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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604079/genomic-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms
#1
REVIEW
Shawn E Hawken, Evan S Snitkin
The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (rGNB) across global healthcare networks presents a significant threat to public health. As the number of effective antibiotics available to treat these resistant organisms dwindles, it is essential that we devise more effective strategies for controlling their proliferation. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has emerged as a disruptive technology that has transformed our understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of diverse rGNB species, and it has the potential to guide strategies for controlling the evolution and spread of resistance...
March 31, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594358/production-of-l-valine-from-metabolically-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#2
REVIEW
Xiaoyuan Wang, Hailing Zhang, Peter J Quinn
L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production...
March 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568714/oral-health-practices-among-pakistani-physicians
#3
Syeda H Fatima, Sajida Naseem, Sara A Awan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zainab Ali, Najeeb A Khan
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted...
January 21, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566381/the-research-cycle-improving-care-and-outcomes-for-newborn-infants
#4
William McGuire, Henry L Halliday
Ensuring that policies and practice in perinatal care are informed by evidence from high-quality research is fundamental to improving outcomes for newborn infants and their families. Effective interventions in the perinatal period can have a life-long impact disproportionate to their costs. Many of the major advances in care that have transformed outcomes for preterm and sick newborn infants have been informed by empirical and applied health research. Conversely, there are examples of life-long adverse consequences for infants and families that are a legacy of practices based on poor-quality evidence...
March 22, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564159/estimated-costs-of-production-and-potential-prices-for-the-who-essential-medicines-list
#5
Andrew M Hill, Melissa J Barber, Dzintars Gotham
Introduction: There are persistent gaps in access to affordable medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) includes medicines considered necessary for functional health systems. Methods: A generic price estimation formula was developed by reviewing published analyses of cost of production for medicines and assuming manufacture in India, which included costs of formulation, packaging, taxation and a 10% profit margin. Data on per-kilogram prices of active pharmaceutical ingredient exported from India were retrieved from an online database...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560135/personal-factors-and-their-relevance-for-the-assessment-and-allocation-of-benefits-in-social-medicine-and-rehabilitation
#6
EDITORIAL
Wolfgang Seger, Sabine Grotkamp, Wolfgang Cibis
A broad and common understanding of the nature of Personal Factors contributes and initiates a dialogue between professionals involved in health care to gain a comprehensive perspective regarding an individual's health condition and accurately allocate social benefits and medical interventions. Personal Factors play an essential role in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the underlying Bio-Psycho-Social Disease Model. To date, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has not classified Personal Factors for global use despite their impact on the functioning of individuals as facilitators or barriers...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558564/systems-approaches-to-optimizing-deep-brain-stimulation-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550741/recent-advances-in-veterinary-applications-of-structural-vaccinology
#8
REVIEW
Bryan Charleston, Simon P Graham
The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550030/delivering-modern-high-quality-affordable-pathology-and-laboratory-medicine-to-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-call-to-action
#9
REVIEW
Susan Horton, Richard Sullivan, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Mark Lawler
Modern, affordable pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) systems are essential to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals for health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this last in a Series of three papers about PALM in LMICs, we discuss the policy environment and emphasise three crucial high-level actions that are needed to deliver universal health coverage. First, nations need national strategic laboratory plans; second, these plans require adequate financing for implementation; and last, pathologists themselves need to take on leadership roles to advocate for the centrality of PALM to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516231/a-call-for-improved-transparency-in-financial-aspects-of-clinical-trials-a-case-study-of-the-create-x-trial-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine
#10
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488547/-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-consumption-in-a-neonatology-unit-a-team-work-to-promote-the-rational-use-of-antibiotics
#11
Elisa Jiménez, Nicolás Valls, Patricio Astudillo, Cristian Valls, Gabriel Cavada, Alejandra Sandoval, Angélica Alegría, Gabriela Ortega, Daniela Núñez, Patricia Mena
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics (ATB) are drugs widely used in hospitalized newborns. The indiscriminate use of ATBs promote the rise of resistant bacteria to the most commonly indicated antimicrobials. In addition, ATB prescription presents associations to morbidity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, late sepsis and even death. All of the above leads to an increase in health care costs. AIM: To record and to evaluate trends of antibiotic use over time in hospitalized NB in the Neonatology Unit at Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486756/failing-to-retain-a-new-generation-of-doctors-qualitative-insights-from-a-high-income-country
#12
Niamh Humphries, Sophie Crowe, Ruairí Brugha
BACKGROUND: The failure of high-income countries, such as Ireland, to achieve a self-sufficient medical workforce has global implications, particularly for low-income, source countries. In the past decade, Ireland has doubled the number of doctors it trains annually, but because of its failure to retain doctors, it remains heavily reliant on internationally trained doctors to staff its health system. To halve its dependence on internationally trained doctors by 2030, in line with World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations, Ireland must become more adept at retaining doctors...
February 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466927/-we-own-the-illness-a-qualitative-study-of-networks-in-two-communities-with-mixed-ethnicity-in-northern-norway
#13
Anette Langås-Larsen, Anita Salamonsen, Agnete Egilsdatter Kristoffersen, Torunn Hamran, Bjørg Evjen, Trine Stub
BACKGROUND: When people in Northern Norway get ill, they often use traditional medicine. The global aim of this study was to examine the extended family networks' function and responsibility in cases of illness in the family, in two Northern Norwegian communities with a population of mixed ethnicity. METHODS: Semi-structured individual interviews with 13 participants and 4 focus group interviews with total 11 participants were conducted. The text data was transcribed verbatim and analysed based on the criteria for content analysis...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423186/assessment-of-health-facility-capacity-to-provide-newborn-care-in-bangladesh-haiti-malawi-senegal-and-tanzania
#14
Rebecca Winter, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Wenjuan Wang, Lindsay Mallick
Background: Despite the importance of health facility capacity to provide comprehensive care, the most widely used indicators for global monitoring of maternal and child health remain contact measures which assess women's use of services only and not the capacity of health facilities to provide those services; there is a gap in monitoring health facilities' capacity to provide newborn care services in low and middle income countries. Methods: In this study we demonstrate a measurable framework for assessing health facility capacity to provide newborn care using open access, nationally-representative Service Provision Assessment (SPA) data from the Demographic Health Surveys Program...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421465/rethinking-health-sector-procurement-as-developmental-linkages-in-east-africa
#15
Maureen Mackintosh, Paula Tibandebage, Mercy Karimi Njeru, Joan Kariuki Kungu, Caroline Israel, Phares G M Mujinja
Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416995/prevalence-of-risk-factors-of-noncommunicable-diseases-in-a-rural-population-of-district-gautam-budh-nagar-uttar-pradesh-using-the-world-health-organization-steps-approach
#16
Shalini Srivastav, Harsh Mahajan, Sonia Goel, Sidhyartha Mukherjee
Context: Globally, it is estimated that by 2020, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will account for 73% of deaths and 60% of disease burden. India is in the midst of an epidemiological transition leading to increasing the prevalence of NCDs. Targeting the risk factors for NCDs is recognized as an essential preventive strategy. Aims: The rationale of this study was to decipher the baseline data on the prevalence of NCD risk factors among the rural population. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 207 adults in the rural catchment area of the Department of Community Medicine...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406862/modernizing-the-world-health-organization-list-of-essential-medicines-for-preventing-and-controlling-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sandeep P Kishore, Evan Blank, David J Heller, Amisha Patel, Alexander Peters, Matthew Price, Mahesh Vidula, Valentin Fuster, Oyere Onuma, Mark D Huffman, Rajesh Vedanthan
The World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) is a key tool for improving global access to medicines for all conditions, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The WHO EML is used by member states to determine their national essential medicine lists and policies and to guide procurement of medicines in the public sector. Here, we describe our efforts to modernize the EML for global CVD prevention and control. We review the recent history of applications to add, delete, and change indications for CVD medicines, with the aim of aligning the list with contemporary clinical practice guidelines...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380694/herbal-immunomodulators-a-remedial-panacea-for-the-designing-and-developing-effective-drugs-and-medicines-current-scenario-and-future-prospects
#18
Ruchi Tiwari, Shyma K Latheef, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Mohammed Hussen Bule, Kuldeep Dhama, Hari Abdul Samad, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Mayada Ragab Farag
Constant exposure to various stressors, such as immune pressure, rapidly increasing population, deleterious changes in the ecosystem, climate change, infection with emerging and re-emerging pathogens, and fast-paced lifestyle, is a critical factor in the globally increasing incidences of immunocompromising health conditions, as well as stress. Synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, which are widely available in the commercial market, may be highly efficacious, but most are immunosuppressive and exert many side effects...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318114/the-impact-of-the-national-essential-medicines-policy-on-rational-drug-use-in-primary-care-institutions-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#19
Jianqian Chao, Jiangyi Gu, Hua Zhang, Huanghui Chen, Zhenchun Wu
Background: Essential medicine policy is a successful global health policy to promote rational drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) on the rational drug use in primary care institutions in Jiangsu Province of China. Methods: In this exploratory study, a multistage, stratified, random sampling was used to select 3400 prescriptions from 17 primary care institutions who implemented the NEMP before (Jan 2010) and after the implementation of the NEMP (Jan 2014)...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261103/calli-essential-oils-synergize-with-lawsone-against-multidrug-resistant-pathogens
#20
Sameh S M Soliman, Abrar I Alsaadi, Eman G Youssef, Gregory Khitrov, Ayman M Noreddin, Mohamed I Husseiny, Ashraf S Ibrahim
The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes...
December 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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