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mitochondrial immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144508/ly6g-neutrophil-derived-mir-223-inhibits-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-mitochondrial-damp-induced-acute-lung-injury
#1
Zunyong Feng, Shimei Qi, Yue Zhang, Zhilin Qi, Liang Yan, Jing Zhou, Fang He, Qianqian Li, Yanyan Yang, Qun Chen, Shi Xiao, Qiang Li, Yang Chen, Yao Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) mediates RNA interference to regulate a variety of innate immune processes, but how miRNAs coordinate the mechanisms underlying acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in patients with pulmonary inflammatory injury is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-223 limits the number of Ly6G+ neutrophils and inhibits the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome to alleviate ALI induced by mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) (MTDs). miR-223 expression is increased in the lungs of MTD-induced mice or ARDS patients following trauma/transfusion or following the physiological remission of ALI/ARDS...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143658/a-key-enzyme-of-animal-steroidogenesis-can-function-in-plants-enhancing-their-immunity-and-accelerating-the-processes-of-growth-and-development
#2
George V Shpakovski, Svetlana G Spivak, Irina N Berdichevets, Olga G Babak, Svetlana V Kubrak, Alexander V Kilchevsky, Andrey V Aralov, Ivan Yu Slovokhotov, Dmitry G Shpakovski, Ekaterina N Baranova, Marat R Khaliluev, Elena K Shematorova
BACKGROUND: The initial stage of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in animals occurs in the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, where cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) encoded by the CYP11A1 gene catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all the steroid hormones, starting with progesterone. This stage is missing in plants where mitochondrial cytochromes P450 (the mito CYP clan) have not been found. Generating transgenic plants with a mitochondrial type P450 from animals would offer an interesting option to verify whether plant mitochondria could serve as another site of P450 monooxygenase reaction for the steroid hormones biosynthesis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132538/immunometabolic-profiling-of-t-cells-from-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-an-impairment-in-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration
#4
Claudia La Rocca, Fortunata Carbone, Veronica De Rosa, Alessandra Colamatteo, Mario Galgani, Francesco Perna, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Giuseppe Orefice, Ilaria Cerillo, Ciro Florio, Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco, Marco Salvetti, Diego Centonze, Antonio Uccelli, Salvatore Longobardi, Andrea Visconti, Giuseppe Matarese
BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is shaped to support specific cell functions since cellular metabolism controls the final outcome of immune response. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease resulting from loss of immune tolerance against central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Metabolic alterations of T cells occurring during MS are not yet well understood and their studies could have relevance in the comprehension of the pathogenetic events leading to loss of immune tolerance to self and to develop novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting MS progression...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128212/liver-proteomic-analysis-of-postpartum-holstein-cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-or-cooling-conditions-during-the-dry-period
#5
Amy L Skibiel, Maya Zachut, Bruno C do Amaral, Yishai Levin, Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress negatively affects cow performance, compromises immune function, and increases susceptibility to metabolic disorders, particularly during the dry period and as cows transition from gestation to lactation. Metabolic adaptations of the liver are critical for successful transition, yet it is unclear how heat stress affects metabolic pathways within the liver at the proteomic level. The objective of this study was to investigate the liver proteome of postpartum cows that were cooled or heat stressed during the dry period to gain insight into how protein expression is altered by prior heat stress and may contribute to performance and disease outcomes...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127360/a-mouse-model-of-autoimmune-cholangitis-via-syngeneic-bile-duct-protein-immunization
#6
Wen-Tao Ma, Qing-Zhi Liu, Jing-Bo Yang, Yan-Qing Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Hong-Di Ma, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the destruction of interlobular biliary ductules, which progressively leads to cholestasis, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Several mouse models have been used to clarify the pathogenesis of PBC and are generally considered reflective of an autoimmune cholangitis. Most models focus on issues of molecular mimicry between the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), the major mitochondrial autoantigen of PBC and xenobiotic cross reactive chemicals...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127027/a-mitochondrial-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-involved-in-innate-immunity-is-essential-for-the-survival-of-chlamys-farreri
#7
Mengqiang Wang, Baojie Wang, Keyong Jiang, Mei Liu, Xiaowei Shi, Lei Wang
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) ubiquitously found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes functions as the first and essential enzyme in the antioxidant system. In the present study, a manganese SOD (designated as CfmtMnSOD) was cloned from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri. The complete cDNA sequence of CfmtMnSOD contained a 681 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a peptide of 226 amino acids. A SOD_Fe_N domain and a SOD_Fe_C domain were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of CfmtMnSOD. The mRNA transcripts of CfmtMnSOD were constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, including gill, gonad, hepatopancreas, hemocytes, mantle and muscle, with the highest expression level in hemocytes...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#8
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122853/genome-wide-screen-for-saccharomyces-cerevisiae%C3%A2-genes-contributing-to-opportunistic-pathogenicity-in-an-invertebrate-model-host
#9
Sujal S Phadke, Calum J Maclean, Serena Y Zhao, Emmi A Mueller, Lucas A Michelotti, Kaitlyn L Norman, Anuj Kumar, Timothy Y James
Environmental opportunistic pathogens can exploit vulnerable hosts through expression of traits selected for in their natural environments. Pathogenicity is a complicated trait underpinned by multiple complex traits, such as thermotolerance, morphology, and stress response. The baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a species with broad environmental tolerance which has been increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we leveraged the genetic resources available in yeast and a model insect species, the greater waxmoth Galleria mellonella, to provide a genome-wide analysis of pathogenicity factors...
November 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121279/clinical-and-preclinical-perspectives-on-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-cipn-a-narrative-review
#10
S J L Flatters, P M Dougherty, L A Colvin
This review provides an update on the current clinical and preclinical understanding of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The overview of the clinical syndrome includes a review of its assessment, diagnosis and treatment. CIPN is caused by several widely-used chemotherapeutics including paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, bortezomib. Severe CIPN may require dose reduction, or cessation, of chemotherapy, impacting on patient survival. While CIPN often resolves after chemotherapy, around 30% of patients will have persistent problems, impacting on function and quality of life...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119250/microscopy-based-high-throughput-assays-enable-multi-parametric-analysis-to-assess-adverse-effects-of-nanomaterials-in-various-cell-lines
#11
Iris Hansjosten, Juliane Rapp, Luisa Reiner, Ruben Vatter, Susanne Fritsch-Decker, Ravindra Peravali, Taina Palosaari, Elisabeth Joossens, Kirsten Gerloff, Peter Macko, Maurice Whelan, Douglas Gilliland, Isaac Ojea-Jimenez, Marco P Monopoli, Louise Rocks, David Garry, Kenneth Dawson, Peter J F Röttgermann, Alexandra Murschhauser, Joachim O Rädler, Selina V Y Tang, Pete Gooden, Marie-France A Belinga-Desaunay, Abdullah O Khan, Sophie Briffa, Emily Guggenheim, Anastasios Papadiamantis, Iseult Lynch, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) selected from a library of over 120 different MNMs with varied compositions, sizes, and surface coatings were tested by four different laboratories for toxicity by high-throughput/-content (HT/C) techniques. The selected particles comprise 14 MNMs composed of CeO2, Ag, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2 with different coatings and surface characteristics at varying concentrations. The MNMs were tested in different mammalian cell lines at concentrations between 0.5 and 250 µg/mL to link physical-chemical properties to multiple adverse effects...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119002/mechanisms-of-liver-disease-in-patients-infected-with-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Matthew B Kaspar, Richard K Sterling
Objective: To describe the various mechanisms of liver disease in patients with HIV infection, and to link these mechanisms to disease states which may utilise them. Background: Non-AIDS causes of morbidity and mortality are becoming increasingly common in patients chronically infected with HIV. In particular, liver-related diseases have risen to become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related death. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving the development of liver disease in these patients is essential when evaluating and caring for these patients...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118026/carbon-monoxide-in-lung-cell-physiology-and-disease
#13
Stefan W Ryter, Kevin C Ma, Augustine M K Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas that has gained recognition as a biological signal transduction effector with properties similar, but not identical, to that of nitric oxide (NO). CO, which binds primarily to heme iron, may activate the hemoprotein guanylate cyclase (sGC), although with lower potency than NO. Furthermore, CO can modulate the activities of several cellular signaling molecules such as p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT, NF-κB, and others. Emerging studies suggest that mitochondria, the energy-generating organelle of cells, represent a key target of CO action in eukaryotes...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117566/cytosolic-recognition-of-rna-drives-the-immune-response-to-heterologous-erythrocytes
#14
Claudia Loetsch, Joanna Warren, Adrienne Laskowski, Rodrigo Vazquez-Lombardi, Christoph Jandl, David B Langley, Daniel Christ, David R Thorburn, David K Ryugo, Jonathan Sprent, Marcel Batten, Cecile King
The archetypal T cell-dependent antigen is sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), which have defined much of what we know about humoral immunity. Early studies using solubilized or sonicated SRBCs argued that the intact structure of SRBCs was important for optimal antibody responses. However, the reason for the requirement of intact SRBCs for the response to polyvalent protein antigen remained unknown. Here, we report that the immune response to SRBCs is driven by cytosolic recognition of SRBC RNA through the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mitochondrial anti-viral signaling adaptor (MAVS) pathway...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117258/lung-epithelial-response-to-cigarette-smoke-and-modulation-by-the-nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor
#15
Lorise C Gahring, Elizabeth J Myers, Diane M Dunn, Robert B Weiss, Scott W Rogers
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a principal contributor to a spectrum of devastating lung diseases whose occurrence and severity may vary between individuals and not appear for decades after prolonged use. One explanation for the variability and delay in disease onset is that nicotine, the addictive component of CS, acts through the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 (α7) to modulate anti-inflammatory protection. In this study we measured the impact α7 signaling has on the mouse distal lung response to side-stream CS exposure for mice of the control genotype (α7G) and those in which the α7-receptor signaling mechanisms are restricted by point mutation (α7E260A:G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117219/cellular-and-exosome-mediated-molecular-defense-mechanism-in-bovine-granulosa-cells-exposed-to-oxidative-stress
#16
Mohammed Saeed-Zidane, Lea Linden, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Eva Held, Christiane Neuhoff, Ernst Tholen, Michael Hoelker, Karl Schellander, Dawit Tesfaye
Various environmental insults including diseases, heat and oxidative stress could lead to abnormal growth, functions and apoptosis in granulosa cells during ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Despite the fact that cells exposed to oxidative stress are responding transcriptionally, the potential release of transcripts associated with oxidative stress response into extracellular space through exosomes is not yet determined. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells in vitro on the cellular and exosome mediated defense mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111328/3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-signaling-pathway-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-microglial-cells
#17
Ji Woong Yang, Seung-Ju Yang, Jung-Min Na, Hoh-Gyu Hahn, Sung-Woo Cho
The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a multiprotein complex with a role in innate immune responses. NLRP3 inflammasome dysfunction is a common feature of chronic inflammatory diseases. Microglia activation is also associated with neuroinflammatory pathologies. We previously reported that 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) reduced hypoxia-induced toxicity by modulating inflammation. However, no studies have elucidated the precise mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory action of KHG26792, in particular via inflammasome mediation...
October 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107116/mitophagy-and-the-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#18
REVIEW
James Harris, Nadia Deen, Shahrzad Zamani, Md Abul Hasnat
Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy in which damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are specifically targeted by autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Studies have demonstrated that loss of autophagy/mitophagy can lead to a build-up of cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial DNA, which can, in turn, activate immune signalling pathways that ultimately lead to the releases of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Moreover, release of these cytokines can subsequently promote the release of others, including IL-23 and IL-17...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107073/immunometabolic-determinants-of-chemoradiotherapy-response-and-survival-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Rosemarie Krupar, Matthias G Hautmann, Ravi R Pathak, Indu Varier, Cassandra McLaren, Doris Gaag, Claus Hellerbrand, Matthias Evert, Simon Laban, Christian Idel, Vlad Sandulache, Sven Perner, Anja K Bosserhoff, Andrew G Sikora
Tumor immune microenvironment and tumor metabolism are major determinants of chemoradiotherapy response. The interdependency and prognostic significance of specific immune and metabolic phenotypes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were assessed and changes in reactive oxygen species were evaluated as a mechanism of treatment response in tumor spheroid/immunocyte co-cultures. Pretreatment tumor biopsies were immunohistochemically characterized in 73 HNSCC patients treated by definitive chemoradiotherapy and correlated with survival...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101035/surfactant-protein-d-attenuates-nitric-oxide-stimulated-apoptosis-in-rat-chondrocyte-by-suppressing-p38-mapk-signaling
#20
Yan Zhou, Jianghua Ming, Yaming Li, Xianjin Du, Ming Deng, Bin He, Jianlin Zhou, Guirong Wang, Shiqing Liu
Innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D), a member of the C-type lectin protein family, plays an indispensable role in host defense and the regulation of inflammation in the lung and other tissues. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of cartilage, with inflammation that causes pathologic changes and tissue damage. However, it is unknown whether there exist SP-D expression and its potential role in the pathogenesis of OA. In this study, we examined SP-D expression and explored its biological function in a sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated rat chondrocytes and surgically-induced rat OA model...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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