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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#1
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782339/transcription-factors-foxo-in-the-regulation-of-homeostatic-hematopoiesis
#2
Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work in the past decade has revealed key functions of the evolutionary conserved transcription factors Forkhead box O (FOXO) in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis. Here the diverse array of FOXO functions in normal and diseased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is reviewed and the main findings in the past decade are highlighted. Future work should reveal FOXO-regulated networks whose alterations contribute to hematological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified unanticipated FOXO functions in hematopoiesis including in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), erythroid cells, and immune cells...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780380/mitochondrial-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-from-inflammatory-signaling-to-human-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Serge Grazioli, Jérôme Pugin
Over the recent years, much has been unraveled about the pro-inflammatory properties of various mitochondrial molecules once they are leaving the mitochondrial compartment. On entering the cytoplasm or the extracellular space, mitochondrial DAMPs (also known as mitochondrial alarmins) can become pro-inflammatory and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses by activating cell surface and intracellular receptors. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of mitochondrial DAMPs is associated with severity, has prognosis value in human diseases, and contributes to the dysregulated process observed in numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as in ischemic heart disease and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769317/lysophospholipids-induce-innate-immune-transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-resulting-in-prolonged-endothelial-activation
#5
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766642/arf1-and-er-mitochondrial-tethering-a-new-trick-for-an-old-dog
#6
Dana A Davis
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria tethering by the ERMES complex is critical for numerous mitochondrial functions in fungi. It was recently discovered that the GTPase Arf1, which regulates within Golgi vesicular trafficking also affects ER-mitochondrial tethering potentially through ERMES. In Candida albicans, Arf1 not only functions in vesicular trafficking and affects ERMES but also impacts reactive oxygen species generation, which is a key immune defense molecule.
May 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764564/mitochondria-mediated-defense-mechanisms-against-pathogens-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Sujeong Kwon, Eun Ji E Kim, Seung-Jae V Lee
Mitochondria are crucial organelles that generate cellular energy and metabolites. Recent studies indicate that mitochondria also regulate immunity. In this review, we discuss key roles of mitochondria in immunity against pathogen infection and underlying mechanisms, focusing on discoveries using Caenorhabditis elegans. Various mitochondrial processes, including mitochondrial surveillance mechanisms, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), mitophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, contribute to immune responses and resistance of C...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761172/loss-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-aggravates-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-inflammation-during-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#8
Tomohiro Suzuki, Shoko Minagawa, Takashi Yamazaki, Takatomo Arai, Mai Kanai, Satoko Shinjo, Nobuhito Goda
Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is closely associated with acute hepatic inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is activated during immunological processes and regulates gene expressions in various types of immune cells. Although HIF-1 controls the differentiation and functions of conventional T cells in chronic inflammation, the pathological importance of HIF-1 in innate-like T cells during acute inflammation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1 in innate-like γδ T cells during APAP-induced acute liver injury...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759891/the-putative-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-dysfunction-across-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focus-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-bipolar-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, Ken Walder, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
Sleep and circadian abnormalities are prevalent and burdensome manifestations of diverse neuro-immune diseases, and may aggravate the course of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying pathophysiology of sleep abnormalities across neuropsychiatric disorders remains unclear, and may involve the inter-play of several clinical variables and mechanistic pathways. In this review, we propose a heuristic framework in which reciprocal interactions of immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial pathways may drive sleep abnormalities across potentially neuroprogressive disorders...
April 4, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759138/impact-of-imipramine-on-proteome-of-rat-primary-glial-cells
#10
Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Bianka Swiderska, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Gabriela Prus, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Ewa Obuchowicz
Microglia and astrocytes, two types of glial cells are known to be important targets for antidepressant drugs. Here we used a comprehensive proteomic analysis to examine the effect of imipramine on rat primary mixed glial culture. The two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis method allowed us to identify 62 proteins that were altered by imipramine. Functional analysis revealed that imipramine influenced the level of proteins involved in oxidative stress; in particular, it elevated the level of glutathione transferases...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755459/type-i-interferons-autophagy-and-host-metabolism-in-leprosy
#11
REVIEW
Thiago Gomes Toledo Pinto, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes
For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by Mycobacterium leprae and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( NOD2 and TLR1 ), autophagic flux ( PARK2, LRRK2 , and RIPK2 ), effector immune cytokines ( TNF and IL12 ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753338/clonorchis-sinensis-and-clonorchiasis-the-relevance-of-exploring-genetic-variation
#12
Daxi Wang, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Robin B Gasser
Parasitic trematodes (flukes) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in humans. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the most destructive parasitic worms in humans in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. Although C. sinensis infection can be controlled relatively well using anthelmintics, the worm is carcinogenic, inducing cholangiocarcinoma and causing major suffering in ~15 million people in Asia. This chapter provides an account of C. sinensis and clonorchiasis research-covering aspects of biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunity, diagnosis, treatment and control, genetics and genomics...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752301/mitochondrial-cyclophilin-d-regulates-t-cell-metabolic-responses-and-disease-tolerance-to-tuberculosis
#13
Fanny Tzelepis, Julianna Blagih, Nargis Khan, Joshua Gillard, Laura Mendonca, Dominic G Roy, Eric H Ma, Philippe Joubert, Russell G Jones, Maziar Divangahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is one of the most ancient human pathogens, yet the exact mechanism(s) of host defense against Mtb remains unclear. Although one-third of the world's population is chronically infected with Mtb , only 5 to 10% develop active disease. This indicates that, in addition to resistance mechanisms that control bacterial burden, the host has also evolved strategies to tolerate the presence of Mtb to limit disease severity. We identify mitochondrial cyclophilin D (CypD) as a critical checkpoint of T cell metabolism that controls the expansion of activated T cells...
May 11, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751949/platelet-storage-lesions-what-more-do-we-know-now
#14
REVIEW
Monica Suet Ying Ng, John-Paul Tung, John Francis Fraser
Platelet concentrate (PC) transfusions are a lifesaving adjunct to control and prevent bleeding in cancer, hematologic, surgical, and trauma patients. Platelet concentrate availability and safety are limited by the development of platelet storage lesions (PSLs) and risk of bacterial contamination. Platelet storage lesions are a series of biochemical, structural, and functional changes that occur from blood collection to transfusion. Understanding of PSLs is key for devising interventions that prolong PC shelf life to improve PC access and wastage...
April 17, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750260/identification-of-mitochondrial-hormone-receptors-in-avian-muscle-cells
#15
K Lassiter, S Dridi, E Greene, B Kong, W G Bottje
The major objective of this study was to assess the expression of mitochondrial hormone receptors for progesterone (PR), estrogen (ER), glucocorticoid (GR), thyroid (TR), and insulin (IR) in avian muscle cells (quail muscle 7, QM7) and in breast muscle of quail and broilers. Visualization of receptor location in QM7 cells was accomplished by immunofluorescence. QM7 cells were stained with Mito Tracker Deep Red CMX, fixed in methanol, immune stained with anti-PR, -GR, -TR, -IR, and -ER primary antibodies overnight at 4°C, and visualized with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody...
May 10, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743987/critical-role-of-zinc-as-either-an-antioxidant-or-a-prooxidant-in-cellular-systems
#16
REVIEW
Sung Ryul Lee
Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743353/trim21-promotes-innate-immune-response-to-rna-viral-infection-through-lys27-linked-polyubiquitination-of-mavs
#17
Binbin Xue, Huiyi Li, Mengmeng Guo, Jingjing Wang, Yan Xu, Xuan Zou, Rilin Deng, Guangdi Li, Haizhen Zhu
Human innate immunity responds to viral infection by activating the production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. The mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS plays a critical role in innate immune response to viral infection. In this study, we show that TRIM21 interacts with MAVS to positively regulate innate immunity. Under viral infection, TRIM21 is upregulated through the IFN/JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRIM21 dramatically impairs innate immune response to viral infection. Moreover, TRIM21 interacts with MAVS and catalyzes the K27-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS, thereby promoting the recruitment of TBK1 to MAVS...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741393/molecular-docking-of-immunogenic-peptide-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-encapsulation-with-polymer-as-vaccine-candidate
#18
Rabia Cakir-Koc, Yasemin Budama-Kilinc, Yagmur Kokcu, Serda Kecel-Gunduz
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely spread parasitic organisms in the world. T. gondii causes primary, chronic infection and mortality. Major surface antigen 1 is the most abundant tachyzoite surface protein and highly conserved between species and causes strong humoural response. Some studies showed that the peptide sequence of surface antigen has immunity. Therefore, tachyzoite surface antigenic peptide sequence is one of the good candidates for vaccine development. However, conformational information and delivery systems are very important parameters for vaccine development...
May 9, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740166/triggering-and-resolution-of-inflammation-in-nash
#19
REVIEW
Susanne Schuster, Daniel Cabrera, Marco Arrese, Ariel E Feldstein
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular injury and different degrees of fibrosis. A central issue in this field relates to the identification of those factors that trigger inflammation, thus fuelling the transition from nonalcoholic fatty liver to NASH. These triggers of liver inflammation might have their origins outside the liver (such as in adipose tissue or the gut) as well as inside the organ (for instance, lipotoxicity, innate immune responses, cell death pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress), both of which contribute to NASH development...
May 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739813/interleukin-1-%C3%AE-activates-a-myc-dependent-metabolic-switch-in-kidney-stromal-cells-necessary-for-progressive-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#20
Dario R Lemos, Michael McMurdo, Gamze Karaca, Julia Wilflingseder, Irina A Leaf, Navin Gupta, Tomoya Miyoshi, Koichiro Susa, Bryce G Johnson, Kirolous Soliman, Guanghai Wang, Ryuji Morizane, Joseph V Bonventre, Jeremy S Duffield
Background Kidney injury is characterized by persisting inflammation and fibrosis, yet mechanisms by which inflammatory signals drive fibrogenesis remain poorly defined. Methods RNA sequencing of fibrotic kidneys from patients with CKD identified a metabolic gene signature comprising loss of mitochondrial and oxidative phosphorylation gene expression with a concomitant increase in regulators and enzymes of glycolysis under the control of PGC1 α and MYC transcription factors, respectively. We modeled this metabolic switch in vivo , in experimental murine models of kidney injury, and in vitro in human kidney stromal cells (SCs) and human kidney organoids...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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