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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927189/scientific-societal-and-economic-consequences-of-releasing-interim-data-from-clinical-trials
#1
Abhinav Sharma, Robert H Bigelow, Michael J Pencina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925920/low-radon-exposure-and-mortality-among-jouac-uranium-miners-an-update-of-the-french-cohort-1946-2007
#2
Estelle Rage, Sylvaine Caër-Lorho, Dominique Laurier
After the extension of the French cohort of uranium miners with the inclusion of workers employed in the Jouac mines, this article seeks to describe the new Jouac cohort and to estimate mortality risks, as well as to quantify their relation to radon exposure in this extended cohort. The Jouac cohort includes 458 miners hired by the Société des Mines de Jouac between 1957 and 2001. As there is no measurement of radon exposure before 1978 were unavailable, only the post-1977 Jouac cohort (n=314) has been included in the French cohort, creating an extended cohort of 5400 French uranium miners followed up from 1946 to 2007...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925295/characteristics-of-patients-with-existing-advance-directives-evaluating-motivations-around-advance-care-planning
#3
Joanne E Genewick, Dorothy M Lipski, Katherine M Schupack, Angela L H Buffington
INTRODUCTION: Although 80% of patients endorse an advance directive (AD), less than 35% of American adults have a documented AD. Much research has been done on barriers to creating ADs; however, there is a paucity of research addressing motivations for creating ADs. Previous research has identified 4 categories of influence for engaging in advance care planning (ACP). This study aimed to quantify the influence of these 4 motivating categories in creating an AD. METHODS: Participants included 238 adults with documented ADs...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#4
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924475/pandemics-public-health-emergencies-and-antimicrobial-resistance-putting-the-threat-in-an-epidemiologic-and-risk-analysis-context
#5
C Raina MacIntyre, Chau Minh Bui
Public health messaging about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) sometimes conveys the problem as an epidemic. We outline why AMR is a serious endemic problem manifested in hospital and community-acquired infections. AMR is not an epidemic condition, but may complicate epidemics, which are characterised by sudden societal impact due to rapid rise in cases over a short timescale. Influenza, which causes direct viral effects, or secondary bacterial complications is the most likely cause of an epidemic or pandemic where AMR may be a problem...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924063/adolescent-and-young-adult-tattooing-piercing-and-scarification
#6
Cora C Breuner, David A Levine
Tattoos, piercing, and scarification are now commonplace among adolescents and young adults. This first clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics on voluntary body modification will review the methods used to perform the modifications. Complications resulting from body modification methods, although not common, are discussed to provide the pediatrician with management information. Body modification will be contrasted with nonsuicidal self-injury. When available, information also is presented on societal perceptions of body modification...
September 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923915/americans-misperceive-racial-economic-equality
#7
Michael W Kraus, Julian M Rucker, Jennifer A Richeson
The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies (n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923664/decisions-in-poverty-contexts
#8
REVIEW
Eldar Shafir
The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923403/erratum-to-what-are-the-risk-factors-for-dislocation-in-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-multicenter-case-control-study-of-128-unstable-and-438-stable-hips-orthop-traumatol-surg-res-103-2017-663-8
#9
M H Fessy, S Putman, A Viste, R Isida, N Ramdane, A Ferreira, A Leglise, B Rubens-Duval, N Bonin, F Bonnomet, A Combes, S Boisgard, D Mainard, S Leclercq, H Migaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922744/sugar-transporters-in-plants-new-insights-and-discoveries
#10
Benjamin T Julius, Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Rachel A Mertz, David M Braun
Carbohydrate partitioning is the process of carbon assimilation and distribution from source tissues, such as leaves, to sink tissues, such as stems, roots and seeds. Sucrose, the primary carbohydrate transported long distance in many plant species, is loaded into the phloem and unloaded into distal sink tissues. However, many factors, both genetic and environmental, influence sucrose metabolism and transport. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of sugar transporters and sucrose metabolic enzymes is key to improving agriculture...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#11
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922416/multi-level-computational-methods-for-interdisciplinary-research-in-the-hathitrust-digital-library
#12
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920015/working-with-bacteria-and-putting-bacteria-to-work-the-biopolitics-of-synthetic-biology-for-energy-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Carmen McLeod, Brigitte Nerlich, Alison Mohr
The UK government has made significant investment into so called 'fourth-generation' biofuel technologies. These biofuels are based on engineering the metabolic pathways of bacteria in order to create products compatible with existing infrastructure. Bacteria play an important role in what is promoted as a potentially new biological industrial revolution, which could address some of the negative environmental legacies of the last. This article presents results from ethnographic research with synthetic biologists who are challenged with balancing the curiosity-driven and intrinsically fulfilling scientific task of working with bacteria, alongside the policy-driven task of putting bacteria to work for extrinsic economic gains...
August 2017: Energy Research & Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919805/a-pilot-evaluation-of-a-computer-based-psychometric-test-battery-designed-to-detect-impairment-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#14
Nicola A Cook, Jin Un Kim, Yasmin Pasha, Mary Me Crossey, Adrian J Schembri, Brian T Harel, Torben Kimhofer, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Psychometric testing is used to identify patients with cirrhosis who have developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Most batteries consist of a series of paper-and-pencil tests, which are cumbersome for most clinicians. A modern, easy-to-use, computer-based battery would be a helpful clinical tool, given that in its minimal form, HE has an impact on both patients' quality of life and the ability to drive and operate machinery (with societal consequences). AIM: We compared the Cogstate™ computer battery testing with the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) tests, with a view to simplify the diagnosis...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919795/type-2-diabetes-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-prevalence-based-cost-of-illness-study
#15
Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo
BACKGROUND: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Vietnam. METHOD: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919774/optimizing-post-acute-care-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-rehabilitation-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Bhasker Amatya, Fary Khan, Mary P Galea
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Therapeutic advances and improved survival rates of women with BC have implications for long-term impact on disability, psychological function and quality of life (QoL), which may be amenable to rehabilitation. The focus of rehabilitation is on managing disability, reducing sequelae and symptoms, and enhancing participation and societal reintegration, to achieve the highest possible independence and the best QoL...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918821/explaining-the-continuum-of-social-participation-among-older-adults-in-singapore-from-closed-doors-to-active-ageing-in-multi-ethnic-community-settings
#17
Su Aw, Gerald Koh, Yeon Ju Oh, Mee Lian Wong, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef, Susana Concordo Harding, Mary Ann B Geronimo, Cecilia Yoon Fong Lai, Zoe J L Hildon
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify and explain the continuum in which older people in Singapore participate in community and social life, highlighting the influence of culture and policy context on social participation. METHODS: Using an ethnographic approach in a neighbourhood (n=109), we conducted focus groups with older adults of different ethnicities, exploring experiences of social participation. Next, participants took 50 photographs relating to 'lives of elders', showcasing the socio-ecological context that influenced social participation...
August 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918712/anger-promotes-economic-conservatism
#18
Keri L Kettle, Anthony Salerno
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918408/effectiveness-cost-utility-and-implementation-of-a-decision-aid-for-patients-with-localised-prostate-cancer-and-their-partners-study-protocol-of-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Hoda H M Al-Itejawi, Cornelia F van Uden-Kraan, Peter M van de Ven, Veerle M H Coupé, André N Vis, Jakko A Nieuwenhuijzen, Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
INTRODUCTION: Patient decision aids (PDAs) have been developed to help patients make an informed choice for a treatment option. Despite proven benefits, structural implementation falls short of expectations. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-utility of the PDA among newly diagnosed patients with localised prostate cancer and their partners, alongside implementation of the PDA in routine care. METHODS/ANALYSIS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial will be conducted...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917500/economic-evaluation-of-childhood-epilepsy-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-a-preliminary-survey
#20
Aliyu Ibrahim, Umar Isa Umar, Umar Musa Usman, Lukman Femi Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Considerable disease variability exists between patients with epilepsy, and the societal costs for epilepsy care are overall high, because of high frequency in the general population especially in children from developing countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study where children with established diagnosis of epilepsy were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence-based costs were stratified by patients' sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic scores (SES)...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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