Read by QxMD icon Read

crash studies

Guangnan Zhang, Yanyan Li, Mark J King, Qiaoting Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle overloading is correlated with the possibility of road crash occurrence and severity. Although overloading of motor vehicles is pervasive in developing nations, few empirical analyses have been performed on factors that might influence the occurrence of overloading. This study aims to address this shortcoming by seeking evidence from several years of crash data from Guangdong province, China. METHODS: Data on overloading and other factors are extracted for crash-involved vehicles from traffic crash records for 2006-2010 provided by the Traffic Management Bureau in Guangdong province...
March 21, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Jonathan Davis, Carri Casteel, Cara Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: After the age of 65 the number of motor vehicle crashes per mile driven increases. Traffic-related charges issued by law enforcement can help identify drivers who are at a higher risk of having a crash. This study examines the relationship between motor vehicle crashes and traffic-related charges among older adult drivers. METHODS: Iowa Department of Transportat crash data from 2011-2012 were linked with Iowa Court Information System data for moving violations that occurred during 2009-2012 for drivers over the age of 50...
March 20, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Daniel J Gottlieb, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Matt T Bianchi, Charles A Czeisler
BACKGROUND: Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medicine
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study of the incidence and risk for severe injury in a single impact and multi-impact crashes by belt use and crash type using NASS-CDS. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS was used to determine the distribution of crashes by the number of impacts and severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to >15 year old non-ejected drivers by seatbelt use in 1997+ MY vehicles. It compares the risk for severe injury in a single impact and in crashes involving two, three or four+ impacts in the collision with focus on a frontal crash followed by other impacts...
March 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kyung Kate Hyun, Kyungsoo Jeong, Andre Tok, Stephen G Ritchie
Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs)...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Konstantinos S Mylonas, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Pavlos Texakalidis, Pouya Hemmati, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
Literature discussing cardiac injuries in children is limited. Systematic search of PubMed identified 21 studies enrolling 1,062 pediatric patients who experienced cardiac trauma in the United States during the period 1961 to 2012. The predominant type of injury was blunt cardiac contusion affecting 59.7% (n = 634/1,062) of the study population. Motor vehicle crashes (53.5%, n = 391/731) were the leading cause of blunt cardiac trauma, while gunshot wounds (50%, n = 150/300) accounted for most penetrating injuries...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Lasse T Bergmann, Larissa Schlicht, Carmen Meixner, Peter König, Gordon Pipa, Susanne Boshammer, Achim Stephan
Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both morally justified and socially acceptable. In an empirical study we investigated what factors people recognize as relevant in driving situations. The study put subjects in several "dilemma" situations, which were designed to isolate different and potentially relevant factors...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mathieu Boutonnet, Paer Abback, Frédéric Le Saché, Anatole Harrois, Arnaud Follin, Nicolas Imbert, Andrew P Cap, Julie Trichereau, Sylvain Ausset
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) use in severe trauma remains controversial notably because of concerns of the applicability of the CRASH-2 study findings in mature trauma systems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of TXA administration in severely injured trauma patients managed in a mature trauma care system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of data prospectively collected in the TraumaBase registry (a regional registry collecting the prehospital and hospital data of trauma patients admitted in 6 Level One Trauma Centers in Paris Area, France)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tanja Laukkala, Alpo Vuorio, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Pooshan Navathe, Eero Pukkala, Antti Sajantila
Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU) Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elías López-Alba, Sebastian Schmeer, Francisco Díaz
The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials...
March 13, 2018: Materials
Joseph R Starnes, Purnima Unni, Cherie A Fathy, Kelly A Harms, Shelby R Payne, Dai H Chung
BACKGROUND: Golf cart injuries represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Characterization of the circumstances of these injuries can inform injury prevention efforts. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviews a prospective trauma registry at a level-one pediatric trauma center for golf cart-related injuries in patients under 18years of age admitted to the hospital between 2008 and 2016. RESULTS: The 40 identified crashes were associated with 82 hospital days, 17 ICU days, and more than $1 million in hospital charges over the study period...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hal S Stern, Daniel Blower, Michael L Cohen, Charles A Czeisler, David F Dinges, Joel B Greenhouse, Feng Guo, Richard J Hanowski, Natalie P Hartenbaum, Gerald P Krueger, Melissa M Mallis, Richard F Pain, Matthew Rizzo, Esha Sinha, Dylan S Small, Elizabeth A Stuart, David H Wegman
This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Steven M Lavrenz, Eleni I Vlahogianni, Konstantina Gkritza, Yue Ke
The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Vincent Di Fazio, Sarah M R Wille, Stefan W Toennes, Janelle H P van Wel, Johannes G Ramaekers, Nele Samyn
Using the Belgian Drugs and Driving procedure, 36% of the cocaine positive oral fluid (OF) screening results were not confirmed in plasma. This study investigates the impact of the choice of screening devices and confirmation matrix on the detection of cocaine use. An UPLC-MS/MS method quantifying cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and other basic drugs in OF was developed and validated. This method monitored OF samples obtained either from a roadside (n =12) or a double-blind controlled study with cocaine users (n=10) who were given either a capsule containing 300 mg of cocaine-HCl or a placebo...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Nino Andricevic, Mirko Junge, Jonas Krampe
OBJECTIVE: Construction of Injury risk functions (IRF) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of non-oblique frontal crashes from the same dataset. METHOD: Crashes of modern vehicles from the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the post-crash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash...
March 9, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Susan Yoong, Ravi Kothari, Adam Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Whole body computed tomography has become standard practice in many centres in the management of severely injured trauma patients, however, the evidence for it's diagnostic accuracy is limited. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of whole body CT in major trauma. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 15 presenting with blunt trauma to a UK Major Trauma Centre between May 2012 and April 2014...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Calista M Harbaugh, Peng Zhang, Brianna Henderson, Brian A Derstine, Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Peter F Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: The "Cushion Effect," the phenomenon in which obesity protects against abdominal injury in adults in motor vehicle accidents, has not been evaluated among pediatric patients. This work evaluates the association between subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, quantified using analytic morphomic techniques and abdominal injury. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 119 patients aged 1 to 18years involved in frontal impact motor vehicle accidents (2003-2015) with computed tomography scans...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"