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Psychiatric + construction

Jeffrey G Snodgrass, H J François Dengah Ii, Michael G Lacy, Robert J Else, Evan R Polzer, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steven W Cole
OBJECTIVES: To combine social genomics with cultural approaches to expand understandings of the somatic health dynamics of online gaming, including in the controversial nosological construct of internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: In blood samples from 56 U.S. gamers, we examined expression of the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), a leukocyte gene expression profile activated by chronic stress. We compared positively engaged and problem gamers, as identified by an ethnographically developed measure, the Positive and Negative Gaming Experiences Scale (PNGE-42), and also by a clinically derived IGD scale (IGDS-SF9)...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Richard M Kostrzewa, Karolina Wydra, Malgorzata Filip, Cynthia Crawford, Sanders A McDougall, Russell W Brown, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe, Raul R Gainetdinov
Abnormality of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) function, often observed as D2R supersensitivity (D2RSS), is a commonality of schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in humans. Moreover, virtually all psychotherapeutic agents for schizophrenia target D2R in brain. Permanent D2RSS as a feature of a new animal model of schizophrenia was first reported in 1991, then behaviorally and biochemically characterized over the next 15-20 years. In this model of schizophrenia characterized by production of D2RSS in ontogeny, there are demonstrated alterations of signaling processes; as well as functional links between the biologic template of the animal model; and ability of pharmacotherapeutics to modulate or reverse biological and behavioral modalities towards normality...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Georgia Martha Gkotsi, Jacques Gasser, Valérie Moulin
Various neuroscientific techniques are increasingly being used in criminal courts causing a vivid debate on the way that this kind of techniques will and should be used as scientific evidence. The role of experts in this context is important, since it is them that analyse, present, interpret and communicate the results of these techniques to the judges and the jury. In an attempt to contribute to the discussion about the role of the experts in criminal cases where neuroimaging evidence was introduced, we examined twenty seven cases from the US and Europe...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Elja van der Wolf, Susan A H van Hooren, Wim Waterink, Lilian Lechner
BACKGROUND: The gerontopsychiatric population consists of nursing home residents with combined psychiatric and physical disabilities. A validated measure to assess well-being among this population is currently not available. This article is a first step toward the development of a well-being instrument for the gerontopsychiatric population. METHODS: Potential measurement items were gathered and selected with the help of both gerontopsychiatric residents and care professionals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Timothy J McDermott, Namik Kirlic, Robin L Aupperle
The emotional stress response is relevant to a number of psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular. Research using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe stress-related neural processing have provided some insights into psychiatric disorders. Treatment providers and individual patients would benefit from clinically useful fMRI paradigms that provide information about patients' current brain state and responses to stress in order to inform the treatment selection process...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quiles, J-M Batail, C Lancon, M Masson, G Dumas, M Cermolacce
This article analyzes whether psychiatric disorders can be considered different from non-psychiatric disorders on a nosologic or semiologic point of view. The supposed difference between psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders relates to the fact that the individuation of psychiatric disorders seems more complex than for non-psychiatric disorders. This individuation process can be related to nosologic and semiologic considerations. The first part of the article analyzes whether the ways of constructing classifications of psychiatric disorders are different than for non-psychiatric disorders...
June 6, 2018: L'Encéphale
Ana Claudia Becattini-Oliveira, Douglas de Farias Dutra, Bárbara Spenciere de Oliveira Campos, Verônica Carvalho de Araujo, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Performance based assessment instruments have been employed in functional capacity measurement of mental disorders. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the psychometric properties of the UCSD Performance-based Skill Assessment (UPSA). A search was conducted using the PRISMA protocol and 'UPSA' as key word term on electronic databases, with a date range for articles published from 2001-2017. Published studies involving community-dwelling adults were included. Pharmacological and/or clinical interventions involving clinical outcomes and/or institutionalized samples were excluded...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Laura Acion, John Kramer, Xiangtao Liu, Grace Chan, Douglas Langbehn, Kathleen Bucholz, Vivia McCutcheon, Victor Hesselbrock, Marc Schuckit, Danielle Dick, Michie Hesselbrock, Samuel Kuperman
BACKGROUND: The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) is an interview that assesses psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses, including substance use disorders and anxiety and mood (i.e., internalizing) disorders. Although the SSAGA is widely used, there exists no overall internalizing characteristics scale based on items drawn from SSAGA's mood and anxiety disorder sections. OBJECTIVES: To design and assess a SSAGA-based measurement instrument capturing the overall internalizing dimension that underlies more specific internalizing conditions...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Shirley S Lacerda, Stephen W Little, Elisa H Kozasa
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ stress reduction program, named PROGRESS, developed to meet the specific needs of workers in a business context and to research its impact upon non-severe psychiatric symptoms, stress, anxiety, depression, processing speed/attention and mindfulness. Methods: Participants with stress complaints were randomized into two groups: the main intervention group: group 1-G1, ( n = 22); and the control group: group 2-G2, ( n = 22). The protocol was divided into three distinct phases for the purpose of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David A MacQueen, Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope
Psychiatric illness has been acknowledged for as long as people were able to describe behavioral abnormalities in the general population. In modern times, these descriptions have been codified and continuously updated into manuals by which clinicians can diagnose patients. None of these diagnostic manuals have attempted to tie abnormalities to neural dysfunction however, nor do they necessitate the quantification of cognitive function despite common knowledge of its ties to functional outcome. In fact, in recent years the National Institute of Mental Health released a novel transdiagnostic classification, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), which utilizes quantifiable behavioral abnormalities linked to neurophysiological processes...
June 2, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Maria do Perpétuo Socorro de Sousa Nóbrega, Rebeca Ishii Munhoz, Joyce Rovarotto
OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a nursing care dependency classification system for alcohol and other drugs. METHOD: A psychometric study. We used the agreement percentage and intraclass correlation coefficient for inter-rater agreement. The Receiver Operating Characteristic was used to determine values and accuracy of the cut-off points. The steps were literature review, content validation and clinical validation. RESULTS: Fifteen (15) judges, 6 nurses and 65 users of psychiatric emergency and hospitalization units participated...
2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Hannah K Smalley, Nishi Anand, Dylan Buczek, Nicholas Buczek, Timothy Lin, Tanay Rajore, Muriel Wacker, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Brian M Gurbaxani, Teresa Hammett, Pinar Keskinocak, Joel Sokol, Matthew J Kuehnert
BACKGROUND: There were 13 documented clusters of infectious encephalitis transmission via organ transplant from deceased donors to recipients during 2002-2013. Hence, organs from donors diagnosed with encephalitis are often declined due to concerns about the possibility of infection, given that there is no quick and simple test to detect causes of infectious encephalitis. METHODS: We constructed a database containing cases of infectious and non-infectious encephalitis...
May 29, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Louis Jacob, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between psychotic experiences (PEs) and problem gambling are lacking. Thus, we examined the association between PEs and problem gambling in the general UK population. METHODS: This study used community-based, cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) (n = 7403). Ten items from the DSM-IV criteria and the British Gambling Prevalence Survey studies were used to ascertain problem gambling among individuals who gambled in the past 12 months...
May 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Victoria B Risbrough, Laura M Glynn, Elysia P Davis, Curt A Sandman, Andre Obenaus, Hal S Stern, David B Keator, Michael A Yassa, Tallie Z Baram, Dewleen G Baker
Anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure, is a dimensional entity linked to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, where it is associated with diminished treatment response, reduced global function, and increased suicidality. It has been suggested that anhedonia and the related disruption in reward processing may be critical precursors to development of psychiatric symptoms later in life. Here, we examine cross-species evidence supporting the hypothesis that early life experiences modulate development of reward processing, which if disrupted, result in anhedonia...
May 24, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marie Geurten, Corinne Catale, Philippe Gay, Sandrine Deplus, Joël Billieux
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. METHOD: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P (urgency-premeditation-perseverance-sensation seeking-positive urgency) Impulsive Behaviors Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged 8-14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Gimena Hernandez, Olatz Garin, Yolanda Pardo, Gemma Vilagut, Àngels Pont, Mónica Suárez, Montse Neira, Luís Rajmil, Inigo Gorostiza, Yolanda Ramallo-Fariña, Juan Cabases, Jordi Alonso, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The EuroQol 5 dimensions 5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) is the new version of EQ-5D, developed to improve its discriminatory capacity. This study aims to evaluate the construct validity of the Spanish version and provide index and dimension population-based reference norms for the new EQ-5D-5L. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2011/2012 Spanish National Health Survey, with a representative sample (n = 20,587) of non-institutionalized Spanish adults (≥ 18 years)...
May 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Wan-Sen Yan, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yan Lan, Zhi-Ming Li, Yong-Hui Li
Binge Eating Disorder (BED), considered a public health problem because of its impact on psychiatric, physical, and social functioning, merits much attention given its elevation to an independent diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Similar with substance use disorders, some neuropsychological and personality constructs are potentially implicated in the onset and development of BED, in which poor decision-making has been suggested to facilitate overeating and BED...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Rose McCabe, Patrick G T Healey
The effectiveness of medical treatment depends on the quality of the patient-clinician relationship. It has been proposed that this depends on the extent to which the patient and clinician build a shared understanding of illness and treatment. Here, we use the tools of conversation analysis (CA) to explore this idea in the context of psychiatric consultations. The CA "repair" framework provides an analysis of the processes people use to deal with problems in speaking, hearing, and understanding. These problems are especially critical in the treatment of psychosis where patients and health care professionals need to communicate about the disputed meaning of hallucinations and delusion...
April 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
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