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T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Lyndon G Amorin-Woods, Gregory F Parkin-Smith, Lee Nedkoff, Colleen Fisher
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the quantitative outcomes of a mixed-methods pilot study of the characteristics and demographics of chiropractic practices and patients in Western Australia. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods data transformation model (qualitative to quantitative) pilot study. A non-random sample of chiropractic practices across Western Australia was recruited and data collected anonymously from consecutive new patients using an online platform. Data covered practice and patient demographics and characteristics, alongside quality of life measures...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
B Verillaud, L Robard, J Michel, V Pruliere Escabasse, E Béquignon, L Crampette, O Malard
OBJECTIVES: The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) on second-line treatment of epistaxis in adults, after failure of anterior and/or anterior-posterior nasal packing. METHODS: A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience...
October 17, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Nicola Cellini
In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information...
September 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Miriam Ethel Bentwich, Nomy Dickman, Amitai Oberman
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether gaps exist between caretakers from different ethno-cultural groups (Israeli-born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs], and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their perceptions of autonomy and human dignity of patients with dementia. DESIGN: A mixed-methods research scheme was used, comprised of qualitative and quantitative methods, utilizing semi-structured interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Twenty formal caretakers participated in the qualitative portion, and approximately 200 caretakers were included in the quantitative portion...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H Hsieh
Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Catriona Mill, Joanne Enders, Cynthia Montanaro, Kieran Michael Moore
The trend toward delayed parenthood is on the rise across Canada. Societal emphasis on attaining higher education, career advancement and financial security may be some reasons why individuals delay becoming a parent; whatever the reason, this trend is linked to significant health and economic impacts. Many Canadians are unaware of the impact this may have on their fertility and potential birth outcomes. It is important that health care professionals apprise individuals in their reproductive years about these issues and the steps they can take to mitigate these risks...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Shu-Ling Hoshi, Masahide Kondo, Ichiro Okubo
Two rotavirus vaccines are currently available in Japan. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of routine infant rotavirus immunisation programme without defining which vaccine to be evaluated, which reflects the current deliberation at the Health Science Council in charge of Immunisation and Vaccine established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Three ICERs were estimated, one from payers' perspective and two from societal perspective depending on the scenarios to uptake vaccines...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Luba Nalysnyk, Philip Rotella, Jason C Simeone, Alaa Hamed, Neal Weinreb
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were: (1) to heighten awareness of Gaucher disease (GD), a rare lysosomal storage disorder with highly heterogeneous patterns of organ involvement and disease severity, to clinicians most likely to encounter these patients, and; (2) to summarize the published evidence on GD epidemiology which is essential to accurately depict the total societal burden of this rare worldwide disorder. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the published evidence on the epidemiology of GD...
October 20, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Ejiofor T Ugwu, Casmir Jg Orjioke, Ekenechukwu E Young
BACKGROUND: Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a useful adjunct to lifestyle modification and medications for optimal management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was aimed at evaluating the practice, cost and associations of SMBG in subjects with type 2 DM in Enugu, Nigeria. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey conducted at the diabetes clinic in three hospitals, 366 type 2 diabetic subjects aged 18-65 years were consecutively interviewed. Socio-demographic and clinical information were documented and glycated hemoglobin was performed for all the participants...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Javed Butler, Carine E Hamo, James E Udelson, Bertram Pitt, Clyde Yancy, Sanjiv J Shah, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Harold S Bernstein, Richard L Clark, Christophe Depre, Wilfried Dinh, Andrew Hamer, Patricia Kay-Mugford, Frank Kramer, Martin Lefkowitz, Kelly Lewis, Juan Maya, Simon Maybaum, Mahesh J Patel, Pia S Pollack, Lothar Roessig, Sarit Rotman, Afshin Salsali, J Jason Sims, Michele Senni, Giuseppe Rosano, Preston Dunnmon, Norman Stockbridge, Stefan D Anker, Michael R Zile, Mihai Gheorghiade
The epidemiological, clinical, and societal implications of the heart failure (HF) epidemic cannot be overemphasized. Approximately half of all HF patients have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF is largely a syndrome of the elderly, and with aging of the population, the proportion of patients with HFpEF is expected to grow. Currently, there is no drug known to improve mortality or hospitalization risk for these patients. Besides mortality and hospitalization, it is imperative to realize that patients with HFpEF have significant impairment in their functional capacity and their quality of life on a daily basis, underscoring the need for these parameters to ideally be incorporated within a regulatory pathway for drug approval...
November 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Bettina K Steiger, Hennric Jokeit
Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions...
October 11, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Jonathan T Kaplan, Corey P Neu, Hicham Drissi, Nancy C Emery, David M Pierce
Osteoarthritis and articular cartilage injuries are common conditions in human joints and a frequent cause of pain and disability. Unfortunately, cartilage is avascular and has limited capabilities for self-repair. Despite the societal impact, there is little information on the dynamic process of cartilage degeneration. We performed a series of cyclic unconfined compression tests motivated by in vivo loading conditions and designed to generate mechanical fatigue. We examined the functional (both stress-stretch and creep) responses of the tissue after recovery from a specified number of loading cycles, as well as histology and second harmonic generation microscopy images...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Thomas M Neeson, Sigrid D P Smith, J David Allan, Peter B McIntyre
Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jane J Kim, Emily A Burger, Stephen Sy, Nicole G Campos
BACKGROUND: Current US cervical cancer screening guidelines do not differentiate recommendations based on a woman's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status. Changes to cervical cancer screening policies in HPV-vaccinated women should be evaluated. METHODS: We utilized an individual-based mathematical model of HPV and cervical cancer in US women to project the health benefits, costs, and harms associated with screening strategies in women vaccinated with the bivalent, quadrivalent, or nonavalent vaccine...
February 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ramon Vilallonga, José Manuel Moreno Villares, Diego Yeste Fernández, Raquel Sánchez Santos, Felipe Casanueva Freijo, Francisco Santolaya Ochando, Nuria Leal Hernando, Albert Lecube Torelló, Luis Antonio Castaño González, Albert Feliu, Gontrand Lopez-Nava, Dolores Frutos, Antonio J Torres Garcia, Juan Carlos Ruiz de Adana
PURPOSE: In recent years, the incidence of childhood obesity in Europe, and Spain in particular, has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery could play a major role in treating of adolescents with severe obesity. However, no specific guidelines for bariatric surgery currently exist in Spain. METHODS: The Board of the Spanish Society for Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Diseases (SECO) proposed a study of childhood obesity by using the Delphi method. This prospective study involved 60 experts from nine national societies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Madhumita Sinha, Dan Quan, Fred W McDonald, André Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion antivenom was recently approved for use in patients with clinically significant scorpion envenomation in the United States; no formal economic analysis on its impact on cost of management has been performed. METHODS: Three different strategies of management of scorpion envenomation with systemic neurotoxic symptoms in children were compared for cost minimization from a societal perspective. In strategy I, patients were managed with supportive care only without antivenom...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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