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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908016/bistable-gaits-and-wobbling-induced-by-pedestrian-bridge-interactions
#1
Igor V Belykh, Russell Jeter, Vladimir N Belykh
Several modern footbridges around the world have experienced large lateral vibrations during crowd loading events. The onset of large-amplitude bridge wobbling has generally been attributed to crowd synchrony; although, its role in the initiation of wobbling has been challenged. To study the contribution of a single pedestrian into overall, possibly unsynchronized, crowd dynamics, we use a bio-mechanically inspired inverted pendulum model of human balance and analyze its bi-directional interaction with a lively bridge...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898369/training-the-elderly-in-pedestrian-safety-transfer-effect-between-two-virtual-reality-simulation-devices
#2
Pauline Maillot, Aurélie Dommes, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVES: A virtual-reality training program has been developed to help older pedestrians make safer street-crossing decisions in two-way traffic situations. The aim was to develop a small-scale affordable and transportable simulation device that allowed transferring effects to a full-scale device involving actual walking. METHODS: 20 younger adults and 40 older participants first participated in a pre-test phase to assess their street crossings using both full-scale and small-scale simulation devices...
November 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898023/older-adults-outdoor-walking-inequalities-in-neighbourhood-safety-pedestrian-infrastructure-and-aesthetics
#3
Razieh Zandieh, Javier Martinez, Johannes Flacke, Phil Jones, Martin van Maarseveen
Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894026/the-effect-of-road-network-patterns-on-pedestrian-safety-a-zone-based-bayesian-spatial-modeling-approach
#4
Qiang Guo, Pengpeng Xu, Xin Pei, S C Wong, Danya Yao
Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893367/interactive-crowd-behavior-learning-for-surveillance-and-training
#5
Aniket Bera, Sujeong Kim, Dinesh Manocha
The proposed interactive crowd-behavior learning algorithms can be used to analyze crowd videos for surveillance and training applications. The authors' formulation combines online tracking algorithms from computer vision, nonlinear pedestrian motion models from computer graphics, and machine learning techniques to automatically compute trajectory-level pedestrian behaviors for each agent in the video. These learned behaviors are used to automatically detect anomalous behaviors, perform motion segmentation, and generate realistic behaviors for virtual reality training applications...
November 2016: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890155/factors-influencing-experience-in-crowds-the-participant-perspective
#6
Victoria Filingeri, Ken Eason, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
Humans encounter crowd situations on a daily basis, resulting in both negative and positive experiences. Understanding how to optimise the participant experience of crowds is important. In the study presented in this paper, 5 focus groups were conducted (35 participants, age range: 21-71 years) and 55 crowd situations observed (e.g. transport hubs, sport events, retail situations). Influences on participant experience in crowds identified by the focus groups and observations included: physical design of crowd space and facilities (layout, queuing strategies), crowd movement (monitoring capacity, pedestrian flow), communication and information (signage, wayfinding), comfort and welfare (provision of facilities, environmental comfort), and public order...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878341/initiation-of-forward-gait-with-lateral-occurrence-of-emotional-stimuli-general-findings-and-relevance-for-pedestrians-crossing-roads
#7
D Caffier, C Gillet, L P Heurley, A Bourrelly, F Barbier, J Naveteur
With reference to theoretical models regarding links between emotions and actions, the present study examined whether the lateral occurrence of an emotional stimulus influences spatial and temporal parameters of gait initiation in 18 younger and 18 older healthy adults. In order to simulate road-crossing hazard for pedestrians, slides of approaching cars were used and they were presented in counterbalanced order with threatening slides from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and control slides of safe walking areas...
November 22, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878129/an-epidemiological-study-of-road-traffic-accidents-in-guilan-province-northern-iran-in-2012
#8
Zahra Mohtasham-Amiri, Saeed Dastgiri, Ali Davoudi-Kiakalyeh, Ali Imani, Keyvan Mollarahimi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team...
October 2016: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878076/nonmotorized-recreation-and-motorized-recreation-in-shrub-steppe-habitats-affects-behavior-and-reproduction-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos
#9
Robert J Spaul, Julie A Heath
Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871097/association-of-impact-velocity-with-risks-of-serious-injuries-and-fatalities-to-pedestrians-in-commercial-truck-pedestrian-accidents
#10
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868167/the-role-of-ugandan-district-hospital-orthopedic-units-in-the-care-of-vulnerable-road-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Dan K Kisitu, Lauren E Eyler, Isaac Kajja, Gonzaga Waiswa, Titus Beyeza, David R Ragland, Isabelle Feldhaus, Catherine Juillard, Rochelle A Dicker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of morbidity after road traffic injury (RTI) in motorizing countries. District hospitals provide front-line orthopedic care in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African nations. Improving care at the district hospital level is an important component of the World Health Organization's strategy for surgical and trauma systems strengthening, but the data necessary to inform RTI safety and care initiatives has previously been insufficient at the district hospital level...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866599/correlates-of-helmet-use-among-recreation-and-transportation-bicyclists
#12
Anna K Porter, Deborah Salvo, Harold W Kohl Iii
INTRODUCTION: Helmet use prevents injury and mortality if a bicyclist is in a collision while riding. This cross-sectional study sought to identify domain-specific (recreation versus transportation) correlates of helmet use among U.S. adult bicyclists, using nationally representative data from 2012. METHODS: This analysis, conducted in 2015-2016, utilized data from the 2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors, administered for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865139/real-world-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-reversing-camera-and-parking-sensor-technologies-in-preventing-backover-pedestrian-injuries
#13
M D Keall, B Fildes, S Newstead
Backover injuries to pedestrians are a significant road safety issue, but their prevalence is underestimated as the majority of such injuries are often outside the scope of official road injury recording systems, which just focus on public roads. Based on experimental evidence, reversing cameras have been found to be effective in reducing the rate of collisions when reversing; the evidence for the effectiveness of reverse parking sensors has been mixed. The wide availability of these technologies in recent model vehicles provides impetus for real-world evaluations using crash data...
November 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864968/taphonomic-effects-of-mechanical-plowing-on-buried-juvenile-sized-remains
#14
Alyssa M Newcomb, James T Pokines, Tara L Moore
Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847514/tracking-algorithm-of-multiple-pedestrians-based-on-particle-filters-in-video-sequences
#15
Hui Li, Yun Liu, Chuanxu Wang, Shujun Zhang, Xuehong Cui
Pedestrian tracking is a critical problem in the field of computer vision. Particle filters have been proven to be very useful in pedestrian tracking for nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. However, pedestrian tracking in complex environment is still facing many problems due to changes of pedestrian postures and scale, moving background, mutual occlusion, and presence of pedestrian. To surmount these difficulties, this paper presents tracking algorithm of multiple pedestrians based on particle filters in video sequences...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846889/using-expert-decision-making-to-establish-indicators-of-urban-friendliness-for-walking-environments-a-multidisciplinary-assessment
#16
Yen-Cheng Chiang, Han-Yu Lei
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have suggested that friendly walking environments positively affect physical activity and health. Creating friendly walking environments in urban areas is a complex and wide-ranging topic, and no study has yet established a set of assessment indicators by drawing on the expertise of various disciplines. This study uses a multiple-criteria decision-making technique to elucidate the environmental factors that affect the friendliness of the walking environment...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846881/using-an-audit-tool-maps-global-to-assess-the-characteristics-of-the-physical-environment-related-to-walking-for-transport-in-youth-reliability-of-belgian-data
#17
Griet Vanwolleghem, Ariane Ghekiere, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Sara D'Haese, Carrie M Geremia, Matthieu Lenoir, James F Sallis, Hannah Verhoeven, Delfien Van Dyck
BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine inter-rater and alternate-form reliability of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) Global tool to assess the physical environment along likely walking routes in Belgium. METHODS: For 65 children participating in the BEPAS-children study, routes between their individual homes and the nearest pre-defined destination were defined. Using MAPS Global, physical environmental characteristics of the routes were audited by 4 trained auditors (2 on-site, 2 online using Google Street View)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845715/advanced-pedestrian-positioning-system-to-smartphones-and-smartwatches
#18
Alejandro Correa, Estefania Munoz Diaz, Dina Bousdar Ahmed, Antoni Morell, Jose Lopez Vicario
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the development of pedestrian navigation systems for satellite-denied scenarios. The popularization of smartphones and smartwatches is an interesting opportunity for reducing the infrastructure cost of the positioning systems. Nowadays, smartphones include inertial sensors that can be used in pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithms for the estimation of the user's position. Both smartphones and smartwatches include WiFi capabilities allowing the computation of the received signal strength (RSS)...
November 11, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837165/pattern-of-unnatural-deaths-among-children-an-autopsy-study
#19
Praveen Athani, Basappa S Hugar, S Harish, Y P Girishchandra
This study was conducted at the M. S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, between October 2007 and September 2009 to analyse the age and sex distribution of unnatural deaths in children, patterns and manner of death. Detailed information regarding the circumstances of death was sought from the relatives, friends and police. The scene of occurrence was visited, and photographs of the scene of occurrence were examined in relevant cases. Unnatural deaths in children constituted 6.62% of the total autopsies conducted...
November 11, 2016: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834181/the-epidemiology-of-fatal-road-traffic-collisions-in-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies-2000-2011
#20
Chavin D Gopaul, Aruna Singh-Gopaul, Joan M Sutherland, Luke Rostant, Kristie L Ebi, Dave D Chadee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of road traffic collisions (RTCs) in Trinidad and Tobago by characterizing RTCs in terms of number of collisions, fatalities, victim profiles, and locations for the purpose of informing accident prevention programs. Previous studies of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago were primarily concerned with patterns of drivers use of seat belts, road collisions as a cause of mortality in young men, and the economic burden of road collisions...
2016: Global Health Action
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