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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227581/aging-of-lymphoid-organs-can-photobiomodulation-reverse-age-associated-thymic-involution-via-stimulation-of-extrapineal-melatonin-synthesis-and-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Denis Odinokov, Michael R Hamblin
Thymic atrophy and the subsequent reduction in T cell production are the most noticeable age-related changes affecting lymphoid organs in the immune system. In fact thymic involution has been described as "programmed aging". New therapeutic approaches such as photobiomodulation (PBM) may reduce or reverse these changes. PBM (also known as low-level laser therapy or LLLT) involves the delivery of non-thermal levels of red or near-infrared light that are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores, in order to prevent tissue death and stimulate healing and regeneration...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226240/optical-computed-tomography-for-spatially-isotropic-four-dimensional-imaging-of-live-single-cells
#2
Laimonas Kelbauskas, Rishabh Shetty, Bin Cao, Kuo-Chen Wang, Dean Smith, Hong Wang, Shi-Hui Chao, Sandhya Gangaraju, Brian Ashcroft, Margaret Kritzer, Honor Glenn, Roger H Johnson, Deirdre R Meldrum
Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of living single cells enables orientation-independent morphometric analysis of the intricacies of cellular physiology. Since its invention, x-ray CT has become indispensable in the clinic for diagnostic and prognostic purposes due to its quantitative absorption-based imaging in true 3D that allows objects of interest to be viewed and measured from any orientation. However, x-ray CT has not been useful at the level of single cells because there is insufficient contrast to form an image...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#3
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221684/ex-vivo-flush-of-the-limb-allograft-reduces-inflammatory-burden-prior-to-transplantation
#5
Kavit R Amin, Alexandra L Ball, Chandanpreet Chhina, Rebecca J Edge, John P Stone, William R Critchley, Jason K Wong, James E Fildes
BACKGROUND: Passenger leucocytes and inflammatory debris transferred from the donor limb to the recipient can induce allorecognition, which activates the host immune response. This is the first study to evaluate whether the transfer of this inflammatory burden can be reduced via post-preservation flush prior to revascularisation, and whether this is influenced by ischaemia. METHODS: Bilateral forelimbs from the same pig were procured and infused with preservation flush and stored on ice...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220699/hiv-1-tat-protein-induces-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-b-lymphocytes-via-mitochondrial-ros-production
#6
Rawan El-Amine, Diego Germini, Vlada V Zakharova, Tatyana Tsfasman, Eugene V Sheval, Ruy A N Louzada, Corinne Dupuy, Chrystèle Bilhou-Nabera, Aline Hamade, Fadia Najjar, Eric Oksenhendler, Marс Lipinski, Boris V Chernyak, Yegor S Vassetzky
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with B-cell malignancies in patients though HIV-1 is not able to infect B-cells. The rate of B-cell lymphomas in HIV-infected individuals remains high even under the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) that reconstitutes the immune function. Thus, the contribution of HIV-1 to B-cell oncogenesis remains enigmatic. HIV-1 induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in infected cells via multiple mechanisms, including viral Tat protein. We have detected elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in B-cells of HIV-infected individuals...
December 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219147/mitochondrial-metabolism-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Paolo Ettore Porporato, Nicoletta Filigheddu, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Glycolysis has long been considered as the major metabolic process for energy production and anabolic growth in cancer cells. Although such a view has been instrumental for the development of powerful imaging tools that are still used in the clinics, it is now clear that mitochondria play a key role in oncogenesis. Besides exerting central bioenergetic functions, mitochondria provide indeed building blocks for tumor anabolism, control redox and calcium homeostasis, participate in transcriptional regulation, and govern cell death...
December 8, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216217/the-emerging-role-of-asc-in-dendritic-cell-metabolism-during-chlamydia-infection
#8
Danielle N McKeithen, Yusuf O Omosun, Khamia Ryans, Jing Mu, Zhonglin Xie, Tankya Simoneaux, Uriel Blas-Machado, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial agent that causes sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The regulatory functions of dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in protective immunity against Chlamydia infections. Here, we investigated the role of ASC in DCs metabolism and the regulation of DCs activation and function during Chlamydia infection. Following Chlamydia stimulation, maturation and antigen presenting functions were impaired in ASC-/- DCs compared to wild type (WT) DCs, in addition, ASC deficiency induced a tolerant phenotype in Chlamydia stimulated DCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207683/non-coding-rna-a-potential-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-for-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
Tie-Ning Zhang, Da Li, Jing Xia, Qi-Jun Wu, Ri Wen, Ni Yang, Chun-Feng Liu
Sepsis, a syndrome of physiologic, pathologic, and biochemical abnormalities caused by an altered systemic host response to infection, has become the main cause of death among patients admitted to the intensive care units. Recently, genome-wide expression analysis revealed that over 80% of the essential genetic elements were altered in critically ill patients. Notably, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, have been proven to play essential roles in innate immunity, mitochondrial dysfunction and organ dysfunction...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206239/type-1-diabetes-alters-lipid-handling-and-metabolism-in-human-fibroblasts-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#10
Albert R Jones Iv, Emily L Coleman, Nicholas R Husni, Jude T Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S Nikolajczyk, Barbara E Corkey
Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205705/retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-photobiomodulation-as-a-potential-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Jack Ao, John Pm Wood, Glyn Chidlow, Mark C Gillies, Robert J Casson
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of cells located between the neuroretina and the choriocapillaries. The RPE serves several important functions in the eye: formation of the blood retinal barrier, protection of the retina from oxidative stress, nutrient delivery and waste disposal, ionic homeostasis, phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, synthesis and release of growth factors, reisomerization of all-trans-retinal during the visual cycle, and establishment of ocular immune privilege...
December 5, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202419/ultrafine-particulate-matter-impairs-mitochondrial-redox-homeostasis-and-activates-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated-dna-damage-responses-in-lymphocytes
#12
Arpit Bhargava, Shivani Tamrakar, Aniket Aglawe, Harsha Lad, Rupesh Kumar Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar Mishra, Rajnarayan Tiwari, Koel Chaudhury, Irina Yu Goryacheva, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Particulate matter (PM), broadly defined as coarse (2.5-10 μm), fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (≤0.1 μm), is a major constituent of ambient air pollution. Recent studies have linked PM exposure (coarse and fine particles) with several human diseases including cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ultrafine PM exposure induced cellular and sub-cellular repercussions are ill-defined. Since mitochondria are one of the major targets of different environmental pollutants, we herein aimed to understand the molecular repercussion of ultrafine PM exposure on mitochondrial machinery in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195019/is-immunosuppression-induced-by-neonatal-thymectomy-compatible-with-poor-reproductive-performance-in-adult-male-rats
#13
M M Ommati, N Tanideh, B Rezakhaniha, J Wang, S Sabouri, M Vahedi, B Dormanesh, O Koohi Hosseinabadi, F Rahmanifar, S Moosapour, A Akhlaghi, R Heidari, M J Zamiri
With increasing knowledge that the immune system has a major impact on reproductive ‎health, the potential for cells arising in organs such as the thymus to alleviate oxidative stress ‎has been revealed. This study addresses the impact of neonatal thymectomy on male ‎reproductive function in pubertal and adult animals. Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were allotted to four treatments consisting of fully thymectomized, partially thymectomized, intact, and sham-operated rats. Half of the rats in each treatment were sacrificed at 40 and the other half at 80 days of age...
December 1, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193391/dihydromyricetin-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-dependent-pyroptosis-by-activating-the-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Qin Hu, Ting Zhang, Long Yi, Xi Zhou, Mantian Mi
Increasing evidence demonstrates that pyroptosis, pro-inflammatory programmed cell death, is linked to atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid, was reported to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. However, the effect of DHM on atherosclerosis-related pyroptosis has not been studied. In the present study, palmitic acid (PA) treatment led to pyroptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as evidenced by caspase-1 activation, LDH release, and propidium iodide-positive staining; enhanced the maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome; and markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels...
November 29, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182711/evaluation-of-the-neuroprotective-potential-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cognitive-aging-and-dementia
#15
Y Hara, N McKeehan, P A Dacks, H M Fillit
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure and only a few treatments providing little relief. Increased oxidative stress that is associated with aging is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Studies have shown that levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione decline at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease with decreased levels correlating with worse cognitive functions. N-acetylcysteine, a drug also widely available as a dietary supplement, is a precursor of L-cysteine, which in turn is a component of glutathione...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180626/mitochondrial-dynamics-controls-anti-tumour-innate-immunity-by-regulating-chip-irf1-axis-stability
#16
Zhengjun Gao, Yiyuan Li, Fei Wang, Tao Huang, Keqi Fan, Yu Zhang, Jiangyan Zhong, Qian Cao, Tong Chao, Junling Jia, Shuo Yang, Long Zhang, Yichuan Xiao, Ji-Yong Zhou, Xin-Hua Feng, Jin Jin
Macrophages, dendritic cells and other innate immune cells are involved in inflammation and host defense against infection. Metabolic shifts in mitochondrial dynamics may be involved in Toll-like receptor agonist-mediated inflammatory responses and immune cell polarization. However, whether the mitochondrial morphology in myeloid immune cells affects anti-tumor immunity is unclear. Here we show that FAM73b, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, has a pivotal function in Toll-like receptor-regulated mitochondrial morphology switching from fusion to fission...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180055/uprmt-coordinates-immunity-to-maintain-mitochondrial-homeostasis-and-animal-fitness
#17
REVIEW
Siyuan Wang, Kaiyu Gao, Ying Liu
Proper function of mitochondria is often challenged by intrinsic factors and extrinsic stimuli. To cope with mitochondrial stress, organisms evolve mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to monitor mitochondrial function and induce the transcription of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to restore mitochondrial proteostasis and alleviate stress. Interestingly, UPRmt also induces immune response genes and improves animals' fitness against pathogen infection. In this review, we will summarize progresses of UPRmt studies and discuss the relationship between UPRmt and the induction of innate immunity...
November 24, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178078/epithelial-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-lung-disease
#18
Linlin Zhang, William Wang, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
Since the twentieth century, scientists have studied the functions and mechanisms of the mitochondria. The mitochondrion plays many important roles in cell functioning and contributes to apoptosis, embryonic and tissue development, aging, etc. Consequently, mitochondrial dysfunction often has a direct impact on health such as aging, tumorigenesis, lung injury and COPD, etc. Recent evidence indicates that the mitochondria could also be a crucial contributor to immunity with functions such as biogenesis, fusion, and fission impacting various areas in initializing immunity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178068/roles-of-mitochondrial-dna-signaling-in-immune-responses
#19
Lingyan Wang, Michael N Liebmen, Xiangdong Wang
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in immune responses during the evolution. The present chapter systemically describes its role on immune-related diseases and its interaction on immune responses. It is important to explore the main function and mechanisms of mtDNA in immune responses by which mtDNA regulates the signaling pathways of Toll-like receptor 9, autophagy, and STING. There are potentials to discover therapeutic targets of mtDNA in immune diseases and inflammation. It will be more exciting if the CRISPR-Cas9 method can be applied for mtDNA gene editing to cure diseases and provide a novel insight of mtDNA in immune responses as well as new therapies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177109/exome-sequencing-of-extended-families-with-alzheimer-s-disease-identifies-novel-genes-implicated-in-cell-immunity-and-neuronal-function
#20
H N Cukier, B K Kunkle, K L Hamilton, S Rolati, M A Kohli, P L Whitehead, J Jaworski, J M Vance, M L Cuccaro, R M Carney, J R Gilbert, L A Farrer, E R Martin, G W Beecham, J L Haines, M A Pericak-Vance
Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which more than 20 genetic loci have been implicated to date. However, studies demonstrate not all genetic factors have been identified. Therefore, in this study we seek to identify additional rare variants and novel genes potentially contributing to AD. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed on 23 multi-generational families with an average of eight affected subjects. Exome sequencing was filtered for rare, nonsynonymous and loss-of-function variants...
August 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
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