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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427953/booster-seat-effectiveness-among-older-children-evidence-from-washington-state
#1
D Mark Anderson, Lindsay L Carlson, Daniel I Rees
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. METHODS: Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422920/a-multi-year-assessment-of-a-hospital-school-program-to-promote-teen-motor-vehicle-safety
#2
Purnima Unni, Cristina M Estrada, Dai H Chung, Emily B Riley, Lesley Worsley-Hynd, Neil Stinson
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teen drivers. The main goal of this program was to reduce texting while driving among high school teens through a unique peer-generated anti-texting campaign. METHODS: The program consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, student leaders participated in a half-day, hospital-based experiential program that emphasized safe teen driving. In Phase 2, these students conceptualized and implemented an anti-texting while driving campaign during the school year...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420482/detection-of-driver-drowsiness-using-wearable-devices-a-feasibility-study-of-the-proximity-sensor
#3
Jibo He, William Choi, Yan Yang, Junshi Lu, Xiaohui Wu, Kaiping Peng
BACKGROUND: Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. METHODS: The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving...
April 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419017/the-evaluation-of-trauma-care-the-comparison-of-2-high-level-pediatric-emergency-departments-in-the-united-states-and-turkey
#4
Alkan Bal, Michael Cooper, Amanda Lee, Murat Anil, Halim Hennes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to compare the outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and motor vehicle versus pedestrian crashes (MPCs) at a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States and a pediatric trauma center in Turkey. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric MVC and MPC subjects presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of a level 3 hospital in Turkey (Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital [ITTRH]) and a level 1 pediatric trauma center in the United States (Children's Medical Center Dallas [CMCD]) over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417459/does-obesity-complicate-regional-anesthesia-and-result-in-longer-decision-to-delivery-time-for-emergency-cesarean-section
#5
A J Väänänen, J P Kainu, H Eriksson, M Lång, A Tekay, J Sarvela
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity can cause problems with anesthesia and surgery which may be reflected in emergency cesarean sections (CS) as an increased decision-to-delivery interval (DDI). AIM: To study the association of elevated maternal BMI with DDI and the failure of regional anesthesia. METHODS: Eight hundred and forty-two consecutive emergency CSs during a period of 1 year in a tertiary hospital were studied retrospectively. DDIs were analyzed in Crash and < 30-min urgency categories (n = 528), while the time required to establish regional anesthesia and its success were analyzed for all emergency CS cases...
April 17, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414584/screening-commercial-vehicle-drivers-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-tools-barriers-and-recommendations
#6
Kelly A Evans, Tracey Yap, Barbara Turner
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by a cessation of breathing during sleep, leading to poor sleep patterns and daytime somnolence. Daytime somnolence is of particular concern for commercial vehicle drivers, whose crash risk increases 50% with untreated OSA. The process of diagnosing and treating OSA in commercial drivers begins with effective and consistent screening. Therefore, the researchers screened drivers with both the STOP-Bang Questionnaire and the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation Worksheet (OSAEW) and compared the two tools...
April 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412467/magnitude-and-direction-of-missing-confounders-had-different-consequences-on-treatment-effect-estimation-in-propensity-score-analysis
#7
Tri-Long Nguyen, Gary S Collins, Jessica Spence, Charles Fontaine, Jean-Pierre Daurès, P J Devereaux, Paul Landais, Yannick Le Manach
OBJECTIVE: Propensity score (PS) analysis allows an unbiased estimate of treatment effects, but assumes that all confounders are measured. We assessed the impact of omitting confounders from a PS analysis on clinical decision-making. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted Monte Carlo simulations on hypothetical observational studies based on virtual populations and on the population from a large randomized trial (CRASH-2). In both series of simulations, PS analysis was conducted with all confounders and with omitted confounders, which were defined to have different strengths of association with the outcome and treatment exposure...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408102/exploring-data-sources-for-road-traffic-injury-in-cameroon-collection-and-completeness-of-police-records-newspaper-reports-and-a-hospital-trauma-registry
#8
Catherine Juillard, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Martin Ekeke Monono, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Rochelle A Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injury surveillance systems are a cornerstone of organized efforts at injury control. Although high-income countries rely on established trauma registries and police databases, in low- and middle-income countries, the data source that provides the best collection of road traffic injury events in specific low- and middle-income country contexts without mature surveillance systems is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the information available on road traffic injuries in 3 data sources used for surveillance in the sub-Saharan African country of Cameroon, providing potential insight on data sources for road traffic injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries...
April 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407111/road-injuries-health-burden-but-not-fatalities-make-12-to-17-year-olds-a-high-risk-group-in-the-netherlands
#9
Divera A M Twisk, Niels M Bos, Wendy A M Weijermars
To explore the impact of road injuries for different age groups, this study compares the health burden of road injuries in young adolescents-12 to 17 years of age-to those for older age groups. Young adolescents are underrepresented in road fatalities. However, their inexperience, developmental stage and use of bicycles may expose them to high levels of road risk, but their physical resilience may help them survive injuries which in older age groups would be fatal. To assess the impact of injuries compared with death, this study assessed by age group the health burden expressed in disability adjusted life years; years of life lost plus years lived with disability...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402687/seatbelt-pre-pretensioner-effect-on-child-sized-dummies-during-run-off-road-events
#10
Isabelle Stockman, Katarina Bohman, Lotta Jakobsson
Objective Run-off road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off road events. Real world data shows that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to the occupant injury. While countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off road events are lacking...
April 12, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394639/the-safety-potential-of-lane-departure-warning-systems-a-descriptive-real-world-study-of-fatal-lane-departure-passenger-car-crashes-in-sweden
#11
Simon Sternlund
OBJECTIVE: Lane departure crashes account for a significant proportion of passenger car occupant fatalities and serious injuries. Utilising real-world data involving fatal passenger car crashes in Sweden, the characteristics of lane departure crashes were identified and the safety potential of Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems was quantified. METHODS: The material consisted of 104 in-depth studies of fatal passenger car crashes in 2010. The crashes were classified as single vehicle (n = 48), head-on (n = 52) and overtaking (n = 4) crashes...
April 10, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391091/street-racing-among-the-ontario-adult-population-prevalence-and-association-with-collision-risk
#12
Christine M Wickens, Reginald G Smart, Evelyn Vingilis, Anca R Ialomiteanu, Gina Stoduto, Robert E Mann
BACKGROUND: Street racing has been identified as a significant public health concern, yet, little is known about the prevalence of this behaviour and its impact on collision risk. The current study was designed to address this dearth of knowledge by estimating the prevalence of street racing among the Ontario, Canada adult population, and examining its association to collision risk, controlling for demographics and other risk factors. METHODS: Data were based on telephone interviews with 11,263 respondents derived from the 2009-2014 cycles of the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults aged 18+ years...
April 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389127/participatory-quantitative-health-impact-assessment-of-urban-and-transport-planning-in-cities-a-review-and-research-needs
#13
REVIEW
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis, Ersilia Verlinghieri, Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda
INTRODUCTION: Urban and transport planning have large impacts on public health, but these are generally not explicitly considered and/or quantified, partly because there are no comprehensive models, methods and tools readily available. Air pollution, noise, temperature, green space, motor vehicle crashes and physical activity are important pathways linking urban and transport planning and public health. For policy decision-making, it is important to understand and be able to quantify the full-chain from source through pathways to health effects and impacts to substantiate and effectively target actions...
April 4, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387152/death-anxiety-from-quality-of-life-and-emotional-impact-of-event
#14
Iboro Friday Akpan Ottu, Ekong Akpan Essien, Abiodun Musbau Lawal
The study investigated the traumatic impact of the Dana 2012 plane crash in Lagos, Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional survey, the roles of quality of life (QoL) and impact of event were examined against death anxiety of the proximate inhabitants of the crash site. Result showed significant influence of QoL on death anxiety, with higher QoL participants manifesting higher levels of death anxiety. However, impact of the crash event and demographic indicators such as age, sex, pilot preference, and belief-in-life after death did not influence death anxiety of participants...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386782/a-comparative-study-of-intermaxillary-fixation-screws-and-noncompression-miniplates-in-the-treatment-of-mandibular-fractures-a-prospective-clinical-study
#15
Osasuyi Anslem, Okoturo Eyituoyo, Ogunbanjo V Olabode, Olaitan A Ademola, Ayodele O Adesina
BACKGROUND: The main goal of treatment of mandibular fractures is to restore normal dental occlusion and promote appropriate bone healing and a normal mouth opening. Recently, there has been a resurgent interest in the use of screws for intermaxillary fixation of mandibular fractures. This study was therefore designed to determine how the clinical outcomes of the use of screws for intermaxillary fixation compare with the use of miniplates in the treatment of mandibular fractures in Nigeria...
April 6, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384074/risk-of-serious-injury-of-occupants-involved-in-frontal-crashes-of-cab-over-type-trucks
#16
Hyeok-Jin Jeon, Sang-Chul Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Jae-Yoon Jeong, Kang-Hyun Lee, Hee-Young Lee, Ho-Joong Kim
OBJECTIVES: Truck vehicles (TVs) have a different structure and stiffness from non-TV and are used commercially for transporting goods. This study aimed to analyze whether truck occupants have a greater risk of serious injury than those of other types of vehicles. METHODS: Crash data were obtained from the Korean In-depth Data Analysis Study (KIDAS) for calendar years 2011-2016. Vehicles involved in frontal crash were included and classified into TVs and non-TVs (passenger cars and sports utility vehicles)...
April 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383999/energy-attenuation-performance-of-impact-protection-worn-by-motorcyclists-in-real-world-crashes
#17
Bianca Albanese, Tom Gibson, Tom Whyte, Lauren Meredith, Giovanni Savino, Liz De Rome, Matthew Baldock, Michael Fitzharris, Julie Brown
Objective Laboratory studies have demonstrated that impact protectors (IP) used in motorcycle clothing can reduce fracture severities. While crash studies have reported IP are associated with reduced likelihood of soft tissue injury, there is little evidence of their effectiveness in reducing fracture likelihood. This discrepancy might be related to IP quality. There are mandatory requirements for IP supplied with protective clothing in Europe, but not elsewhere. This study examines the energy attenuation performance of IP used by Australian riders...
April 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372352/avoidable-burden-of-risk-factors-for-serious-road-traffic-crashes-in-iran-a-modeling-study
#18
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Kamyar Mansori, Manoochehr Karami, Farid Zayeri, Reza Khosravi Shadman, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Hamid Soori
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to model the avoidable burden of the risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran and to prioritize interventions to reduce that burden. METHODS: The prevalence and the effect size of the risk factors were obtained from data documented by the traffic police of Iran in 2013. The effect size was estimated using an ordinal regression model. The potential impact fraction index was applied to calculate the avoidable burden in order to prioritize interventions...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371638/changes-in-speed-distribution-applying-aggregated-safety-effect-models-to-individual-vehicle-speeds
#19
Anna Vadeby, Åsa Forsman
This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden...
March 31, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371637/performance-of-basic-kinematic-thresholds-in-the-identification-of-crash-and-near-crash-events-within-naturalistic-driving-data
#20
Miguel A Perez, Jeremy D Sudweeks, Edie Sears, Jonathan Antin, Suzanne Lee, Jonathan M Hankey, Thomas A Dingus
Understanding causal factors for traffic safety-critical events (e.g., crashes and near-crashes) is an important step in reducing their frequency and severity. Naturalistic driving data offers unparalleled insight into these factors, but requires identification of situations where crashes are present within large volumes of data. Sensitivity and specificity of these identification approaches are key to minimizing the resources required to validate candidate crash events. This investigation used data from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study (SHRP 2 NDS) and the Canada Naturalistic Driving Study (CNDS) to develop and validate different kinematic thresholds that can be used to detect crash events...
March 31, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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