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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346893/biochemical-transformation-of-lignin-for-deriving-valued-commodities-from-lignocellulose
#1
REVIEW
Daniel L Gall, John Ralph, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
The biochemical properties of lignin present major obstacles to deriving societally beneficial entities from lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable feedstock. Similar to other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polypeptides, and ribonucleic acids, lignin polymers are derived from multiple types of monomeric units. However, lignin's renowned recalcitrance is largely attributable to its racemic nature and the variety of covalent inter-unit linkages through which its aromatic monomers are linked...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346659/is-universal-hla-b-15-02-screening-a-cost-effective-option-in-an-ethnically-diverse-population-a-case-study-of-malaysia
#2
H Y Chong, Z Mohamed, L L Tan, D B C Wu, F H Shabaruddin, M Dahlui, Y D Apalasamy, S R Snyder, M S Williams, J Hao, L H Cavallari, N Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Strong association was documented between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Asians. Beyond Asia, the HLA testing is potentially valuable in many countries with increasingly diverse communities of Asian ancestry, to facilitate an early recognition of patient susceptibility to SCARs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal HLA-B*15:02 screening in preventing carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis in an ethnically-diverse Malaysian population...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346133/creating-a-climate-that-catalyses-healthcare-innovation-in-the-united-kingdom-learning-lessons-from-international-innovators
#3
Kathrin Cresswell, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. METHODS: We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345310/individual-factors-that-influence-experiences-and-perceptions-of-stigma-and-discrimination-towards-people-with-mental-illness-in-ghana
#4
Sebastian Gyamfi, Kathy Hegadoren, Tanya Park
People with a mental illness often encounter stigma and discrimination from a variety of sources, reinforcing negative self-perceptions and influencing their health and well-being. Even though support systems and attitudes of the general public act as powerful sources of stigma, views and perceptions held by people with mental illness also influence their sensitivity to the experiences they encounter. The aim of the present qualitative study was to examine perceptions of stigma and discrimination and self-stigma in individuals diagnosed with a mental illness...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344556/the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-plant-extracts-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-on-chronic-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-aging-a-mechanistic-and-empirical-review
#6
REVIEW
Christina Kure, Jorinde Timmer, Con Stough
Advances in healthcare have considerably improved the life expectancy of the human population over the last century and this has brought about new challenges. As we live longer the capacity for cognitive aging increases. Consequently, it has been noted that decline in cognitive performance in the elderly in domains of reasoning, problem solving skills, attention, processing speed, working memory and episodic memory is a significant societal problem. Despite the enormity of this issue there are relatively few interventions for cognitive aging...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343826/diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-an-algorithm-based-approach
#7
Nicholas T Ting, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most challenging and devastating modes of failure after total hip and knee arthroplasties. Despite the profound urgency and impact of PJI on an individual and societal basis, historically, there have not been standardized definitions of and diagnostic algorithms for infection after total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: In a recent symposium, the American Academy of Hip and Knee Surgeons put forth a standardized approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and management of the patient with a suspected PJI...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343459/a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-societal-experiment-among-the-danish-population-suggests-that-exposure-to-extra-doses-of-vitamin-a-during-fetal-development-may-lower-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-risk-later-in-life
#8
Amélie Keller, Lars Ängquist, Ramune Jacobsen, Allan Vaag, Berit L Heitmann
Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962-31 March 1964) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959-31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343052/season-of-treatment-initiation-with-antidepressants-and-suicidal-behavior-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-sweden
#9
Georgios D Makris, Johan Reutfors, Morten Andersen, Richard A White, Lisa Ekselius, Fotios C Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Decreased binding capacity of SERT in the prefrontal cortex has been observed in both suicide victims and suicide attempters. Moreover, some studies have shown that SERT has a seasonal variation with lower binding capacity in the spring and summer, which coincides with a seasonal peak of suicides. Our aim was to explore whether the season of treatment initiation with antidepressants is associated with suicide or suicide attempt and compare it with the underlying suicide seasonality in the general population...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341280/cost-effectiveness-of-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-strategies-in-high-risk-total-joint-arthroplasty-patients
#10
Devin M Williams, Andy O Miller, Michael W Henry, Geoffrey H Westrich, Hassan M K Ghomrawi
BACKGROUND: The risk of prosthetic joint infection increases with Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The cost-effectiveness of decolonization is controversial. We evaluated cost-effectiveness decolonization protocols in high-risk arthroplasty patients. METHODS: An analytical model evaluated risk under 3 protocols: 4 swabs, 2 swabs, and nasal swab alone. These were compared to no-screening and universal decolonization strategies. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from the hospital, patient, and societal perspective...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339321/a-systematic-review-on-community-based-interventions-for-elder-abuse-and-neglect
#11
Gwendolyn Fearing, Christine L Sheppard, Lynn McDonald, Marie Beaulieu, Sander L Hitzig
Elder abuse and neglect is a societal issue that requires prevention and intervention strategies at the practice and policy level. A systematic review on the efficacy of community-based elder abuse interventions was undertaken to advance the state of knowledge in the field. The peer-reviewed literature between 2009 and December 2015 were searched across four databases. Two raters independently reviewed all articles, assessed their methodological quality and used a modified Sackett Scale to assign levels of evidence...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338420/exploring-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-older-people-with-sight-loss
#12
Amy E Burton, Louise Clancy, Lisa Cowap
This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older people with sight loss. Focus groups were conducted with 13 community dwelling older adults with sight loss ranging from poor to completely blind. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Facilitators and barriers are experienced in three ways: psychologically; through opportunity and access; and at a societal and policy level. Campaigns are needed to challenge unhelpful age-related stereotypes at both psychological and societal levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337403/an-expanded-conceptual-framework-for-solution-focused-management-of-chemical-pollution-in-european-waters
#13
John Munthe, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Magnus Rahmberg, Leo Posthuma, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Dirk Bunke, Guy Engelen, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Jos van Gils, David López Herráez, Tomas Rydberg, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Annemarie van Wezel
BACKGROUND: This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. METHODS: The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with stakeholders representing relevant authorities and organisations responsible for managing environmental quality of water bodies. Stakeholder needs were compiled via a survey and dialogue...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337154/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-suicidality-and-stigma
#14
REVIEW
Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna
INTRODUCTION: Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma, it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes. METHODS: A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma, public stigma, structural stigma, perceived stigma, self-stigma, suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336508/using-web-based-search-data-to-study-the-public-s-reactions-to-societal-events-the-case-of-the-sandy-hook-shooting
#15
Nir Menachemi, Saurabh Rahurkar, Mandar Rahurkar
BACKGROUND: Internet search is the most common activity on the World Wide Web and generates a vast amount of user-reported data regarding their information-seeking preferences and behavior. Although this data has been successfully used to examine outbreaks, health care utilization, and outcomes related to quality of care, its value in informing public health policy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Internet search query data in health policy development...
March 23, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335786/matching-safety-to-access-global-actors-and-pharmacogovernance-in-kenya-a-case-study
#16
Kathy Moscou, Jillian C Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335759/mobile-radiography-services-in-nursing-homes-a-systematic-review-of-residents-and-societal-outcomes
#17
Elin Kjelle, Kristin Bakke Lysdahl
BACKGROUND: Demographic changes are leading to an ageing population in Europe, and predict an increase in the number of nursing home residents over the next 30 years. Nursing home residents need specialised healthcare services such as radiology due to both chronic and acute illnesses. Mobile radiography, x-ray examinations performed in the nursing homes, may be a good way of providing services to this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the outcomes of mobile radiography services for nursing home residents and society...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335475/mobile-health-applications-to-promote-active-and-healthy-ageing
#18
Jorunn L Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Clemens Becker, Chris Todd, Kristin Taraldsen, Mirjam Pijnappels, Kamiar Aminian, Sabato Mellone
The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334477/latent-classes-of-alcohol-problems-in-mauritian-men-results-from-the-joint-child-health-project
#19
Susan E Luczak, Carol A Prescott, Peter H Venables
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify latent classes of alcohol problems and their sociodemographic correlates in the east African nation of Mauritius. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study of a 1969-1970 birth cohort of 1795 individuals. In mid-adulthood (M = 37 years), all available participants (n = 1206; 67% of the original cohort) were assessed for demographic characteristics, and lifetime drinkers were assessed for alcohol-related problems...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333354/men-s-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-relating-to-fertility
#20
Karin Hammarberg, Veronica Collins, Carol Holden, Kate Young, Robert McLachlan
BACKGROUND: The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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