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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812374/an-evaluation-scheme-for-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-intersection-movement-assist-ima-on-improving-traffic-safety
#1
Kun-Feng Wu, Nashir Ardiansyah, Wei-Jyun Ye
OBJECTIVE: Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) has been recognized as one of the prominent countermeasures to reduce angle crashes at intersections, which constitute 22 percent of total crashes in the US. Utilizing vehicle-based sensors, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2░V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, IMA offers extended vision to provide early warning for an imminent crash. However, most of IMA related research implements their methods and strategies only in simulations, test tracks, or driving simulator studies that have quite a few assumptions and limitations, and hence the effectiveness evaluations reported may not be transferable or comparable...
August 16, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804400/differential-age-related-changes-in-localizing-a-target-among-distractors-across-an-extended-visual-field
#2
Jing Feng, Fergus I M Craik, Brian Levine, Sylvain Moreno, Gary Naglie, HeeSun Choi
Age differences in the spatial distribution of attention over a wide field of view have only been described in terms of the spatial extent, leaving the topographical aspect unexplored. This study examined age differences between younger and older adults in good general health in an important topographical characteristic, the asymmetry between the upper and lower visual fields. In Experiment 1, we found age differences across the entire attentional visual field. In addition, age differences were greater in the upper compared to the lower field...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803960/evaluating-impacts-of-different-longitudinal-driver-assistance-systems-on-reducing-multi-vehicle-rear-end-crashes-during-small-scale-inclement-weather
#3
Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Changyin Dong, Shanwen Liu
Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM)...
August 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802440/debiasing-visual-pilots-weather-related-decision-making
#4
Stephen Walmsley, Andrew Gilbey
Pilots who decide to continue a flight into deteriorating weather conditions, rather than turn back or divert, are a significant cause of fatal crashes in general aviation. Earlier research has suggested that cognitive biases such as the anchoring effect and confirmation bias are implicated in many decisions to continue into worsening weather. In this study, we explored whether a simple debiasing technique, 'considering the alternative', reduced the effect of these two potentially fatal biases. Despite the study being adequately powered, our attempts to reduce the effects of biases were both unsuccessful...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800763/causes-trends-and-severity-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-ghana
#5
Eric Lawer Torgbenu, Emmanuel K Nakua, Henry Kyei, Eric Badu, Maxwell Peprah Opoku
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal [MSK] injuries are common causes of long-term pain and physical disability which affect many people worldwide. The economic and social impacts on the individual, society and national health systems are enormous making a matter of public health concern. Therefore, this study examined the causes and extent of MSK injuries in a referral hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study design with consecutive sampling method was used to recruit patients admitted at Trauma Unit as well as those receiving orthopaedic reviews at St...
August 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800595/elderly-road-collision-injury-outcomes-associated-with-seat-positions-and-seatbelt-use-in-a-rapidly-aging-society-a-case-study-in-south-korea
#6
Yuna Noh, Yoonjin Yoon
INTRODUCTION: Aging has long been regarded as one of the most critical factors affecting crash injury outcomes. In South Korea, where the elderly population is projected to reach 35.9% by 2050, the implications of an increasing number of elderly vehicle users on road safety are evident. In this research, the confounding effect of occupant age in a vehicle in terms of seat position and seatbelt use was investigated. In addition, elderly occupants were divided into a younger-old group aged between 65 and 74 years and an older-old group aged 75 years and older in an effort to assess whether the conventional elderly age standard of 65 years should be reconsidered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790778/determinants-of-injuries-and-road-traffic-accidents-amongst-service-personnel-in-a-large-defence-station
#7
Anand Neelakantan, Brig Atul Kotwal, Mookkiah Ilankumaran
BACKGROUND: Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy...
July 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783544/the-effects-of-licence-disqualification-on-drink-drivers-is-it-the-same-for-everyone
#8
A Watson, J Freeman, K Imberger, A J Filtness, H Wilson, D Healy, A Cavallo
Drink-driving remains a major road safety concern that creates a significant social burden. Licence disqualification continues to play a key role in drink driving deterrence and sanctions together with police enforcement to address the problem in most motorised countries. However, on-going questions remain regarding the differing effect of licence disqualification periods between first time and repeat offenders, and between other sub-groups of offenders. As a result, this study aimed to determine whether: (a) differences exist in re-offence rates of convicted drink-drivers between: the period between committing the drink-driving offence and licence disqualification (pre-licence disqualification), during the period of licence disqualification, and after being re-licensed (post-licence restoration); and (b) differential effects of offence rates are evident based on Blood Alcohol Content (BAC), gender, age, repeat offender status and crash involvement at the time of offence...
August 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777970/identification-of-characteristics-and-frequent-scenarios-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-during-pre-ballistic-phase-part-1-a-descriptive-study
#9
Taewung Kim, Dipan Bose, Jon Foster, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff R Crandall, Mark Clauser, Jason R Kerrigan
This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes...
August 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777766/risk-factors-for-roadway-single-and-multi-vehicle-all-terrain-vehicle-crashes-in%C3%A2-pennsylvania-2010-2013
#10
Serap Gorucu, Dennis Murphy, Cathy Kassab
BACKGROUND: All Terrain Vehicles on public roadways become major risk factors for the motorists. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of crashes and injury severity related to single vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) roadway crashes in Pennsylvania, USA. METHODS: Data on ATV crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed...
August 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777361/-associations-between-chronotype-road-accidents-and-polymorphisms-in-genes-linked-with-biological-clock-and-dopaminergic-system
#11
A O Taranov, A N Puchkova, P A Slominsky, T V Tupitsyna, V V Dementiyenko, V B Dorokhov
Public transport driving is a highly demanding activity requiring high skills and responsibility. Shift work, problems with regular sleep schedule negatively impact psychomotor reactions, cognitive functions and ability to react appropriately to the changing environment. For professional drivers all these factors may lead to the increased risk of a road accident. Individual differences in chronotype, cognitive and emotional control are partially genetically determined. AIM: Our study aimed to investigate the possible associations between chronotype parameters, traffic accident history and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genes: RORA (rs1159814), CLOCK (rs12649507), PER3 (rs2640909), NPSR1 (rs324981), NPAS2 (rs4851377), DRD3 (rs6280), SLC6A3 (rs6347), DBH (rs1611125)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766462/visual-correlates-of-fitness-to-drive-in-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Sherrilene Classen, Sarah Krasniuk, Sarah A Morrow, Liliana Alvarez, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Heather Rosehart
The impact of visual and visual-cognitive impairments on fitness to drive in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are not well studied. We quantified visual correlates of fitness to drive in 30 PwMS. PwMS completed visual ability and visual attention assessments, and a standardized on-road assessment, and were compared with 145 older volunteer drivers. PwMS (vs. older volunteer drivers) made more total ( W = 12,139, p = .03) and critical driving errors (predictive of crashes) in adjustment to stimuli ( W = 11,352, p < ...
August 1, 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762642/genomic-transcriptional-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-the-glucose-derepressed-clostridium-beijerinckii-mutant-exhibiting-acid-crash-phenotype
#13
Seung-Oh Seo, Holger Janssen, Andrew Magis, Yi Wang, Ting Lu, Nathan D Price, Yong-Su Jin, Hans P Blaschek
Clostridium beijerinckii is a predominant solventogenic bacterium that has been used for the ABE fermentation. Various C. beijerinckii mutants have been constructed for desirable phenotypes. The C. beijerinckii mutant BA105 harboring a glucose derepression phenotype was previously isolated and demonstrated the enhanced amylolytic activity in the presence of glucose. Despite its potential use, BA105 has not been further characterized and utilized. Therefore, we investigated fermentation phenotypes of BA105 in this study...
August 1, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758801/using-medico-legal-data-to-investigate-fatal-older-road-user-crash-circumstances-and-risk-factors
#14
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHOD: The Coroners' Court of Victoria (CCOV)'s Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757929/driving-behavior-among-different-groups-of-iranian-drivers-based-on-driver-coping-styles
#15
Saeid Lotfi, Saeid Yazdanirad, Siyamak Pourabdiyan, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Aliakbar Lotfi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess driving behavior of Iranian drivers based on their coping styles (problem-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoiding). METHODS: This study was conducted on 610 drivers divided into four different groups. The drivers' behaviors and coping styles were evaluated using driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ) and coping inventory for stressful situations. RESULTS: The results showed a significant difference among the three coping styles regarding the mean scores of DBQ dimensions (P < 0...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757551/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-implementing-a-more-severe-drunk-driving-law-in-china-findings-from-two-open-access-data-sources
#16
Wangxin Xiao, Peishan Ning, David C Schwebel, Guoqing Hu
In 2011, China implemented a more severe drunk-driving law. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the law on road traffic morbidity and mortality attributed to alcohol use. Data were from two open-access data sources, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 update and police data. Poisson regression examined the significance of changes in morbidity and mortality. Large gaps in crude death estimates from road traffic crashes attributed to alcohol use emerged between the two data sources. For the GBD 2015 update, crude and age-standardized mortality displayed consistent trends between 1990 and 2015; age-standardized mortality per 100,000 persons increased from 5...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756314/incorporating-twitter-based-human-activity-information-in-spatial-analysis-of-crashes-in-urban-areas
#17
Jie Bao, Pan Liu, Hao Yu, Chengcheng Xu
The primary objective of this study was to investigate how to incorporate human activity information in spatial analysis of crashes in urban areas using Twitter check-in data. This study used the data collected from the City of Los Angeles in the United States to illustrate the procedure. The following five types of data were collected: crash data, human activity data, traditional traffic exposure variables, road network attributes and social-demographic data. A web crawler by Python was developed to collect the venue type information from the Twitter check-in data automatically...
July 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753415/macro-level-vulnerable-road-users-crash-analysis-a-bayesian-joint-modeling-approach-of-frequency-and-proportion
#18
Qing Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers...
July 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750169/ticketing-aggressive-cars-and-trucks-tact-how-does-it-work-on-city-streets
#19
Russell Telford, Lawrence J Cook, Lenora M Olson
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of modifying the TACT program, originally designed to work on state highways, within a metropolitan area to reduce unsafe interactions and their related crashes between drivers of large trucks and passenger vehicles. Methods Using crash data, the driving behaviors most commonly associated with large truck and passenger vehicle crashes were identified. A public awareness campaign using media messaging and increased law enforcement was created targeting these associated behaviors...
July 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747008/enhanced-robustness-in-acetone-butanol-ethanol-fermentation-with-engineered-clostridium-beijerinckii-overexpressing-adhe2-and-ctfab
#20
Congcong Lu, Le Yu, Saju Varghese, Mingrui Yu, Shang-Tian Yang
Clostridium beijerinckii CC101 was engineered to overexpress aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) and CoA-transferase (ctfAB). Solvent production and acid assimilation were compared between the parental and engineered strains expressing only adhE2 (CC101-SV4) and expressing adhE2, ald and ctfAB (CC101-SV6). CC101-SV4 showed an early butanol production from glucose but stopped pre-maturely at a low butanol concentration of ∼6g/L. Compared to CC101, CC101-SV6 produced more butanol (∼12g/L) from glucose and was able to re-assimilate more acids, which prevented "acid crash" and increased butanol production, under all conditions studied...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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