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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#1
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927684/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-bacteremia-comparison-of-pediatric-and-adult-populations
#2
Wan-Lin Tsai, Chih-Hsin Hung, Hui-An Chen, Jiun-Ling Wang, I-Fei Huang, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Yao-Shen Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Wan-Yu Hung, Ming-Fang Cheng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. This study investigated the clinical features and bacteriology of pediatric patients with ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia and compared their characteristics with those of adult patients. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data from all of the 41 patients aged ≤18 years diagnosed with E. coli bacteremia were collected over 5 years. Patients aged >18 years diagnosed with E...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927474/first-detection-and-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-poultry-and-swine-raised-in-backyard-production-systems-in-central-chile
#3
R Alegria-Moran, D Rivera, V Toledo, A I Moreno-Switt, C Hamilton-West
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile...
September 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924198/bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919792/clinical-outcomes-and-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-loading-dose-for-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-cancer-patients
#5
Wasan Katip, Suriyon Uitrakul, Peninnah Oberdorfer
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a last-line defense therapy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Despite a loading dose of colistin being applied in many clinical practices, studies evaluating the effect of the loading dose of colistin in cancer patients remain limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients who received either a loading or non-loading dose of colistin for treatment of XDR-AB was conducted. For each group, the clinical response, bacteriological eradication and serum creatinine were recorded...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919689/beta-lactamase-antimicrobial-resistance-in-klebsiella-and-enterobacter-species-isolated-from-healthy-and-diarrheic-dogs-in-andhra-pradesh-india
#6
N Mohammad Sharif, B Sreedevi, R K Chaitanya, D Sreenivasulu
AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species isolated from healthy and diarrheic dogs in Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 rectal swabs were collected from healthy (92) and diarrheic (44) dogs, bacteriological cultured for Klebsiella and Enterobacter growth and screened for beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance phenotypically by disc diffusion method and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction targeting blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M Group 1, 2, blaAmpC, blaACC, and blaMOX genes...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918656/diagnosing-kingella-kingae-infections-in-infants-and-young-children
#7
Pablo Yagupsky
Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered. The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915926/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-staphylococcus-species-isolated-from-cats-presented-at-a-veterinary-academic-hospital-in-south-africa
#8
Daniel Nenene Qekwana, Dikeledi Sebola, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method...
September 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#9
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906177/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-detection-in-the-large-intestine-of-slaughtered-pigs
#10
Friederike Zeeh, Silvio De Luca, Pamela Nicholson, Niels Grützner, Christina Nathues, Vincent Perreten, Heiko Nathues
Detection of subclinical Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection in pig herds using feces is challenging. However, the ability to detect the pathogen in intestinal samples of slaughtered pigs has not been investigated, to our knowledge. Therefore, we determined the detection of B. hyodysenteriae in the colon, cecum, and rectum from slaughtered pigs. We analyzed the correlation between detection rates and intestinal lesions, ingesta or fecal consistency, and time from sample collection until processing. A total of 400 ingesta-mucosal (colon, cecum) and 200 fecal (rectum) samples from 200 pigs originating from 20 different herds were bacteriologically examined using selective culture followed by Brachyspira spp...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904677/-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-immunocompetent-patients-about-2-cases
#11
Yasmina Rhofir, Rachida Zahraoui, Nabil Tiress, Hicham Naji-Amrani, Mouna Soualhi, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
Nocardiosis is a rare but severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus nocardia, which belong to the order actinomycetales. If they can affect immunocompetent adult, nocardioses are pathologies affecting the individuals with weakened immune system. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, its correct management is based on diagnosis, which is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms and inconclusive specimens. We here report two cases of nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients. The first case concerns a 24-year old man with a history of smoking and alcoholism, hospitalized for chest pain and hemoptysis of low abundance evolving for two months, associated with the occurrence of dorsal subcutaneous fistulized abscess...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904186/stool-culture-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#12
Elisabetta Walters, Anne-Marie Demers, Marieke M van der Zalm, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), as specimen collection is resource-intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903881/factors-affecting-the-cost-effectiveness-of-on-farm-culture-prior-to-the-treatment-of-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#13
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, M J Green
The objective of this study was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using an on-farm culture (OFC) approach to the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows and compare this to a 'standard' treatment approach. A specific aim was to identify the herd circumstances under which an OFC approach would be most likely to be cost-effective. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 5000 cases of clinical mastitis at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs simultaneously when treated according to 2 different treatment protocols; i) a 'conventional' approach (3 tubes of intramammary antibiotic) and ii) an OFC programme, whereby cows are treated according to the results of OFC...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903879/salmonella-enterica-subsp-diarizonae-serotype-61-k-1-5-7-associated-with-chronic-proliferative-rhinitis-and-high-nasal-colonization-rates-in-a-flock-of-texel-sheep-in-switzerland
#14
Nadine Stokar-Regenscheit, Gudrun Overesch, Regula Giezendanner, Simone Roos, Corinne Gurtner
Salmonella (S.) enterica subspecies diarizonae (IIIb) serovar 61:(k):1,5,(7) (S. IIIb 61:(k):1,5,(7)) is considered to be host adapted to sheep and is found regularly in feces of healthy carriers and of sheep with salmonellosis. A few cases of chronic proliferative rhinitis (CPR) in sheep have been described as a new disease in association with S. IIIb 61:k:1,5,(7) in the USA, in Spain and now for the first time in Switzerland. Three animals of a flock of Texel sheep suffering from chronic nasal discharge and dyspnea with subsequent death were necropsied...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903872/prevalence-of-subclinical-mastitis-and-associated-risk-factors-at-cow-and-herd-level-in-dairy-farms-in-north-west-ethiopia
#15
S A Mekonnen, G Koop, S T Melkie, C D Getahun, H Hogeveen, T J G M Lam
Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903832/validation-of-modifications-to-the-ansr-for-listeria-method-for-improved-internal-positive-control-performance
#16
Susan Alles, Evan Meister, Edan Hosking, Eric Tovar, Rebecca Shaulis, Mark Schonfeld, Lei Zhang, Lin Li, Preetha Biswas, Mark Mozola, Robert Donofrio
A study was conducted to validate a minor reagent formulation change to the ANSR for Listeria method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 101202. This change involves increasing the master mix volume prelyophilization by 40% and addition of salmon sperm DNA (nontarget DNA) to the master mix. These changes improve the robustness of the internal positive control response and reduce the possibility of obtaining invalid results due to weak-positive control curves. When three foods (hot dogs, Mexican-style cheese, and cantaloupe) and sponge samples taken from a stainless steel surface were tested, no significant differences in performance between the ANSR and U...
September 14, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900356/humidifiers-for-oxygen-therapy-what-risk-for-reusable-and-disposable-devices
#18
REVIEW
V La Fauci, G B Costa, A Facciolà, A Conti, R Riso, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892897/anaerobic-bacteria-in-clinical-specimens-frequent-but-a-neglected-lot-a-five-year-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Padmaja Ananth Shenoy, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Ashwini Gawda, Seema Shetty, Renuka Anegundi, Muralidhar Varma, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Chawla
INTRODUCTION: Anaerobic bacteria which constitute a significant proportion of the normal microbiota also cause variety of infections involving various anatomic sites. Considering the tedious culture techniques with longer turnaround time, anaerobic cultures are usually neglected by clinicians and microbiologists. AIM: To study the frequency of isolation of different anaerobic bacteria from various clinical specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study to analyse the frequency of isolation of different anaerobic bacteria, was conducted over a period of five years from 2011 to 2015 including various clinical specimens submitted to anaerobic division of Microbiology laboratory...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888673/relationship-between-bacteriology-report-time-in-the-morning-and-length-of-stay-in-hospital-after-the-report
#20
Kenneth H Rand, Stacy G Beal, Gloria P Lipori
We studied the relationship between the time of day bacteriology reports were available in the electronic medical record (Epic, Verona, WI) and subsequent length of stay (LOS) following the last report before discharge. All patients ≥18years admitted to the UF Health Shands Hospital between 1/1/2014-2/29/2016 were included. We calculated the mean LOS following the report for each half-hour time period between 6AM and 1PM (N=14, 95.6% of all results) and tested the relationship to subsequent LOS. For patients whose total LOS was ≤168hours (N=13,830) there was a highly significant positive linear relationship between the report time and LOS following the last report (r=0...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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