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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666214/metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-mini-review
#1
REVIEW
Cara Tomas, Julia Newton
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665074/parkin-deficiency-modulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-attenuating-an-a20-dependent-negative-feedback-loop
#2
François Mouton-Liger, Thibault Rosazza, Julia Sepulveda-Diaz, Amélie Ieang, Sidi-Mohamed Hassoun, Emilie Claire, Graziella Mangone, Alexis Brice, Patrick P Michel, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Olga Corti
Neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), are usually explored independently. Loss-of-function mutations of PARK2 and PARK6, encoding the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase PINK1, account for a large proportion of cases of autosomal recessive early-onset PD. PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial quality control and have been linked to the modulation of innate immunity pathways. We report here an exacerbation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by specific inducers in microglia and bone marrow-derived macrophages from Park2-/- and Pink1-/- mice...
April 17, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664569/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cd8-t-cell-memory-challenging-current-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Brenda Raud, Peter J McGuire, Russell G Jones, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
CD8+ T cells are key members of the adaptive immune response against infections and cancer. As we discuss in this review, these cells can present diverse metabolic requirements, which have been intensely studied during the past few years. Our current understanding suggests that aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of activated CD8+ T cells, while naive and memory (Tmem ) cells often rely on oxidative phosphorylation, and thus mitochondrial metabolism is a crucial determinant of CD8+ Tmem cell development. Moreover, it has been proposed that CD8+ Tmem cells have a specific requirement for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAO), a process modulated in lymphocytes by the enzyme CPT1A...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661558/genetic-assessment-and-folate-receptor-autoantibodies-in-infantile-onset-cerebral-folate-deficiency-cfd-syndrome
#4
V Th Ramaekers, K Segers, J M Sequeira, M Koenig, L Van Maldergem, V Bours, U Kornak, E V Quadros
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes are defined as neuro-psychiatric conditions with low CSF folate and attributed to different causes such as autoantibodies against the folate receptor-alpha (FR) protein that can block folate transport across the choroid plexus, FOLR1 gene mutations or mitochondrial disorders. High-dose folinic acid treatment restores many neurologic deficits. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Among 36 patients from 33 families the infantile-onset CFD syndrome was diagnosed based on typical clinical features and low CSF folate...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655929/aging-impairs-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-in-classical-monocytes
#5
Brandt D Pence, Johnathan R Yarbro
Aging is a critical healthcare concern, with age-related inflammation disposing individuals to a variety of diseases. Monocytes are affected by the aging process, with increased inflammation and impaired cellular functions such as phagocytosis. Mechanisms by which aging alters monocyte function are unknown, but recent research suggests that the balance of metabolic processes determine immune cell phenotype and function. Given the known association between aging and mitochondrial dysfunction in other tissues, we hypothesized that aging would impair mitochondrial function in monocytes...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652618/transcriptome-network-analysis-reveals-aging-related-mitochondrial-and-proteasomal-dysfunction-and-immune-activation-in-human-thyroid
#6
Byuri Angela Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Young Shin Song, Su-Jin Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Minho Shong, Young Joo Park, Jeong-Sun Seo
BACKGROUND: Elucidating aging-related transcriptomic changes in human organs is necessary to understand the aging physiology and mechanisms, but little is known regarding the thyroid gland. We investigated aging-related transcriptomic alterations in the human thyroid gland and characterized the related molecular functions. METHODS: Publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of 322 thyroid tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project were analyzed...
March 20, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644751/disease-modification-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-approaches-challenges-and-future-considerations
#7
REVIEW
Anthony E Lang, Alberto J Espay
The greatest unmet therapeutic need in Parkinson's disease is the development of treatment that slows the relentless progression of the neurodegenerative process. The concept of "disease modification" encompasses intervention types ranging from those designed to slow the underlying degeneration to treatments directed at regenerating or replacing lost neurons. To date all attempts to develop effective disease-modifying therapy have failed. Many reasons have been proposed for these failures including our rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis and the assumption that each targeted mechanisms of disease apply to most patients with the same clinical diagnosis...
April 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628193/metabolism-metabolomics-and-inflammation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Synthia H Mellon, Aarti Gautam, Rasha Hammamieh, Marti Jett, Owen M Wolkowitz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by classic psychological manifestations, although among the characteristics are significantly increased rates of serious somatic comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, immune dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we assess the evidence for disturbances that may contribute to somatic pathology in inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and circulating metabolites (implicating mitochondrial dysfunction) in individuals with PTSD and in animal models simulating features of PTSD...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626541/use-the-protonmotive-force-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
REVIEW
Brandon J Berry, Adam J Trewin, Andrea M Amitrano, Minsoo Kim, Andrew P Wojtovich
Mitochondrial respiration results in an electrochemical proton gradient, or protonmotive force (pmf), across the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM). The pmf is a form of potential energy consisting of charge (∆ψm ) and chemical (∆pH) components, that together drive ATP production. In a process called uncoupling, proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix independent of ATP production dissipates the pmf and energy is lost as heat. Other events can directly dissipate the pmf independent of ATP production as well, such as chemical exposure or mechanisms involving regulated mitochondrial membrane electrolyte transport...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622694/airway-epithelial-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-modulation-of-fungi-induced-innate-immune-response
#10
Jae Seok Jeong, Kyung Bae Lee, So Ri Kim, Dong Im Kim, Hae Jin Park, Hern-Ku Lee, Hyung Jin Kim, Seong Ho Cho, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Soon Ha Kim, Yong Chul Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory fungal exposure is known to be associated with severe allergic lung inflammation. Airway epithelium is an essential controller of allergic inflammation. An innate immune recognition receptor, nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)-δ in airway epithelium are involved in various inflammatory processes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in fungi-induced allergic lung inflammation and examined the regulatory mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome, focusing on PI3K-δ in airway epithelium...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620269/prohibitin-and-the-extracellular-matrix-are-upregulated-in-murine-alveolar-epithelial-cells-with-lps%C3%A2-induced-acute-injury
#11
Feng Zhang, Dejun Fan, Xiao-Neng Mo
Inflammation of epithelial and endothelial cells accelerates the progress of acute lung injury (ALI), and pulmonary fibrosis is the leading cause of mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) is a pleiotropic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of immune‑mediated disorders, and is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved protein implicated in various cellular functions, including proliferation, apoptosis, tumor suppression, transcription and mitochondrial protein folding...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620224/role-of-col6a3-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
Wei Liu, Li Li, Hua Ye, Huan Tao, Huaqin He
Public transcriptome databases provide a valuable resource for genome‑wide co‑expression network analysis and investigation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie pathogenesis. To discover genes that may affect patient survival, a large‑scale analysis of human colorectal cancer (CRC) datasets that were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus was performed. A gene co‑expression network was constructed using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis (WGCNA). A total of 18 co‑expressed gene modules were identified, of which two genes corresponded to cell migration and the cell cycle, two genes were involved in immune responses, two genes corresponded to mitochondrial function, and one gene corresponded to RNA splicing...
March 23, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619877/the-estrogen-related-receptors-in-metabolism-and-cancer-newer-insights
#13
Harmit S Ranhotra
The eukaryotic nuclear receptors (NRs) super-family of transcriptional factors include the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) that have diverse roles in control of cellular energy balance, general metabolism, growth and development, immunity etc. Mouse knock-out models of specific ERR isoforms (ERRα, ERRβ and ERRγ) exhibit defects in several phenotypic traits. Newer findings indicate important roles of ERRs in the regulation of brown adipocyte tissue mitochondrial oxidative functions as well as metabolic control in association with hypoxia-inducible factors during cellular hypoxic state...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618379/molecular-evidence-for-new-sympatric-cryptic-species-of-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-in-china-a-new-threat-from-aedes-albopictus-subgroup
#14
Yuyan Guo, Zhangyao Song, Lei Luo, Qingmin Wang, Guofa Zhou, Dizi Yang, Daibin Zhong, Xueli Zheng
BACKGROUND: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an indigenous species and the predominant vector of dengue fever in China. Understanding of genetic diversity and structure of the mosquito would facilitate dengue prevention and vector control. Sympatric cryptic species have been identified in the Ae. albopictus subgroup in Southeast Asia; however, little is known about the presence and distribution of cryptic species in China. This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity, evaluate potential new cryptic sibling species, and assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infections in field populations...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616191/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-in-the-control-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondria-and-autophagy-in-cancer-a-maestro-with-a-large-orchestra
#15
REVIEW
Venturina Stagni, Claudia Cirotti, Daniela Barilà
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615075/lipid-accumulation-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-injured-by-iron-depletors
#16
Maida De Bortoli, Elena Taverna, Elisa Maffioli, Patrizia Casalini, Francesco Crisafi, Vikas Kumar, Claudio Caccia, Dario Polli, Gabriella Tedeschi, Italia Bongarzone
BACKGROUND: Current insights into the effects of iron deficiency in tumour cells are not commensurate with the importance of iron in cell metabolism. Studies have predominantly focused on the effects of oxygen or glucose scarcity in tumour cells, while attributing insufficient emphasis to the inadequate supply of iron in hypoxic regions. Cellular responses to iron deficiency and hypoxia are interlinked and may strongly affect tumour metabolism. METHODS: We examined the morphological, proteomic, and metabolic effects induced by two iron chelators-deferoxamine (DFO) and di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT)-on MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607684/tumor-microenvironment-on-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-chemoresistance-in-cancer
#17
Youngjin Han, Untack Cho, Soochi Kim, In Sil Park, Jae Hyun Cho, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
Mitochondria, evolutionally acquired symbionts of eukaryotic cells, are essential cytoplasmic organelles. They are structurally dynamic organelles that continually go through fission and fusion processes in response to various stimuli. Tumor tissue is composed of not just cancer cells but also various cell types like fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem and immune cells. Mitochondrial dynamics of cancer cells has been shown to be significantly affected by features of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia, inflammation and energy deprivation...
April 2, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607607/alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-cell-and-organ-transplantation
#18
Mel Berger, Mingyao Liu, Marc E Uknis, Maria Koulmanda
Limited availability of donor organs and risk of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) seriously restrict organ transplantation. Therapeutics that can prevent or reduce IRI could potentially increase the number of transplants by increasing use of borderline organs and decreasing discards. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase reactant and serine protease inhibitor which limits inflammatory tissue damage. Purified plasma-derived AAT has been well-tolerated in more than 30 years of use to prevent emphysema in AAT deficient individuals...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604197/glutathionylation-a-regulatory-role-of-glutathione-in-physiological-processes
#19
Kristina Dominko, Domagoj Đikić
Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) is an intracellular thiol molecule and a potent antioxidant that participates in the toxic metabolism phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics. It can bind to a variety of proteins in a process known as glutathionylation. Protein glutathionylation is now recognised as one of important posttranslational regulatory mechanisms in cell and tissue physiology. Direct and indirect regulatory roles in physiological processes include glutathionylation of major transcriptional factors, eicosanoids, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO)...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602776/mitocryptides-from-human-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-proteins-activate-neutrophil-formyl-peptide-receptors-receptor-preference-and-signaling-properties
#20
Michael Gabl, Martina Sundqvist, Andre Holdfeldt, Simon Lind, Jonas Mårtensson, Karin Christenson, Takayuki Marutani, Claes Dahlgren, Hidehito Mukai, Huamei Forsman
Phagocytic neutrophils express formyl peptide receptors (FPRs; FPR1 and FPR2) that distinctly recognize peptides starting with an N-formylated methionine (fMet). This is a hallmark of bacterial metabolism; similar to prokaryotes, the starting amino acid in synthesis of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins is an fMet. Mitochondrial cryptic peptides (mitocryptides; MCTs) with an N-terminal fMet could be identified by our innate immune system; however, in contrast to our knowledge about bacterial metabolites, very little is known about the recognition profiles of MCTs...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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