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Gérald Quatrehomme, Steve Toupenay, Tania Delabarde, Bernard Padovani, Véronique Alunni
The terrorist attack of July 14, 2016 in Nice (France) was a devastating event. A man voluntarily drove a truck into a crowd gathered for the fireworks display on the seaside "Promenade des Anglais," plowing pedestrians down over more than 2 km before being shot dead. At the time of this report, a total of 86 casualties and more than 1200 formal complaints for physical and psychological injuries have been recorded. The aim of this work is to describe the forensic management of this event and its immediate aftermath...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Victoria F Dirmyer
Objective: This report describes the development of a novel syndromic cold weather syndrome for use in monitoring the impact of cold weather events on emergency department attendance. Methods: Syndromic messages from seven hospitals were analyzed for ED visits that occurred over a 12-day period. A cold weather syndrome was defined using terms in the self-reported chief complaint field as well as specific ICD-10-CM codes related to cold weather. A κ statistic was calculated to assess the overall agreement between the chief complaint field and diagnosis fields to further refine the cold weather syndrome definition...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Elinor Simons, Sharon D Dell, Rahim Moineddin, Teresa To
RATIONALE: Childhood asthma has shown variable associations with children's physical activity. Neighborhood walkability captures community features that promote walking and is protective against some chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between home neighborhood walkability and incident and ongoing childhood asthma. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used prospectively-collected administrative healthcare data for the province of Ontario housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
April 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Marek Franěk, Lukáš Režný, Denis Šefara, Jiří Cabal
Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise) compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong) on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants ( N = 83) walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tal Krasovsky, Patrice L Weiss, Rachel Kizony
Background: Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
Szu-Hua Chen, On-Yee Lo, Taylor Kay, Li-Shan Chou
Texting during walking has become a very common daily activity and could alter gait performance, especially during locomotion when additional visual attention is demanded, such as obstacle crossing. The purpose of this study was to examine biomechanical changes in obstructed gait characteristics while engaging in a phone texting activity. Gait analyses were performed on ten young healthy adults under the following two tasks: 1) walking and crossing an obstacle set at a 10% of the subject's height and 2) walking and crossing an obstacle while responding to a text message...
April 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jian Hua Luo, Chang Hong Lin
In this study, we propose a real-time pedestrian detection system using a FPGA with a digital image sensor. Comparing with some prior works, the proposed implementation realizes both the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and the trained support vector machine (SVM) classification on a FPGA. Moreover, the implementation does not use any external memory or processors to assist the implementation. Although the implementation implements both the HOG algorithm and the SVM classification in hardware without using any external memory modules and processors, the proposed implementation's resource utilization of the FPGA is lower than most of the prior art...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
K N J Prakash Raju, S Jagdish, D Anandhi, G Krishna Kumar, Vinay R Pandit
We enrolled 911 children aged <12 years presenting to the trauma center of a tertiary-care hospital (over a period of 18 months) with history of injuries. Majority (582; 63.9%) of children had sustained injuries at home; 56 (6.1%) had severe injuries based on Pediatric Trauma Score. Of road traffic accidents victims (n=232), majority (40.5%) were two-wheeler pillion riders or pedestrians (31.9%). More Indian data are required and efforts are needed to prioritize injury prevention efforts in children.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Alba Luz León, Johana Ascuntar-Tello, Carlos Oliver Valderrama-Molina, Nelson Darío Giraldo, Alfredo Constaín, Andrés Puerta, Camilo Restrepo, Fabián Jaimes
Background: Traffic accidents are considered a public health problem and, according to the World Health Organization, currently is the eighth cause of death in the world. Specifically, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists contribute half of the fatalities. Adequate clinical management in accordance with aggregation patterns of the body areas involved, as well as the characteristics of the accident, will help to reduce mortality and disability in this population. Methods: Secondary data analysis of a cohort of patients involved in traffic accidents and admitted to the emergency room (ER) of a high complexity hospital in Medellín, Colombia...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Līva Ābele, Sonja Haustein, Mette Møller
Despite overall improvements in road traffic safety, pedestrian accidents continue to be a serious public health problem. Due to lack of experience, limited cognitive and motoric skills, and smaller size, children have a higher injury risk as pedestrians than adults. To what extent drivers adjust their driving behaviour to children's higher vulnerability is largely unknown. To determine whether young male drivers' behaviour and scanning pattern differs when approaching a child and an adult pedestrian in a potential street-crossing situation, sixty-five young (18-24) male drivers' speed, lateral position and eye movements were recorded in a driving simulator...
April 3, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Natasha Merat, Tyron Louw, Ruth Madigan, Marc Wilbrink, Anna Schieben
As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces...
March 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Xinchuan Fu, Rui Yu, Weinan Zhang, Jie Wu, Shihai Shao
The standard pipeline in pedestrian detection is sliding a pedestrian model on an image feature pyramid to detect pedestrians of different scales. In this pipeline, feature pyramid construction is time consuming and becomes the bottleneck for fast detection. Recently, a method called multiresolution filtered channels (MRFC) was proposed which only used single scale feature maps to achieve fast detection. However, there are two shortcomings in MRFC which limit its accuracy. One is that the receptive field correspondence in different scales is weak...
April 2, 2018: Sensors
Jacqueline Kerr, Dori Rosenberg, Rachel A Millstein, Khalisa Bolling, Katie Crist, Michelle Takemoto, Suneeta Godbole, Kevin Moran, Loki Natarajan, Cynthia Castro-Sweet, David Buchner
BACKGROUND: Older adults are the least active population group. Interventions in residential settings may support a multi-level approach to behavior change. METHODS: In a cluster randomized control trial, 11 San Diego retirement communities were assigned to a physical activity (PA) intervention or a healthy aging attention control condition. Participants were 307 adults over 65 years old. The multilevel PA intervention was delivered with the assistance of peer leaders, who were trained older adult from the retirement communities...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Kang Jiang, Feiyang Ling, Zhongxiang Feng, Changxi Ma, Wesley Kumfer, Chen Shao, Kun Wang
With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation...
March 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Vilas Saldanha, Nathan Tiedeken, Brandon Godfrey, Nichole Ingalls
Background: Since the start of the conflict in the Middle East in 2001, military orthopedic surgeons have faced complex orthopedic injuries including high-energy soft tissue wounds, traumatic amputations, and open fractures. Although orthopedic surgeons are well trained in the management of osseous injuries, the treatment of soft tissue injuries can be technically challenging and unfamiliar. Early washout, debridement of devitalized tissue, external fixation of bony injuries, and antibiotic therapy remain the foundation of early wound management...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Adam J Milam, Keshia M Pollack, Frank C Curriero, Janice V Bowie, Amy R Knowlton, Andrea C Gielen, Debra M Furr-Holden
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of neighbourhood disorder around alcohol outlets to pedestrian injury risk. METHODS: A spatial analysis was conducted on census block groups in Baltimore City. Data included pedestrian injury EMS records from 1 January 2014 to 15 April 2015 (n=858), off-premise alcohol outlet locations for 2014 (n=693) and neighbourhood disorder indicators and demographics. Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the relationship between alcohol outlet count and pedestrian injuries at the block group level, controlling for other neighbourhood factors...
March 27, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHODS: The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Chinmoy Pal, Shigeru Hirayama, Sangolla Narahari, Manoharan Jeyabharath, Gopinath Prakash, Vimalathithan Kulothungan
OBJECTIVE: Road crashes are increasing every year in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries, which show decreasing trends. One theory may be because of differences in enforcement of laws, vehicle safety, road standards, and many other factors. A detailed review was made of 5 death trends (total number of deaths/100,000 population and percentages of 4-wheeler, pedestrian, motorized 2/3-wheeler, bicyclist) and the underlying patterns in different countries and regions across the world...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Aurélie Martin, Emmanuel Lagarde, L Rachid Salmi
OBJECTIVE: Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Hee Young Lee, Hyun Youk, Jeong Ii Lee, Chan Young Kang, Joon Seok Kong, Sil Sung, In Hye Kang, Jung Hun Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Woo Jin Jung, Kang Hyun Lee, Young Han Youn, Jong Chan Park
OBJECTIVES: In cases of car-to-person pedestrian traffic crashes (PTCs), the principal issue is determining at what point the car collided with the pedestrian. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to use the medical records of patients injured in PTCs to investigate the characteristics of crash types and the areas and injury severity and to determine whether there are differences in injuries due to the angle, motion, and position at the point of impact. METHODS: The present study examined 231 PTC patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) between January and December 2014...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
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