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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907884/availability-and-affordability-of-essential-medicines-implications-for-global-diabetes-treatment
#1
REVIEW
David Beran, Margaret Ewen, Kasia Lipska, Irl B Hirsch, John S Yudkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the key issues with regard to the value, affordability, and availability of diabetes treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the medicines needed to manage diabetes are available as generics and, if purchased appropriately, can be made affordable to many individuals and systems. With new treatments for diabetes, additional costs to individuals and systems need to be assessed in terms of added clinical benefit and financial impact...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904220/monographs-for-medicines-on-who-s-model-list-of-essential-medicines
#2
Lukas Roth, Melissa Adler, Tanvi Jain, Daniel Bempong
Objective: To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. Methods: In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871869/essential-diagnostics-for-the-use-of-world-health-organization-essential-medicines
#3
Lee F Schroeder, Jeannette Guarner, Timothy K Amukele
BACKGROUND: There are numerous barriers to achieving high-quality laboratory diagnostic testing in resource-limited countries. These include inconsistent supply chains, variable quality of diagnostic devices, lack of human and financial resources, the ever-growing list of available tests, and a historical reliance on syndromic treatment algorithms. A list of essential diagnostics based on an accepted standard like the WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) could coordinate stakeholders in the strengthening of laboratory capacity globally...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734843/understanding-of-for-whom-under-what-conditions-and-how-the-compulsory-licensing-of-pharmaceuticals-works-in-brazil-and-thailand-a-realist-synthesis
#4
Kyung-Bok Son, Chang-Yup Kim, Tae-Jin Lee
When pharmaceuticals are not fully available mainly due to the high cost of medicines, a government can issue compulsory licensing (CL). It is well documented that Brazil and Thailand have notably attempted CL. A realist review was undertaken to understand the identical social interventions in comparative settings, and to draw practical implications for attempting CL relevant for middle-income countries in the era of high-cost medicines. CL is not only a politically well-devised measure to achieve universal health coverage, but also a tentative commitment, which is determined both at the country level and at the global level...
May 8, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730648/metrological-traceability-and-harmonization-of-medical-tests-a-quantum-leap-forward-is-needed-to-keep-pace-with-globalization-and-stringent-ivd-regulations-in-the-21st-century
#5
Christa Cobbaert, Nico Smit, Philippe Gillery
In our efforts to advance the profession and practice of clinical laboratory medicine, strong coordination and collaboration are needed more than ever before. At the dawn of the 21st century, medical laboratories are facing many unmet clinical needs, a technological revolution promising a plethora of better biomarkers, financial constraints, a growing scarcity of well-trained laboratory technicians and a sharply increasing number of International Organization for Standardization guidelines and new regulations to which medical laboratories should comply in order to guarantee safety and effectiveness of medical test results...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695301/health-in-yemen-losing-ground-in-war-time
#6
Charbel El Bcheraoui, Aisha O Jumaan, Michael L Collison, Farah Daoud, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: The effect of the ongoing war in Yemen on maternal and child health (MCH) has not been comprehensively assessed. Providing a situational analysis at the governorate level is critical to assist in planning a response and allocating resources. METHODS: We used multiple national- and governorate-level data sources to provide estimates of 12 relevant MCH indicators in 2016 around child vaccination, and child and maternal nutritional status, and the change in these estimates for the period 2013-2016 based on shock variables including change in gross domestic product, burden of airstrikes per 1000 population, change in access to untreated water sources and unimproved toilets, and change in wheat flour prices...
April 25, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689073/liver-disease-burden-and-required-treatment-expenditures-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-in-thailand-implications-for-hcv-elimination-in-the-new-therapeutic-era-a-population-based-study
#7
Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Nipaporn Siripon, Nawarat Posuwan, Chompoonut Auphimai, Sirapa Klinfueng, Napha Thanetkongtong, Viboonsak Vuthitanachot, Supapith Saiyatha, Chaiwat Thongmai, Saowakon Sochoo, Natnada Pongsuwan, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Yong Poovorawan
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been decreasing globally, but the growing effects of HCV-related morbidity and mortality remain of concern. Advances in curative medicine, involving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), have led many countries to aim to eradicate HCV. Information on epidemiology and disease burden is essential for national policy development. Thus, this study aimed to determine the HCV-related hepatic disease burden in areas of Thailand with high and average HCV prevalence in order to extrapolate the viral burden across Thailand...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604079/genomic-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms
#8
REVIEW
Shawn E Hawken, Evan S Snitkin
The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (rGNB) across global healthcare networks presents a significant threat to public health. As the number of effective antibiotics available to treat these resistant organisms dwindles, it is essential that we devise more effective strategies for controlling their proliferation. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has emerged as a disruptive technology that has transformed our understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of diverse rGNB species, and it has the potential to guide strategies for controlling the evolution and spread of resistance...
March 31, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594358/production-of-l-valine-from-metabolically-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoyuan Wang, Hailing Zhang, Peter J Quinn
L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production...
May 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568714/oral-health-practices-among-pakistani-physicians
#10
Syeda H Fatima, Sajida Naseem, Sara A Awan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zainab Ali, Najeeb A Khan
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted...
January 21, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566381/the-research-cycle-improving-care-and-outcomes-for-newborn-infants
#11
William McGuire, Henry L Halliday
Ensuring that policies and practice in perinatal care are informed by evidence from high-quality research is fundamental to improving outcomes for newborn infants and their families. Effective interventions in the perinatal period can have a life-long impact disproportionate to their costs. Many of the major advances in care that have transformed outcomes for preterm and sick newborn infants have been informed by empirical and applied health research. Conversely, there are examples of life-long adverse consequences for infants and families that are a legacy of practices based on poor-quality evidence...
March 22, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564159/estimated-costs-of-production-and-potential-prices-for-the-who-essential-medicines-list
#12
Andrew M Hill, Melissa J Barber, Dzintars Gotham
Introduction: There are persistent gaps in access to affordable medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) includes medicines considered necessary for functional health systems. Methods: A generic price estimation formula was developed by reviewing published analyses of cost of production for medicines and assuming manufacture in India, which included costs of formulation, packaging, taxation and a 10% profit margin. Data on per-kilogram prices of active pharmaceutical ingredient exported from India were retrieved from an online database...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560135/personal-factors-and-their-relevance-for-the-assessment-and-allocation-of-benefits-in-social-medicine-and-rehabilitation
#13
EDITORIAL
Wolfgang Seger, Sabine Grotkamp, Wolfgang Cibis
A broad and common understanding of the nature of Personal Factors contributes and initiates a dialogue between professionals involved in health care to gain a comprehensive perspective regarding an individual's health condition and accurately allocate social benefits and medical interventions. Personal Factors play an essential role in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the underlying Bio-Psycho-Social Disease Model. To date, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has not classified Personal Factors for global use despite their impact on the functioning of individuals as facilitators or barriers...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558564/systems-approaches-to-optimizing-deep-brain-stimulation-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550741/recent-advances-in-veterinary-applications-of-structural-vaccinology
#15
REVIEW
Bryan Charleston, Simon P Graham
The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550030/delivering-modern-high-quality-affordable-pathology-and-laboratory-medicine-to-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-call-to-action
#16
REVIEW
Susan Horton, Richard Sullivan, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Mark Lawler
Modern, affordable pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) systems are essential to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals for health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this last in a Series of three papers about PALM in LMICs, we discuss the policy environment and emphasise three crucial high-level actions that are needed to deliver universal health coverage. First, nations need national strategic laboratory plans; second, these plans require adequate financing for implementation; and last, pathologists themselves need to take on leadership roles to advocate for the centrality of PALM to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health...
May 12, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516231/a-call-for-improved-transparency-in-financial-aspects-of-clinical-trials-a-case-study-of-the-create-x-trial-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine
#17
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
June 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488547/-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-consumption-in-a-neonatology-unit-a-team-work-to-promote-the-rational-use-of-antibiotics
#18
Elisa Jiménez, Nicolás Valls, Patricio Astudillo, Cristian Valls, Gabriel Cavada, Alejandra Sandoval, Angélica Alegría, Gabriela Ortega, Daniela Núñez, Patricia Mena
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics (ATB) are drugs widely used in hospitalized newborns. The indiscriminate use of ATBs promote the rise of resistant bacteria to the most commonly indicated antimicrobials. In addition, ATB prescription presents associations to morbidity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, late sepsis and even death. All of the above leads to an increase in health care costs. AIM: To record and to evaluate trends of antibiotic use over time in hospitalized NB in the Neonatology Unit at Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486756/failing-to-retain-a-new-generation-of-doctors-qualitative-insights-from-a-high-income-country
#19
Niamh Humphries, Sophie Crowe, Ruairí Brugha
BACKGROUND: The failure of high-income countries, such as Ireland, to achieve a self-sufficient medical workforce has global implications, particularly for low-income, source countries. In the past decade, Ireland has doubled the number of doctors it trains annually, but because of its failure to retain doctors, it remains heavily reliant on internationally trained doctors to staff its health system. To halve its dependence on internationally trained doctors by 2030, in line with World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations, Ireland must become more adept at retaining doctors...
February 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466927/-we-own-the-illness-a-qualitative-study-of-networks-in-two-communities-with-mixed-ethnicity-in-northern-norway
#20
Anette Langås-Larsen, Anita Salamonsen, Agnete Egilsdatter Kristoffersen, Torunn Hamran, Bjørg Evjen, Trine Stub
BACKGROUND: When people in Northern Norway get ill, they often use traditional medicine. The global aim of this study was to examine the extended family networks' function and responsibility in cases of illness in the family, in two Northern Norwegian communities with a population of mixed ethnicity. METHODS: Semi-structured individual interviews with 13 participants and 4 focus group interviews with total 11 participants were conducted. The text data was transcribed verbatim and analysed based on the criteria for content analysis...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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