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Maryam Ghaneizad, Zahra Kavehvash, Hamid Aghajan
In this paper, a novel approach for foreground extraction has been proposed based on a popular three-dimensional imaging technique in optics, called integral imaging. In this approach, multiple viewpoint images captured from a three-dimensional scene are used to extract range information of the scene and effectively extract an object or a person, even in the presence of heavy occlusion. The algorithm consists of two parts: depth estimation and reconstruction of the targeted object at the estimated depth distance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jing Li, Fangbing Zhang, Lisong Wei, Tao Yang, Zhaoyang Lu
Pedestrian detection is among the most frequently-used preprocessing tasks in many surveillance application fields, from low-level people counting to high-level scene understanding. Even though many approaches perform well in the daytime with sufficient illumination, pedestrian detection at night is still a critical and challenging problem for video surveillance systems. To respond to this need, in this paper, we provide an affordable solution with a near-infrared stereo network camera, as well as a novel three-dimensional foreground pedestrian detection model...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
Ivana Tasic, Rune Elvik, Simon Brewer
A "Safety in Numbers" effect for a certain group of road users is present if the number of crashes increases at a lower rate than the number of road users. The existence of this effect has been invoked to justify investments in multimodal transportation improvements in order to create more sustainable urban transportation systems by encouraging walking, biking, and transit ridership. The goal of this paper is to explore safety in numbers effect for cyclists and pedestrians in areas with different levels of access to multimodal infrastructure...
October 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Haikun Huang, Ni-Ching Lin, Lorenzo Barrett, Darian Springer, Hsueh-Cheng Wang, Marc Pomplun, Lap-Fai Yu
Wayfinding signs play an important role in guiding users to navigate in a virtual environment and in helping pedestrians to find their ways in a real-world architectural site. Conventionally, the wayfinding design of a virtual environment is created manually, so as the wayfinding design of a real-world architectural site. The many possible navigation scenarios, and the interplay between signs and human navigation, can make the manual design process overwhelming and non-trivial. As a result, creating a wayfinding design for a typical layout can take months to several years...
October 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Francesco Potortì, Sangjoon Park, Antonio Ramón Jiménez Ruiz, Paolo Barsocchi, Michele Girolami, Antonino Crivello, So Yeon Lee, Jae Hyun Lim, Joaquín Torres-Sospedra, Fernando Seco, Raul Montoliu, Germán Martin Mendoza-Silva, Maria Del Carmen Pérez Rubio, Cristina Losada-Gutiérrez, Felipe Espinosa, Javier Macias-Guarasa
In recent years, indoor localization systems have been the object of significant research activity and of growing interest for their great expected social impact and their impressive business potential. Application areas include tracking and navigation, activity monitoring, personalized advertising, Active and Assisted Living (AAL), traceability, Internet of Things (IoT) networks, and Home-land Security. In spite of the numerous research advances and the great industrial interest, no canned solutions have yet been defined...
October 13, 2017: Sensors
Belen Zapata-Diomedi, Luke D Knibbs, Robert S Ware, Kristiann C Heesch, Marko Tainio, James Woodcock, J Lennert Veerman
INTRODUCTION: An alarmingly high proportion of the Australian adult population does not meet national physical activity guidelines (57%). This is concerning because physical inactivity is a risk factor for several chronic diseases. In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on the potential for transport and urban planning to contribute to increased physical activity via greater uptake of active transport (walking, cycling and public transport). In this study, we aimed to estimate the potential health gains and savings in health care costs of an Australian city achieving its stated travel targets for the use of active transport...
2017: PloS One
Shahram Bolandparvaz, Mahnaz Yadollahi, Hamid Reza Abbasi, Mehrdad Anvar
Administrative data from trauma referral centers are useful sources while studying epidemiologic aspects of injuries. We aimed to provide a hospital-based view of injuries in Shiraz considering victims' age and gender, using administrative data from trauma research center.A cross-sectional registry-based study of adult trauma patients (age ≥15 years) sustaining injury through traffic accidents, violence, and unintentional incidents was conducted. Information was retrieved from 3 hospital administrative databases...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
José Gustavo Parreira, Giovanna Zucchini Rondini, Cristiano Below, Giuliana Olivi Tanaka, Julia Nunes Pelluchi, Jacqueline Arantes-Perlingeiro, Silvia Cristine Soldá, José César Assef
OBJECTIVE: to study the correlation of trauma mechanism with frequency and severity of injuries in blunt trauma patients. METHODS: retrospective analysis of trauma registry in a 15-month period was carried out. Trauma mechanism was classified into six types: occupants of four-wheeled vehicles involved in road traffic accidents (AUTO), pedestrians struck by road vehicles (PED), motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents (MOTO), falls from height (FALL), physical assault with blunt instruments (ASSA) and falls on same level (FSL)...
July 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
S Roy, A Borzì, A Habbal
A new approach to modelling pedestrians' avoidance dynamics based on a Fokker-Planck (FP) Nash game framework is presented. In this framework, two interacting pedestrians are considered, whose motion variability is modelled through the corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) governed by FP equations. Based on these equations, a Nash differential game is formulated where the game strategies represent controls aiming at avoidance by minimizing appropriate collision cost functionals. The existence of Nash equilibria solutions is proved and characterized as a solution to an optimal control problem that is solved numerically...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Linda Rothman, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Alison K Macpherson, Sarah A Richmond, Andrew William Howard
BACKGROUND: Pedestrian countdown signals (PCS) have been installed in many cities over the last 15 years. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of PCS on pedestrian motor vehicle collisions (PMVC). This exploratory study compared the spatial patterns of collisions pre and post PCS installation at PCS intersections and intersections or roadways without PCS in Toronto, and examined differences by age. METHODS: PCS were installed at the majority of Toronto intersections from 2007 to 2009...
October 7, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Stéphanie Cœugnet, Aurélie Dommes, Sabrina Panëels, Aline Chevalier, Fabrice Vienne, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Margarita Anastassova
INTRODUCTION: Older pedestrians are overrepresented in fatal accidents. Studies consistently show gap-acceptance difficulties, especially in complex traffic situations such as two-way streets and when vehicles approached rapidly. In this context, the present research was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a vibrotactile device and study older pedestrian's behavior when wearing the wristband designed to help them make safer street-crossing decisions. METHOD: Twenty younger-old participants (age 60-69), 20 older-old participants (age 70-80) and 17 younger adults (age 20-45) carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment with and without a vibrotactile wristband delivering warning messages...
October 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ajay Narendra, J Frances Kamhi, Yuri Ogawa
Visual navigation is a benchmark information processing task that can be used to identify the consequence of being active in dim-light environments. Visual navigational information that animals use during the day includes celestial cues such as the sun or the pattern of polarized skylight and terrestrial cues such as the entire panorama, canopy pattern, or significant salient features in the landscape. At night, some of these navigational cues are either unavailable or are significantly dimmer or less conspicuous than during the day...
August 8, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
M I Rodríguez-Rojas, F Huertas-Fernández, B Moreno, G Martínez, A L Grindlay
The use of 'Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems' (SuDS) has become a more sustainable alternative for managing stormwater, greatly reducing the effects of soil sealing. However, the lack of monitored projects is a barrier to their implementation, as the companies which manage sewer systems cannot quantify the impact and cost-efficiency of SuDS. This paper presents a project developed in the south of Spain, in which the hydrological performance of 3 types of permeable pavements has been analyzed. The efficiencies obtained (over 70%), are higher than or similar to the efficiencies of vegetated SuDS, demonstrating the capacity of these pavements for delaying catchment area response and slow flow velocities, reducing the operating costs of sewer systems and the flood risk, while also ensuring service conditions for cities and safety for pedestrian and vehicular circulation...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Heather Owens, Becky Christian, Barbara Polivka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine influences affecting sleep behavior in traditional-age college students and to advocate for improved sleep behavior assessments. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases was performed using the search terms "college students" and "sleep" in the title that were published in English from 1978 to 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The circadian clock is reset in traditional-age college students leading to delayed sleep times...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Xiaoli Xie, Alexandros Nikitas, Hongqi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Although intersections correspond to a small proportion of the entire roadway system, they account for a disproportionally high number of fatal pedestrian crashes, especially in rural roads situated in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines pedestrian safety at rural intersections and suggests applicable accident prevention treatments by providing an in-depth analysis of 28 fatal pedestrian crashes from eight low volume roads in Southwest China. METHODS: The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) is a method to support a systematic classification of accident causation information and to facilitate aggregation of that information into patterns of contributing factors...
October 5, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kristin J Ford, Allen Joop, Raima A Memon, Kimberly H Wood, Karlene Ball, Gary R Cutter, David C Schwebel, Amy W Amara
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease experience debilitating motor symptoms as well as nonmotor symptoms, such as cognitive dysfunction and sleep disorders. This constellation of symptoms has the potential to negatively influence pedestrian safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of motor symptoms, daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance, and cognitive dysfunction with pedestrian behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults...
October 4, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Elaheh Ainy, Hamid Soori, Mojtaba Ganjali, Ayad Bahadorimonfared
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A significant social and economic burden inflicts by road traffic injuries (RTIs). We aimed to use Bayesian model, to present the precise method, and to estimate the cost of RTIs in Iran in 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study on costs resulting from traffic injuries, 846 people per road user were randomly selected and investigated during 3 months (1(st) September-1(st) December) in 2013. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method considering perceived risks, especially in Iran...
July 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Soufiane Boufous, Julie Hatfield, Raphael Grzebieta
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of cycling speed on shared paths to the amenity and safety of users, few studies have systematically measured it, nor examined circumstances surrounding it. METHODS: Speed was measured for 5421 riders who were observed cycling on shared paths across 12 metropolitan and regional locations in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to examine rider and environmental factors that contribute to riders cycling above the median speed...
September 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Md Faruque Hossain
BACKGROUND: Traditional transportation infrastructure built by heat trapping products and the transportation vehiles run by fossil fuel, both causing deadly climate change. Thus, a new technology of invisible Flying Transportation system has been proposed to mitigate energy and environmental crisis caused by traditional infrastructure system. METHODS: Underground Maglev system has been modeled to be constructed for all transportation systems to run the vehicle smoothly just over two feet over the earth surface by propulsive and impulsive force at flying stage...
2017: Energy, Sustainability and Society
Idoia de la Iglesia, Unai Hernandez-Jayo, Eneko Osaba, Roberto Carballedo
The evolution of the IoT (Internet of Things) paradigm applied to new scenarios as VANETs (Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks) has gained momentum in recent years. Both academia and industry have triggered advanced studies in the IoV (Internet of Vehicles), which is understood as an ecosystem where different types of users (vehicles, elements of the infrastructure, pedestrians) are connected. How to efficiently share the available radio resources among the different types of eligible users is one of the important issues to be addressed...
September 27, 2017: Sensors
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