water treatment; therefore, multistage plant systems were investigated...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433434/non-conventional-solvents-in-liquid-phase-microextraction-and-aqueous-biphasic-systems
#12
REVIEW
Jiwoo An, María J Trujillo-Rodríguez, Verónica Pino, Jared L Anderson
The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433182/vitamin-d-fortified-chitosan-films-from-mushroom-waste
#13
Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Bor-Sen Chiou, Tina Williams, Delilah Wood, Wen-Xian Du, Ivana Sedej, Zhaojun Ban, Victor Rodov, Elena Poverenov, Yakov Vinokur, Tara McHugh
Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan from animal sources. Chitosan films were prepared using high molecular weight (HW), low molecular weight (LW) and fungal chitosan. UV-B treated mushroom particles were also incorporated into fungal chitosan films. The fungal chitosan films showed similar density, porosity and water vapor barrier properties to the LW and HW chitosan films...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433150/production-of-prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides-from-alkali-pretreated-mahogany-and-mango-wood-sawdust-by-using-purified-xylanase-of-clostridium-strain-boh3
#14
Gobinath Rajagopalan, Kavitha Shanmugavelu, Kun-Lin Yang
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are emerging prebiotics which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass including agro-residues and hardwood. In this study, we report the production of XOS from thermal-alkali pretreated hardwood such as mahogany and mango by using a purified xylanase from Clostridium strain BOH3. In the first approach, pure xylan is extracted from mahogany and mango hardwood and then the pure xylan is hydrolyzed by using the xylanase. In this case, 572 and 504mg XOS/g pure xylan were obtained from mahogany and mango woods, respectively...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#15
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432972/assessment-of-the-bioavailability-and-depuration-of-uranium-cesium-and-thorium-in-snails-cantareus-aspersus-using-kinetics-models
#16
B Pauget, A Villeneuve, P O Redon, A Cuvier, A de Vaufleury
Uranium ore waste has led to soil contamination that may affect both environmental and soil health. To analyze the risk of metal transfer, metal bioavailability must be estimated by measuring biological parameters. Kinetic studies allow taking into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability, as well as the steady state concentration in organisms necessary to take into account for relevant risk assessment. In this way, this work aims to model the snail accumulation and excretion kinetics of uranium (U), cesium (Cs) and thorium (Th)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432930/an-innovative-procedure-for-norm-scales-treatment-and-radionuclides-separation
#17
Jamal Al Abdullah, Mohammad Said Al-Masri, Yusr Amin, Hussam Khalily, Mohammad Ammar, Samer Nassour
The present study focuses on the development of a new chemical treatment method for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) scale wastes from the oil industry. The method consists of three-stages, including the separation of oil using the Fenton oxidation process at room temperature, the complete dissolution of soluble and slightly soluble salts and separation of Ra and Pb isotopes. The proposed method can be considered as an innovative procedure for NORM scales treatment and radionuclides separation, which in turn support the radioactive waste management with economic benefits...
April 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432885/from-laboratory-to-field-studies-the-assessment-of-biscutella-laevigata-suitability-to-biological-reclamation-of-areas-contaminated-with-lead-and-cadmium
#18
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Barbara Piwowarczyk, Joanna Augustynowicz, Krystyna Ciarkowska, Tomasz Czech
The aim of the work was to evaluate the usefulness of the in vitro multiplication of Biscutella laevigata calamine ecotype for in situ reclamation of post-flotation wastes polluted with Pb and Cd. The experiment was conducted on three steps: (i) plant shoots' production under in vitro condition, (ii) establishment of the material in greenhouse experiment, and finally (iii) field cultivation directly on the mining-waste heap of Olkusz Ore-Bearing Region, Poland. This region is known to be one of the most chemically-degraded area in central Europe...
April 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432475/a-shinella-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidase-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-20-displays-novel-biochemical-and-molecular-characteristics
#19
Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Rui Zhang, Caihong Chen, Qian Wu, Junjun Li, Xianghua Tang, Bo Xu, Junmei Ding, Nanyu Han, Zunxi Huang
β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) are important for many biological functions and industrial applications. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase family 20 GlcNAcase from Shinella sp. JB10 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Compared to many GlcNAcases, the purified recombinant enzyme (rJB10Nag) exhibited a higher specificity activity (538.8 µmol min(-1) mg(-1)) or V max (1030.0 ± 82.1 µmol min(-1) mg(-1)) toward p-nitrophenyl β-N-acetylglucosaminide and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (specificity activity of 35...
April 21, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432449/enteroparasitoses-and-toxocarosis-affecting-children-from-mar-del-plata-city-argentina
#20
Carla Lavallén, Beatriz Brignani, Karina Riesgo, Amalia Rojas, Gabriela Colace, Martín Biscaychipi, Estela Chicote, Cristian Giuntini, Mariela Kifer, María Eugenia Del Río, Guillermo Denegri, Marcela Dopchiz
This study evaluated the existence of enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in children of peripheral (PC) and urban communities (UC) from Mar del Plata city (Argentina) and their associations with socio-environmental conditions. A Parasite Vulnerability Index (PVI) was elaborated using variables such as overcrowding, floor type, drinking water source, wastewater disposal, solid waste disposal, presence of animals and schooling level. The PC evidenced statistically significant higher frequencies of families with high (38...
April 21, 2017: EcoHealth
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