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Fetal reduction

T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Britta Wigginton, Coral Gartner, Ingrid J Rowlands
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, is increasing against a backdrop of declining smoking rates. E-cigarettes contain fewer toxicants than cigarettes, but their appearance and mode of use has the potential to satisfy the habitual aspects of smoking. To date, we know little about lay perceptions of the safety of using e-cigarettes in pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a thematic discourse analysis of 13 online discussion forum threads that discussed e-cigarette use during pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Mariza Theme-Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elizabeth Moreira, Silvana Granado Gama
BACKGROUND: The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Mahbobe Gholami, Seyed Adel Moallem, Mohammad Afshar, Sakineh Amoueian, Leila Etemad, Gholamreza Karimi
OBJECTIVE: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs)...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common pregnancy complication and is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. Placental hypoxia contributes to adverse fetal consequences, including IUGR. Exposing pregnant rats to hypoxia can lead to IUGR; however, assessment of maternal vascular function in a rat model of hypoxia, and the mechanisms that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, has not been extensively studied. We hypothesized that exposing pregnant rats to hypoxia will affect maternal systemic vascular function and increase the uterine artery resistance index (RI), which will be associated with IUGR...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Elizabeth M Todd, Julie Y Zhou, Taylor P Szasz, Lauren E Deady, June A D'Angelo, Matthew D Cheung, Alfred H J Kim, Sharon Celeste Morley
Alveolar macrophages are lung-resident sentinel cells that develop perinatally and protect against pulmonary infection. Molecular mechanisms controlling alveolar macrophage generation have not been fully defined. Here we show that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is required for the perinatal development of alveolar macrophages. Mice expressing a conditional allele of LPL (CD11c.Cre(pos)-LPL(fl/fl)) exhibited significant reductions in alveolar macrophages and failed to effectively clear pulmonary pneumococcal infection, showing that immunodeficiency results from reduced alveolar macrophage numbers...
October 6, 2016: Blood
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dick Oepkes, Lieve C Page-Christiaens, Caroline J Bax, Mireille N Bekker, Catia M Bilardo, Elles M J Boon, G Heleen Schuring-Blom, Audrey B C Coumans, Brigitte H Faas, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Attie T Go, Lidewij Henneman, Merryn V E Macville, Eva Pajkrt, Ron F Suijkerbuijk, Karin Huijsdens-vanAmsterdam, Diane Van Opstal, E J Joanne Verweij, Marjan M Weiss, Erik A Sistermans
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical impact of nationwide implementation of genome-wide Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) in pregnancies at increased risk for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. METHOD: Women with elevated risk based on first trimester combined testing (FCT ≥ 1:200) or medical history, not advanced maternal age alone, were offered NIPT as contingent screening test, performed by Dutch University Medical laboratories. We analyzed uptake, test performance, redraw/failure rate, turn-around time and pregnancy outcome...
October 17, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Bethany Stetson, Judith U Hibbard, Isabelle Wilkins, Heidi Leftwich
OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in perinatal outcomes among women with a prior preterm birth who received cerclage compared with cerclage plus 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. METHODS: Women with transvaginal cerclage placement and a prior delivery between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation were identified over a 10-year period (July 2002 to May 2012) in this retrospective cohort study. Exclusion criteria were delivery at another institution, abdominal cerclage, multiple gestations, and major fetal anomalies...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
You Li, Dongwoon Hyun, Lotfi Abou-Elkacem, Juergen Willmann, Jeremy Dahl
Power Doppler (PD) imaging is a widely used technique for flow detection. Despite the wide use of Doppler ultrasound, limitations exist in the ability of Doppler ultrasound to assess slow flow in small-diameter vasculature, such as the maternal spiral arteries and fetal villous arteries of the placenta and focal liver lesions. The sensitivity of PD in small vessel detection is limited by the low signal produced by slow flow and the noise associated with small vessels. The noise sources include electronic noise, stationary or slowly moving tissue clutter, reverberation clutter, and off-axis scattering from tissue, among others...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Heather Yvonne Small, Ryszard Nosalski, Hannah Morgan, Elisabeth Beattie, Tomasz J Guzik, Delyth Graham, Christian Delles
Women with chronic hypertension are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We have previously characterized the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) as a model of deficient uterine artery function and adverse pregnancy outcome compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto. The activation of the immune system plays a role in hypertension and adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore, we investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-α in the SHRSP phenotype in an intervention study using etanercept (0...
November 2016: Hypertension
Lisa Hui, Diana W Bianchi
Noninvasive prenatal DNA testing is the vanguard of genomic medicine. In only four years, this screening test has revolutionized prenatal care globally and opened up new prospects for personalized medicine for the fetus. There are widespread implications for increasing the scope of human genetic variation that can be detected before birth, and for discovering more about materno-fetal and placental biology. These include an urgent need to develop pretest education for all pregnant women and consistent posttest management recommendations for those with discordant test results...
October 10, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Amal Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Divya Chhabra, Hooman Mirzakhani, Jarrett Morrow, Jessica Lasky-Su, Weiliang Qiu, Nancy Laranjo, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
BACKGROUND: Patterns of gene expression of human pregnancy are poorly understood. In a trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women, peripheral blood transcriptomes were measured longitudinally on 30 women and used to characterize gene co-expression networks. OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that increased maternal Vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of asthma in early life, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been examined. In this study, we used a network-based approach to examine changes in gene expression profiles during the course of normal pregnancy and evaluated their association with maternal Vitamin D levels...
2016: PloS One
Rui Tostoes, John R Dodgson, Ben Weil, Spyridon Gerontas, Chris Mason, Farlan Veraitch
The cell therapy industry would greatly benefit from a simple point of care solution to remove dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) from small-volume thawed cell suspensions before injection. A novel dead-end filtration device has been designed and validated, which takes advantage of the higher density of thawed cell suspensions to remove the DMSO and protein impurities from the cell suspension without fouling the filter membrane. The filter was designed to avoid fluid circuits and minimize the surface area that is contacted by the cell suspension, thus reducing cell losses by design...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Shilpa Babbar, Karen B Williams, Dev Maulik
The use of complementary and alternative medicine during pregnancy is currently on the rise. A validated survey was conducted at the Central Association of Obstetrician and Gynecologists annual meeting to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of general obstetricians and gynecologists and maternal-fetal medicine specialists in America. We obtained 128 responses: 73 electronically (57%) and 55 via the paper survey (43%). Forty-five percent reported personally using complementary and alternative medicine and 9% of women respondents used complementary and alternative medicine during pregnancy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
R L Goldenberg, J B Griffin, B D Kamath-Rayne, M Harrison, D J Rouse, K Moran, B Hepler, A H Jobe, E M McClure
OBJECTIVE: Stillbirths are among the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes, with 98% occurring in low-income countries. More than one-third occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the medical conditions causing stillbirths and interventions to reduce stillbirths from these conditions are not well documented. We estimated the reductions in stillbirths possible with combinations of interventions. DESIGN: We developed a computerised model to estimate the impact of various interventions on stillbirths caused by the most common conditions...
October 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Renato Santana Aguiar, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Monica B Arruda, Fabiana de Oliveira Melo, Suelem Taís Clementino Ribeiro, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Thales Ferreira, Mayra Pereira Dos Santos, Virgínia Vilar Sampaio, Sarah Rogéria Martins Moura, Luciana Portela Rabello, Clarissa Emanuelle Gonzaga, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Leila Chimelli, Paola Paz Silveira, Rodrigo Delvechio, Luiza Higa, Loraine Campanati, Rita M R Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo Filippis, Jacob Szejnfeld, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Orlando C Ferreira, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri
Importance: Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective: To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
A L Ridler, R A Corner-Thomas, P R Kenyon, K J Griffiths
AIMS: To investigate associations between changes in liveweight and fetal loss in ewe lambs and to determine whether fetal loss was associated with concentrations of progesterone in early and mid-gestation. METHODS: Ewe lambs on two commercial sheep farms (Flock A; n=504 and Flock B; n=460) in the southern North Island of New Zealand were weighed, and body condition score was assessed, prior to breeding and throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken approximately 56 (PD1), 80 (PD2) and 110 (PD3) days after the start of breeding and fetal loss determined...
October 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
So-Young Oh, Toyohiko Nishizawa
Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) is a member of genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. RSIV infection causes significant economic losses of marine-fishes in East Asian countries. Grunt fin (GF) cell line has been commonly used for culturing RSIV. However, it is not suitable for definite evaluation of infectivity titer of RSIV because cells infected with RSIV are not completely cytolysed. Thus, we established a new cell line, RoBE-4, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) eyed-egg embryos in this study...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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