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Global health essential medicine

Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Otuto Amarauche Chukwu, Valentine Nnaemeka Ezeanochikwa, Benedict Ejikeme Eya
PURPOSE: Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines...
September 12, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Yang-Mu Huang, Qi-Peng Zhao, Qiao-Meng Ren, Dan-Lu Peng, Yan Guo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. METHODS: The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Kyle G Ratner, Lindsay B Katona
Global health professionals regularly conduct healthcare trainings, such as first aid courses, in disadvantaged communities across the world. Many of these communities lack healthcare infrastructure because of war and political conflict. The authors draw on their experience conducting a first aid course in South Sudan to provide a perspective on how healthcare trainings for people with no medical background can be used to bridge ethnic, political, and religious differences. They argue that a necessary step for turning a healthcare training into a vehicle for peacebuilding is to bring people from different communities to the same physical space to learn the course material together...
2016: Conflict and Health
Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pulok K Mukherjee, Ranjit K Harwansh, Shiv Bahadur, Subhadip Banerjee, Amit Kar, Joydeb Chanda, Sayan Biswas, Sk Milan Ahmmed, C K Katiyar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda entails a scientific tradition of harmonious living and its origin can be traced from ancient knowledge contained in Rigveda and Atharvaveda. Ayurveda is a traditional healthcare system of Indian medicine since time immortal. Several Ayurvedic medicines have been exploiting for treatment and management of various diseases in human beings. The several drugs have been developed and practiced from Ayurveda since ancient time to modern practice as 'tradition to trend'...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Christine Gibson, Farah Ladak, Ashis Shrestha, Bharat Yadav, Kyaw Thu, Tin Aye
Family medicine is an integral part of primary care within health systems. Globally, training programmes exhibit a great degree of variability in content and skill acquisition. While this may in part reflect the needs of a given setting, there exists standard criteria that all family medicine programmes should consider core activities. WONCA has provided an open-access list of standards that their expert community considers essential for family medicine (GP) post-graduate training. Evaluation of developing or existing training programmes using these standards can provide insight into the degree of variability, gaps within programmes and equally as important, gaps within recommendations...
September 2016: Education for Primary Care
Alfred E Yawson, Aaron A Abuosi, Delali M Badasu, Deborah Atobra, Francis A Adzei, John K Anarfi
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This paper examined the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in three large health facilities in Ghana (the largest in the South, the largest in the North and the largest in the Eastern part of Ghana. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire among 225 caregivers (≥18 years) of 149 children with NCDs in health facilities in the three regions...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Sabine Dittrich, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Francis Moussy, Arlene Chua, Anna Zorzet, Thomas Tängdén, David L Dolinger, Anne-Laure Page, John A Crump, Valerie D'Acremont, Quique Bassat, Yoel Lubell, Paul N Newton, Norbert Heinrich, Timothy J Rodwell, Iveth J González
Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP). To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs...
2016: PloS One
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson, Andrew D Krystal
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
André Luiz Nunes Gobatto, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro Besen, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo
Sepsis is one of the oldest and complex syndromes in medicine that has been in debate for over two millennia. Valid and comparable data on the population burden of sepsis constitute an essential resource for guiding health policy and resource allocation. Despite current epidemiological data suggest that the global burden of sepsis is huge, the knowledge of its incidence, prevalence, mortality and case-fatality rates is subject to several flaws. The objective of this narrative review is to assess how sepsis incidence and mortality can be estimated, providing examples on how it has been done so far in medical literature and discussing its possible biases...
July 21, 2016: Shock
Don Chalmers, Dianne Nicol, Jane Kaye, Jessica Bell, Alastair V Campbell, Calvin W L Ho, Kazuto Kato, Jusaku Minari, Chih-Hsing Ho, Colin Mitchell, Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor, Margaret Otlowski, Daniel Thiel, Stephanie M Fullerton, Tess Whitton
Biobanks have been heralded as essential tools for translating biomedical research into practice, driving precision medicine to improve pathways for global healthcare treatment and services. Many nations have established specific governance systems to facilitate research and to address the complex ethical, legal and social challenges that they present, but this has not lead to uniformity across the world. Despite significant progress in responding to the ethical, legal and social implications of biobanking, operational, sustainability and funding challenges continue to emerge...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Anne Matlow, Ming-Ka Chan, Jordan David Bohnen, Daniel Mark Blumenthal, Melchor Sánchez-Mendiola, Diane de Camps Meschino, Lindy Michelle Samson, Jamiu Busari
Purpose Physicians are often ill-equipped for the leadership activities their work demands. In part, this is due to a gap in traditional medical education. An emergent international network is developing a globally relevant leadership curriculum for postgraduate medical education. The purpose of this article is to share key learnings from this process to date. Design/methodology/approach The Toronto International Summit on Leadership Education for Physicians (TISLEP) was hosted by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, and the University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation...
July 4, 2016: Leadership in Health Services
Sónia Ramos, Nuno Silva, Michel Hébraud, Hugo M Santos, Júlio Dinis Nunes-Miranda, Luís Pinto, José E Pereira, José-Luis Capelo, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
Understanding global drug resistance demands an integrated vision, focusing on both human and veterinary medicine. Omics technologies offer new vistas to decipher mechanisms of drug resistance in the food chain. For example, Escherichia coli resistance to major antibiotics is increasing whereas multidrug resistance (MDR) strains are now commonly found in humans and animals. Little is known about the structural and metabolic changes in the cell that trigger resistance to antimicrobial agents. Proteomics is an emerging field that is used to advance our knowledge in global health and drug resistance in the food chain...
June 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Chandra Kant Sharma, Monika Sharma, Vinay Sharma
Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Haihao Sun, Richard Vesely, Kerry Jo Lee, Agnes Klein, Mutsuhiro Ikima, Andrew E Mulberg
OBJECTIVE: There is a pressing need for drug development in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to provide strategic approaches towards harmonization of current thinking about clinical outcome assessments (COA) and biomarkers to facilitate drug development in pediatric CD. METHODS: Scientists from the United States Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan had monthly teleconferences from 1/2014 through 5/2015...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rob Moodie
As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time...
April 26, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Carl Clarke, Sophie Upson
In 2013/14, Risk & Policy Analysts Ltd undertook the first global study on the socio-economic value of Manganese (Mn). Based on a top-down analysis of the key supply chains for Mn, it outlined the economic importance of Mn ore and alloys in terms of their direct and indirect economic value, as well as their effects on employment (jobs and wages). In 2013, global production of Mn ore was worth an estimated US$ 10.2-11.1 billion. Taking into account multiplier effects in the supply chain, the total economic value of Mn ore production globally in 2013 is estimated at US$ 21-23 billion...
May 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Ben Mathews, Delphine Collin-Vézina
Child sexual abuse is a major global public health concern, affecting one in eight children and causing massive costs including depression, unwanted pregnancy, and HIV. The gravity of this global issue is reflected by the United Nations' new effort to respond to sexual abuse in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. The fundamental policy aims are to improve prevention, identification, and optimal responses to sexual abuse. As shown in our literature review, policymakers face difficult challenges because child sexual abuse is hidden, psychologically complex, and socially sensitive...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
K Bissell, C Perrin, D Beran
Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) affect hundreds of millions of people. The United Nations 2011 meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) marked a turning point in addressing this burden. The targets established following this meeting incorporated specific measures to address the availability and affordability of essential medicines. These are aligned with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the push for universal health coverage. However, essential medicines for CRDs remain unaffordable and unavailable to many...
June 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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