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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211184/night-time-pedestrian-conspicuity-effects-of-clothing-on-drivers-eye-movements
#1
Joanne M Wood, Richard A Tyrrell, Philippe Lacherez, Alex A Black
PURPOSE: Drivers' responses and eye movements were assessed as they approached pedestrians at night in order to explore the relative conspicuity benefits of different configurations of retroreflective markings. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded using an ASL Mobile Eye (Applied Science Technologies, www.asleyetracking.com) from 14 young licensed drivers (M = 24.1 ± 6.4 years) as they drove along a closed-road circuit at night. At two locations, pedestrians walked in place facing either towards or away from the road...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208786/policy-research-and-residents-perspectives-on-built-environments-implicated-in-heart-disease-a-concept-mapping-approach
#2
Ivana Stankov, Natasha J Howard, Mark Daniel, Margaret Cargo
An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208684/a-real-time-high-performance-computation-architecture-for-multiple-moving-target-tracking-based-on-wide-area-motion-imagery-via-cloud-and-graphic-processing-units
#3
Kui Liu, Sixiao Wei, Zhijiang Chen, Bin Jia, Genshe Chen, Haibin Ling, Carolyn Sheaff, Erik Blasch
This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©)...
February 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208591/fusion-of-inertial-magnetic-sensor-measurements-and-map-information-for-pedestrian-tracking
#4
Shu-Di Bao, Xiao-Li Meng, Wendong Xiao, Zhi-Qiang Zhang
The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy...
February 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208099/the-impact-of-walking-while-using-a-smartphone-on-pedestrians-awareness-of-roadside-events
#5
Ming-I Brandon Lin, Yu-Ping Huang
Previous studies have shown that using a cell phone to talk or text while walking changes gait kinematics and encourages risky street-crossing behaviors. However, less is known about how the motor-cognitive interference imposed by smartphone tasks affects pedestrians' situational awareness to environmental targets relevant to pedestrian safety. This study systematically investigated the influence of smartphone use on detection of and responses to a variety of roadside events in a semi-virtual walking environment...
February 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197732/effects-of-street-canyon-design-on-pedestrian-thermal-comfort-in-the-hot-humid-area-of-china
#6
Yufeng Zhang, Xiaohan Du, Yurong Shi
The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193794/alcohol-policies-and-alcohol-related-motor-vehicle-crash-fatalities-among-young-people-in-the-us
#7
Scott E Hadland, Ziming Xuan, Vishnudas Sarda, Jason Blanchette, Monica H Swahn, Timothy C Heeren, Robert B Voas, Timothy S Naimi
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. METHODS: We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel...
February 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193714/contributors-to-pedestrian-distraction-and-risky-behaviours-during-road-crossings-in-romania
#8
Cara Hamann, Diana Dulf, Erika Baragan-Andrada, Morgan Price, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: Pedestrian fatalities due to collisions with motor vehicles are a large public health problem in Romania, ranking them among the highest in Eastern Europe. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of crash factors by examining how roadway and environmental characteristics contribute to pedestrian distraction and risky behaviours at pedestrian MVC (PMVC) locations in Cluj County, Romania. METHODS: A sample of PMVC locations was selected from the 2010 Cluj County police reported crash database for on-site examination...
February 13, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187874/falling-while-walking-a-hidden-contributor-to-pedestrian-injury
#9
Jennifer Oxley, Steve O'Hern, Duane Burtt, Ben Rossiter
Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12% of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported...
February 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180956/calibration-of-the-physiological-equivalent-temperature-index-for-three-different-climatic-regions
#10
E Krüger, F Rossi, P Drach
In human biometeorology, the integration of several microclimatic variables as a combined index facilitates the understanding of how users perceive thermal environments. Indices, such as the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index, translate the combined effects of meteorological variables on humans in terms of thermal stress or comfort and serve as important aids to climate-responsive urban and regional planning as well as heat stress and thermal comfort analyses. However, there is a need for adjusting proposed comfort/stress ranges of a given index when using it in different climatic contexts...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178609/toward-a-better-understanding-of-the-impact-of-mass-transit-air-pollutants-on-human-health
#11
REVIEW
Ki-Hyun Kim, Pawan Kumar, Jan E Szulejko, Adedeji A Adelodun, Muhammad Faisal Junaid, Minori Uchimiya, Scott Chambers
Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures...
January 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177148/when-walking-becomes-wandering-representing-the-fear-of-the-fourth-age
#12
Katherine Brittain, Cathrine Degnen, Grant Gibson, Claire Dickinson, Louise Robinson
Dementia is linked to behavioural changes that are perceived as challenging to care practices. One such behavioural change is 'wandering', something that is often deeply feared by carers and by people with dementia themselves. Understanding how behavioural changes like wandering are experienced as problematic is critically important in current discussions about the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In this article we draw on our secondary analysis of qualitative interviews and focus groups with carers of people with dementia to critically question 'when does walking become wandering'? Drawing on theoretical perspectives from anthropology, sociology and human geography to explore experiences of carers and of people with dementia, we argue that a conceptual shift occurs in how pedestrian activity, usually represented as something purposeful, meaningful and healthy (walking) is seen as something threatening that needs managing (wandering)...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169980/epidemiologic-characteristics-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-receiving-prehospital-care-in-kigali-rwanda
#13
Adam R Aluisio, Olivier Félix Umuhire, Gabin Mbanjumucyo, Naomi George, Alexis Kearney, Naz Karim, Jeanne DʼArc Nyinawankusi, Eric Uwitonze, Sam Enumah, John W Scott, Zeta Mutabazi, Georges Ntakiyiruta, Sudha Jayaraman, Robert Riviello, Jean Claude Byiringiro, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma is a significant public health problem in resource-constrained settings; however, the epidemiology of injuries is poorly defined in Rwanda. This study describes the characteristics of pediatric trauma patients transported to the emergency department (ED) of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali by emergency medical services in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali from December 2012 to February 2015...
February 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167420/the-influence-of-passenger-car-front-shape-on-pedestrian-injury-risk-observed-from-german-in-depth-accident-data
#14
Guibing Li, Mathew Lyons, Bingyu Wang, Jikuang Yang, Dietmar Otte, Ciaran Simms
Quantified relationships between passenger car front shape and pedestrian injury risk derived from accident data are sparse, especially considering the significant recent changes in car front design. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate the detailed effects of passenger car front shape on injury risk to a pedestrian's head, thorax, pelvis and leg in the event of a vehicle pedestrian impact. Firstly, an accident sample of 594 pedestrian cases captured during 2000-2015 from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database was employed...
February 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166790/the-neighbourhood-physical-environment-and-active-travel-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Ester Cerin, Andrea Nathan, Jelle van Cauwenberg, David W Barnett, Anthony Barnett
BACKGROUND: Perceived and objectively-assessed aspects of the neighbourhood physical environment have been postulated to be key contributors to regular engagement in active travel (AT) in older adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on neighbourhood physical environmental correlates of AT in older adults and applied a novel meta-analytic approach to statistically quantify the strength of evidence for environment-AT associations. METHODS: Forty two quantitative studies that estimated associations of aspects of the neighbourhood built environment with AT in older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) and met selection criteria were reviewed and meta-analysed...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166412/the-casualties-from-electric-bike-and-motorized-scooter-road-accidents
#16
Maya Siman-Tov, Irina Radomislensky, Israel Trauma Group, Kobi Peleg
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. METHODS: This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included...
April 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154923/the-effect-of-impact-tool-geometry-and-soft-material-covering-on-long-bone-fracture-patterns-in-children
#17
Haim Cohen, Chen Kugel, Hila May, Bahaa Medlej, Dan Stein, Viviane Slon, Tamar Brosh, Israel Hershkovitz
INTRODUCTION: The effect of impact tool geometry and soft material covering on bone fracture patterns plays a major role in fracture patterns. However, the literature is nearly void of such studies and only general correlations between the fracture pattern and the mechanism underlying the insult were reported. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to reveal the association between the geometry of the impact tool and the presence of soft material covering on bone fracture patterns...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152490/traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-two-case-reports
#18
Abubaker Al-Aieb, Ruben Peralta, Mohammad Ellabib, Ayman El-Menyar, Hassan Al-Thani
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic pneumocephalus rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus. It can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. CASE PRESENTATION: We presented two cases of post-traumatic tension pneumocephalus. A 30- year old male pedestrian hit by a car presented with right frontal bone fracture extending to right frontal sinuses. He developed pneumocephalus involving all ventricles and subdural space and extending down to foramen magnum with tight basal cistern...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152457/numerical-investigations-of-flow-and-passive-pollutant-exposure-in-high-rise-deep-street-canyons-with-various-street-aspect-ratios-and-viaduct-settings
#19
Lejian He, Jian Hang, Xuemei Wang, Borong Lin, Xiaohui Li, Guangdong Lan
Vehicular pollutant exposure of residents and pedestrians in high-rise deep street canyons with viaducts and noise barriers requires special concerns because the ventilation capacity is weak and the literature reported inconsistent findings on flow patterns as aspect ratios (building height/street width, H/W) are larger than 2. By conducting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations coupled with the intake fraction iF and the daily pollutant exposure Et, this paper investigates the impact of street aspect ratios, viaducts and noise barriers on the flow and vehicular passive pollutant exposure in full-scale street canyons (H/W=1-6, W=24m)...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151450/outcomes-of-road-traffic-injuries-before-and-after-the-implementation-of-a-camera-ticketing-system-a-retrospective-study-from-a-large-trauma-center-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Suliman Alghnam, Muhamad Alkelya, Moath Alfraidy, Khalid Al-Bedah, Ibrahim Tawfiq Albabtain, Omar Alshenqeety
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the third leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia. Because speed is a major risk factor for severe crash-related injuries, a camera ticketing system was implemented countrywide in mid-2010 by the traffic police in an effort to improve traffic safety. There are no published studies on the effects of the system in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: To examine injury severity and associated mortality at a large trauma center before and after the implementation of the ticketing system...
January 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
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