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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020562/a-question-of-social-justice-how-policies-of-profit-negate-engagement-of-developing-world-bioethicists-and-undermine-global-bioethics
#1
Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser, Tiffany Moxham, Raymond De Vries
We identify the ways the policies of leading international bioethics journals limit the participation of researchers working in the resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the development of the field of bioethics. Lack of access to essential scholarly resources makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many LMIC bioethicists to learn from, meaningfully engage in, and further contribute to the global bioethics discourse. Underrepresentation of LMIC perspectives in leading journals sustains the hegemony of Western bioethics, limits the presentation of diverse moral visions of life, health, and medicine, and undermines aspirations to create a truly "global" bioethics...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948293/-the-role-of-german-official-medicines-control-laboratories-in-combating-counterfeit-medicines
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Wiegard, Matthias Heuermann
An official medicines control laboratory (OMCL) provides an important contribution to combat counterfeit and illegal medicines. The OMCL supports the competent authorities in controlling the quality of authorised medicinal products in the legal supply chain. For detecting counterfeit medicines in the legal supply chain, a risk-based approach in choice of products is conducted. Furthermore, the OMCL analyses suspicious medicines from the illegal supply chain for any other authority. The chemical analysis of a suspicious sample is needed to identify such a sample as a counterfeit medicine...
September 25, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922959/compliance-to-the-primary-health-care-treatment-guidelines-and-the-essential-medicines-list-in-the-management-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-correctional-centres-in-south-africa-findings-and-implications
#3
Tammy B Matsitse, Elvera Helberg, Johanna C Meyer, Brian Godman, Amos Massele, Natalie Schellack
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global concern and a growing health crisis. Additionally, evidence has shown that non-compliance to treatment guidelines, especially in the management of communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), has the potential of further enhancing AMR rates. Data on the extent of these challenges in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in correctional centres in South Africa (SA) is limited. Hence this study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with the 2008 PHC Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List (PHC STGs/EML) in the management of STIs, and to identify potential factors contributing to the compliance and non-compliance to guide future strategies...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914185/power-potential-and-pitfalls-in-global-health-academic-partnerships-review-and-reflections-on-an-approach-in-nepal
#4
David Citrin, Stephen Mehanni, Bibhav Acharya, Lena Wong, Isha Nirola, Rekha Sherchan, Bikash Gauchan, Khem Bahadur Karki, Dipendra Raman Singh, Sriram Shamasunder, Phuoc Le, Dan Schwarz, Ryan Schwarz, Binod Dangal, Santosh Kumar Dhungana, Sheela Maru, Ramesh Mahar, Poshan Thapa, Anant Raut, Mukesh Adhikari, Indira Basnett, Shankar Prasad Kaluanee, Grace Deukmedjian, Scott Halliday, Duncan Maru
BACKGROUND: Global health academic partnerships are centered around a core tension: they often mirror or reproduce the very cross-national inequities they seek to alleviate. On the one hand, they risk worsening power dynamics that perpetuate health disparities; on the other, they form an essential response to the need for healthcare resources to reach marginalized populations across the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes the broader landscape of global health academic partnerships, including challenges to developing ethical, equitable, and sustainable models...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911662/pharmacokinetic-interactions-of-herbal-medicines-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Tun-Pin Hsueh, Wan-Ling Lin, Tung-Hu Tsai
Chronic liver disease is a serious global health problem, and an increasing number of patients are seeking alternative medicines or complementary treatment. Herbal medicines account for 16.8% of patients with chronic liver disease who use complementary and alternative therapies. A survey of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan reported that Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xia-Yao-San, and Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Sho-saiko-to) were the most frequent formula prescriptions for chronic hepatitis used by traditional Chinese medicine physicians...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885519/preparing-global-trauma-nurses-for-leadership-roles-in-global-trauma-systems
#6
Sol Angelica Muñiz, Richard W Lang, Lisa Falcon, Jasmine Garces-King, Suzanne Willard, Gregory L Peck
Trauma leads to 5.7 million annual deaths globally, accounting for 25%-33% of global unintentional deaths and 90% of the global trauma burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and the World Health Organization assert that emergent and essential surgical capacity building and trauma system improvement are essential to address the global burden of trauma. In response, the Rutgers Global Surgery program, the School of Nursing and Medicine, and the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital faculty collaborated in the first Interprofessional Models in Global Injury Care and Education Symposium in June 2016...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877208/surveillance-for-falsified-and-substandard-medicines-in-africa-and-asia-by-local-organizations-using-the-low-cost-gphf-minilab
#7
Albert Petersen, Nadja Held, Lutz Heide
BACKGROUND: Substandard and falsified medical products present a serious threat to public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Their identification using pharmacopeial analysis is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Simple, low-cost technologies are required in addition to full pharmacopeial analysis in order to accomplish widespread routine surveillance for poor-quality medicines in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Ten faith-based drug supply organizations in seven countries of Africa and Asia were each equipped with a Minilab of the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF, Frankfurt, Germany), suitable for the analysis of about 85 different essential medicines by thin-layer chromatography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836974/insulin-prices-availability-and-affordability-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-pharmacies-in-hubei-province-china
#8
Chenxi Liu, Xinping Zhang, Chaojie Liu, Margaret Ewen, Zinan Zhang, Guoqin Liu
BACKGROUND: Poor access to affordable insulin results in serious and needless complications and premature deaths for those with diabetes who need this essential medicine. To help address this issue, we assessed insulin availability, prices, affordability and price components in Hubei Province as China has the heaviest burden of diabetes globally. METHODS: In 2016, insulin availability and price data was collected in the capital and five other cities. A total of 30 public sector outlets (hospitals and primary care institutions) and 30 private pharmacies were sampled, using an adaptation of the World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology, Data was collected for all human and analogue insulins in stock, then analyzed by type (prandial, basal or pre-mixed) and duration of action...
August 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813502/addressing-the-challenge-of-high-priced-prescription-drugs-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-a-systematic-review-of-drug-life-cycles-therapeutic-drug-markets-and-regulatory-frameworks
#9
REVIEW
Toon van der Gronde, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Toine Pieters
CONTEXT: Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. METHOD: A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. FINDINGS: Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796289/medicine-is-not-health-care-food-is-health-care-plant-metabolic-engineering-diet-and-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Cathie Martin, Jie Li
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752028/approaches-to-establish-q-markers-for-the-quality-standards-of-traditional-chinese-medicines
#11
REVIEW
Wenzhi Yang, Yibei Zhang, Wanying Wu, Luqi Huang, Dean Guo, Changxiao Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706333/availability-of-pediatric-evaluated-formulations-in-serbia
#12
Bojana Božić, Sanja Stupar, Duško Stupar, Uroš Babić, Milica Bajčetić
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the availability and coverage by health insurance reimbursement of pediatric formulations labeled for children up to the age of 12 in Serbia. To provide good insight in general availability of pediatric medicines, results were compared with the World Health Organization's (WHO) "Model List of Essential Medicines for Children" and with published evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sources of information about medicines are the Summary of Product Characteristics, National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) Drug Lists, WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines for Children, and Serbia's official drug registry (2013)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685037/integrating-palliative-care-into-national-health-systems-in-africa-a-multi-country-intervention-study
#13
Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Emmanuel Luyirika, Mairead Murphy, Liz Namukwaya, Fatia Kiyange, Mackuline Atieno, Emilly Kemigisha-Ssali, Jenny Hunt, Kaly Snell, Scott A Murray, Mhoira Leng
BACKGROUND: The WHO is calling for the integration of palliative care in all health care settings globally. METHODS: A 3.5-year program was implemented in 12 government hospitals, three each in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. A four-pillared approach of advocacy, staff training, service delivery strengthening and international and regional partnership working was utilized. A baseline assessment was undertaken to ascertain needs, and 27 indicators were agreed to guide and evaluate the intervention...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673401/an-exposome-perspective-early-life-events-and-immune-development-in-a-changing-world
#14
REVIEW
Harald Renz, Patrick G Holt, Michael Inouye, Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Peter D Sly
Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system. The result is a transformed view of future prevention and treatment of chronic noncommunicable diseases, including allergy. Paradigm-shifting gains in scientific knowledge are occurring at a time of rapid global environmental change, urbanization, and biodiversity losses...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651631/in-which-developing-countries-are-patents-on-essential-medicines-being-filed
#15
Reed F Beall, Rosanne Blanchet, Amir Attaran
BACKGROUND: This article is based upon data gathered during a study conducted in partnership with the World Intellectual Property Organization on the patent status of products appearing on the World Health Organization's 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines (MLEM). It is a statistical analysis aimed at answering: in which developing countries are patents on essential medicines being filed? METHODS: Patent data were collected by linking those listed in the United States and Canada's medicine patent registers to corresponding patents in developing countries using two international patent databases (INPADOC and Derwent) via a commerical-grade patent search platform (Thomson Innovation)...
June 26, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#16
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645980/association-between-human-herpesvirus-infections-and-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer, Andrew C Hayward, Angelique Mavrodaris, Basil H Ridha, Martin Rossor, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Persisting neurotropic viruses are proposed to increase the risk of dementia, but evidence of association from robust, adequately powered population studies is lacking. This is essential to inform clinical trials of targeted preventive interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will carry out a comprehensive systematic review of published and grey literature of the association between infection with, reactivation of, vaccination against or treatment of any of the eight human herpesviruses and dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632011/essential-public-health-competencies-for-medical-students-establishing-a-consensus-in-family-medicine
#18
Christopher P Morley, Scott R Rosas, Ranit Mishori, William Jordan, Yumi Shitama Jarris, Family Medicine/Public Health Competencies Work Group, Jacob Prunuske
Phenomenon: The integration of public health (PH) competency training into medical education, and further integration of PH and primary care, has been urged by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. However, PH competencies are numerous, and no consensus exists over which competencies are most important for adoption by current trainees. Our objective was to conduct a group concept mapping exercise with stakeholders identifying the most important and feasible PH skills to incorporate in medical and residency curricula...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625144/detection-of-poor-quality-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-act-medicines-marketed-in-benin-using-simple-and-advanced-analytical-techniques
#19
Achille Yemoa, Védaste Habyalimana, Jérémie K Mbinze, Victoria Crickboom, Benjamin Muhigirwa, Agnès Ngoya, Pierre-Yves Sacré, Fernand Gbaguidi, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Philippe Hubert, Roland D Marini
BACKGROUND: Poor quality antimalarial medicines still represent a threat to the public health, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa who bears a disproportionate share of the global burden of malaria. It is essential and urgent to strengthen mechanisms against counterfeit medicines. One of the approaches is regular market surveillance through quality controls. METHODS: 12 samples of artemether/lumefantrine were collected from formal and informal drug sellers in Cotonou (Benin) as well as additional other similar samples from Rwanda (13 samples) and from D...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606191/no-calm-after-the-storm-a-systematic-review-of-human-health-following-flood-and-storm-disasters
#20
Dell D Saulnier, Kim Brolin Ribacke, Johan von Schreeb
Introduction How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters. METHODS: A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters...
October 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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