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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453932/neurotrophin-3-restores-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-striatum-of-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Victor G Gómez-Pineda, Francisco M Torres-Cruz, César I Vivar-Cortés, Elizabeth Hernández-Echeagaray
AIMS: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed in the mouse striatum; however, it is not clear the NT-3 role in striatal physiology. The expression levels of mRNAs and immune localization of the NT-3 protein and its receptor TrkC are altered in the striatum following damage induced by an in vivo treatment with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial toxin used to mimic the histopathological hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NT-3 on corticostriatal synaptic transmission and its plasticity in both the control and damaged striatum...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450668/genetic-variation-and-selection-of-mhc-class-i-loci-differ-in-two-congeneric-frogs
#2
Karen M Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen E Tracy, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins in the acquired immune response pathway that often show distinctive selection-driven patterns in wild vertebrate populations. We examined genetic variation and signatures of selection in the MHC class I alpha 1 (A1)- and alpha 2 (A2)-domain encoding exons of two frog congeners [Agalychnis callidryas (n = 20) and A. lemur (n = 20)] from a single locality in Panama. We also investigated how historical demographic processes may have impacted MHC genetic diversity by analyzing a neutral mitochondrial marker...
February 15, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444484/application-of-a-new-targeted-low-density-microarray-and-conventional-biomarkers-to-evaluate-the-health-status-of-marine-mussels-a-field-study-in-sardinian-coast-italy
#3
Susanna Sforzini, Caterina Oliveri, Andrea Orrù, Giannina Chessa, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Awadhesh N Jha, Aldo Viarengo, Mohamed Banni
In the present study, we investigated the health status of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) caged and deployed at three different sites on the Sardinian coastline characterized by different levels of contamination: Fornelli (F, the reference site), Cala Real (CR), and Porto Torres (PT). A new low density oligonucleotide microarray was used to investigate global gene expression in the digestive gland of mussels. Target genes were selected to cover most of the biological processes involved in the stress response in bivalve mollusks (e...
February 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438347/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-basal-and-stressful-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Naima Zemirli, Etienne Morel, Diana Molino
The historical role of mitochondria resides in converting the energy released during the oxidation of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) into adenosine tri-phosphate, a major form of chemically stored energy which sustains cell growth and homeostasis. Beyond this role in bioenergetics regulation, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular processes including lipid metabolism, cellular calcium homeostasis, autophagy and immune responses. Furthermore, mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles: as all other cellular endomembranes, they are continuously moving along cytoskeleton, and, most importantly, they constantly interact one with each other by membrane tethering, fusion and fission...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433395/chicoric-acid-improves-heart-and-blood-responses-to-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-tibetan-yaks
#5
Hua Wu, Dan Luo, Changxing Li, Hui Zhang, A Shunxian, Yuanxin Zhang, Chao Sun
Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, its effect on hypoxia adaptability of yak is still unclear. In this study 40 yaks were selected that were of similar age, parity and weight, and divided into the control group and experimental groups 1, 2, 3, randomly. Results showed that chicoric acid significantly improved RBC, HGB, and WBC...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431743/sorafenib-promotes-graft-versus-leukemia-activity-in-mice-and-humans-through-il-15-production-in-flt3-itd-mutant-leukemia-cells
#6
Nimitha R Mathew, Francis Baumgartner, Lukas Braun, David O'Sullivan, Simone Thomas, Miguel Waterhouse, Tony A Müller, Kathrin Hanke, Sanaz Taromi, Petya Apostolova, Anna L Illert, Wolfgang Melchinger, Sandra Duquesne, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Lena Osswald, Kai-Li Yan, Arnim Weber, Sonia Tugues, Sabine Spath, Dietmar Pfeifer, Marie Follo, Rainer Claus, Michael Lübbert, Christoph Rummelt, Hartmut Bertz, Ralph Wäsch, Johanna Haag, Andrea Schmidts, Michael Schultheiss, Dominik Bettinger, Robert Thimme, Evelyn Ullrich, Yakup Tanriver, Giang Lam Vuong, Renate Arnold, Philipp Hemmati, Dominik Wolf, Markus Ditschkowski, Cordula Jilg, Konrad Wilhelm, Christian Leiber, Sabine Gerull, Jörg Halter, Claudia Lengerke, Thomas Pabst, Thomas Schroeder, Guido Kobbe, Wolf Rösler, Soroush Doostkam, Stephan Meckel, Kathleen Stabla, Stephan K Metzelder, Sebastian Halbach, Tilman Brummer, Zehan Hu, Joern Dengjel, Björn Hackanson, Christoph Schmid, Udo Holtick, Christof Scheid, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Friedrich Stölzel, Rainer Ordemann, Lutz P Müller, Flore Sicre-de-Fontbrune, Gabriele Ihorst, Jürgen Kuball, Jan E Ehlert, Daniel Feger, Eva-Maria Wagner, Jean-Yves Cahn, Jacqueline Schnell, Florian Kuchenbauer, Donald Bunjes, Ronjon Chakraverty, Simon Richardson, Saar Gill, Nicolaus Kröger, Francis Ayuk, Luca Vago, Fabio Ciceri, Antonia M Müller, Takeshi Kondo, Takanori Teshima, Susan Klaeger, Bernhard Kuster, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim, Daniel Weisdorf, Walter van der Velden, Daniela Dörfel, Wolfgang Bethge, Inken Hilgendorf, Andreas Hochhaus, Geoffroy Andrieux, Melanie Börries, Hauke Busch, John Magenau, Pavan Reddy, Myriam Labopin, Joseph H Antin, Andrea S Henden, Geoffrey R Hill, Glen A Kennedy, Merav Bar, Anita Sarma, Donal McLornan, Ghulam Mufti, Betul Oran, Katayoun Rezvani, Omid Sha, Robert S Negrin, Arnon Nagler, Marco Prinz, Andreas Burchert, Andreas Neubauer, Dietrich Beelen, Andreas Mackensen, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Wolfgang Herr, Burkhard Becher, Gerard Socié, Michael A Caligiuri, Eliana Ruggiero, Chiara Bonini, Georg Häcker, Justus Duyster, Jürgen Finke, Erika Pearce, Bruce R Blazar, Robert Zeiser
Individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the gene encoding Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have a 1-year survival rate below 20%. We observed that sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased IL-15 production by FLT3-ITD+ leukemia cells. This synergized with the allogeneic CD8+ T cell response, leading to long-term survival in six mouse models of FLT3-ITD+ AML...
February 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428971/emergence-of-anti-mitochondrial-m2-antibody-in-patient-with-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#7
Shun-Ichi Wakabayashi, Takefumi Kimura, Naoki Tanaka, Satoru Joshita, Kazuhito Kawata, Takeji Umemura, Yuki Hiroshima, Hiromitsu Mori, Hikaru Kobayashi, Shuichi Wada, Eiji Tanaka
A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to fever and rash on the neck and extremities. Laboratory findings revealed hepatic dysfunction and positivity for anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody (AMA-M2). Hepatosplenomegaly and systemic lymphadenopathy were detected by enhanced computed tomography. One week after her first visit, hypoxemia, ascites, and Coomb test-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia had newly appeared in addition to worsened fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Results of axillary lymph node, skin, and bone-marrow biopsies led to the diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), for which CEPP therapy (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine, and prednisolone) was initiated...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424579/nevirapine-induced-liver-lipid-ser-inclusions-and-other-ultrastructural-aberrations
#8
Jayram Sastry, Heba Mohammed, Maria Mercedes Campos, Jack Uetrecht, Mones Abu-Asab
Nevirapine (NVP) therapy is associated with a high risk of serious liver injury and skin rash. Treatment of Brown Norway rats with NVP causes an immune-mediated skin rash. Even though NVP does not cause serious liver injury in wildtype animals, incubation of hepatocytes with NVP leads to the release of presumably danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which activate macrophages. In this study, we examined the liver biopsies of Brown Norway rats treated with NVP to determine the histologic correlate to the release of DAMPs by hepatocytes...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424373/upr-mt-regulation-and-output-a-stress-response-mediated-by-mitochondrial-nuclear-communication
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Melber, Cole M Haynes
The mitochondrial network is not only required for the production of energy, essential cofactors and amino acids, but also serves as a signaling hub for innate immune and apoptotic pathways. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to identify and combat mitochondrial dysfunction to maintain the health of the organism. One such pathway is the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ), which is regulated by the mitochondrial import efficiency of the transcription factor ATFS-1 in C. elegans and potentially orthologous transcription factors in mammals (ATF4, ATF5, CHOP)...
February 9, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414783/the-bacterial-pigment-pyocyanin-inhibits-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-through-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#10
Sebastian Virreira Winter, Arturo Zychlinsky
Inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that mature and secrete the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and induce pyroptosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome detects many pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) have been implicated in its activation. The phenazine pyocyanin (PCN) is a virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and generates superoxide in cells. Here, we report that PCN inhibits IL-1β and IL-18 release and pyroptosis upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by preventing speck formation and Caspase-1 maturation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408314/fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-induces-loss-of-matrix-mcl1-and-necrosis-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#11
Ayano Kabashima, Petra Hirsova, Steven F Bronk, Matthew C Hernandez, Mark J Truty, Sumera Rizvi, Scott H Kaufmann, Gregory J Gores
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Myeloid cell leukemia1 (MCL1), a prosurvival member of the BCL2 protein family, plays a pivotal role in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell survival. We have previously reported that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling mediates MCL1-dependent survival of CCA cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mode and mechanisms of cell death in this model were not delineated. METHODS: Human CCA cell lines were treated with the pan-FGFR inhibitor LY2874455 and the mode of cell death examined by several complementary assays...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408012/biomarkers-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
F Drakopanagiotakis, Lukasz Wujak, Malgorzata Wygrecka, P Markart
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, debilitating, fibrotic lung disease leading to respiratory failure and ultimately to death. Being the prototype of interstitial lung diseases, IPF is characterized by marked heterogeneity regarding its clinical course. Despite significant progress in the understanding of its pathogenesis, we still cannot reliably predict the course of the disease and the response to treatment of an individual patient. Non-invasive biomarkers, in particular serum biomarkers, for the (early) diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response are urgently needed...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406442/genetic-risk-of-apol1-and-kidney-disease-in-children-and-young-adults-of-african-ancestry
#13
Kimberly J Reidy, Rebecca Hjorten, Rulan S Parekh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the genetic risk of APOL1 in children and young adults is important given the lifetime risk of hypertension and kidney disease among children of African descent. We review recent epidemiologic and biologic findings on the effects of APOL1 and kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: APOL1 in children and young adults is associated with hypertension, albuminuria and more rapid decline in kidney function and progression to end-stage kidney disease, especially among those with glomerular causes of kidney disease, and those affected by sickle cell disease or HIV...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401633/hydroxysteroid-17%C3%AE-dehydrogenase-13-deficiency-triggers-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Marion Adam, Hanna Heikelä, Cyril Sobolewski, Dorothea Portius, Jenni Mäki-Jouppila, Arfa Mehmood, Prem Adhikari, Irene Esposito, Laura L Elo, Fu-Ping Zhang, Suvi T Ruohonen, Leena Strauss, Michelangelo Foti, Matti Poutanen
Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) form an enzyme family characterized by their ability to catalyze reactions in steroid and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we characterized the phenotype of mice deficient in Hsd17b13 (HSD17B13KO). In these studies, hepatic steatosis was detected in HSD17B13KO male mice, indicated by histologic analysis and by the increased triglyceride concentration in the liver, whereas reproductive performance and serum steroid concentrations were normal in HSD17B13KO mice...
January 31, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399967/exosomes-derived-from-b16f0-melanoma-cells-alter-the-transcriptome-of-cytotoxic-t-cells-that-impacts-mitochondrial-respiration
#15
Cassidy L Bland, Christina N Byrne-Hoffman, Audry Fernandez, Stephanie L Rellick, Wentao Deng, David J Klinke
While recent clinical studies demonstrate the promise of cancer immunotherapy, a barrier for broadening the clinical benefit is identifying how tumors locally suppress cytotoxic immunity. As an emerging mode of intercellular communication, exosomes secreted by malignant cells can deliver a complex payload of coding and non-coding RNA to cells within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we quantified the RNA pay-load within tumor-derived exosomes and the resulting dynamic transcriptomic response to cytotoxic T cells upon exosome delivery to better understand how tumor-derived exosomes can alter immune cell function...
February 5, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399396/serine-protease-inhibitor-6-protects-alloreactive-t-cells-from-granzyme-b-mediated-mitochondrial-damage-without-affecting-graft-versus-tumor-effect
#16
Wei Du, Hemn Mohammadpour, Rachel E O'Neill, Sandeep Kumar, Chuan Chen, Michelle Qiu, Lin Mei, Jingxin Qiu, Philip L McCarthy, Kelvin P Lee, Xuefang Cao
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematologic malignancies. Donor T cells are able to eliminate residual tumor cells after allo-HCT, producing the beneficial graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect, but can also cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) when attacking host normal tissues. We previously reported that granzyme B (GzmB) is involved in activation-induced cell death (AICD) of donor T cells and exerts differential impacts on GVHD and GVT effect. Serine protease inhibitor 6 (Spi6) is the sole endogenous inhibitor of GzmB that can protect immune and tissue cells against GzmB-mediated damage...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399391/dendritic-cell-vaccine-induces-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-that-are-metabolically-distinct-from-those-of-peptide-vaccine-and-is-well-combined-with-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade
#17
Koji Nagaoka, Akihiro Hosoi, Tamaki Iino, Yasuyuki Morishita, Hirokazu Matsushita, Kazuhiro Kakimi
The success of immune checkpoint blockade has unequivocally demonstrated that anti-tumor immunity plays a pivotal role in cancer therapy. Because endogenous tumor-specific T-cell responsiveness is essential for the success of checkpoint blockade, combination therapy with cancer vaccination may facilitate tumor rejection. To select the best vaccine strategy to combine with checkpoint blockade, we compared dendritic cell-based vaccines (DC-V) with peptide vaccines for induction of anti-tumor immunity that could overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398205/translocator-protein-tspo-and-stress-cascades-in-mouse-models-of-psychosis-with-inflammatory-disturbances
#18
Daisuke Fukudome, Lindsay N Hayes, Travis E Faust, Catherine A Foss, Mari A Kondo, Brian J Lee, Atsushi Saito, Shin-Ichi Kano, Jennifer M Coughlin, Atsushi Kamiya, Martin G Pomper, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Changes in inflammatory cascades have been implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of psychosis. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been used to assess neuroinflammatory processes in psychotic disorders. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether TSPO, a mitochondrial protein, can be interpreted as a general marker for inflammation in diseases involving psychosis. To address this question, we investigated TSPO signaling in representative mouse models for psychosis with inflammatory disturbances. The maternal immune activation and cuprizone short-term exposure models show different TSPO signaling...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389736/psychological-stress-and-mitochondria-a-systematic-review
#19
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389735/psychological-stress-and-mitochondria-a-conceptual-framework
#20
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
BACKGROUND: The integration of biological, psychological, and social factors in medicine has benefited from increasingly precise stress response biomarkers. Mitochondria, a subcellular organelle with its own genome, produce the energy required for life and generate signals that enable stress adaptation. An emerging concept proposes that mitochondria sense, integrate, and transduce psychosocial and behavioral factors into cellular and molecular modifications. Mitochondrial signaling might in turn contribute to the biological embedding of psychological states...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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