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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908840/prescription-opioid-taper-support-for-outpatients-with-chronic-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Mark D Sullivan, Judith A Turner, Cory DiLodovico, Angela D'Appolonio, Kari Stephens, Ya-Fen Chan
Patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain and interested in tapering their opioid dose were randomly assigned to a 22-week taper support intervention (psychiatric consultation, opioid dose tapering, and 18 weekly meetings with a physician assistant to explore motivation for tapering and learn pain self-management skills) or usual care (N=35). Assessments were conducted at baseline and 22 and 34 weeks after randomization. Using an intention-to-treat approach, we constructed linear regression models to compare groups at each follow-up...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894462/multiple-somatic-symptoms-in-primary-care-a-field-study-for-icd-11-phc-who-s-revised-classification-of-mental-disorders-in-primary-care-settings
#2
David P Goldberg, Geoffrey M Reed, Rebeca Robles, Julio Bobes, Celso Iglesias, Sandra Fortes, Jair de Jesus Mari, Tai-Pong Lam, Fareed Minhas, Bushra Razzaque, José Ángel Garcia, Marianne Rosendal, C Anthony Dowell, Linda Gask, Joseph K Mbatia, Shekhar Saxena
OBJECTIVE: A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated with distress or dysfunction. HA involves persistent, intrusive fears of having an illness or intense preoccupation with and misinterpretation of bodily sensations. This study examined how the proposed descriptions for BSS and HA corresponded to what was observed by working primary care physicians (PCPs) in participating countries, and the relationship of BSS and HA to depressive and anxiety disorders and to disability...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888978/vulnerability-stress-and-support-in-the-disease-trajectory-from-prodrome-to-diagnosed-schizophrenia-diathesis-stress-support-model
#3
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Elaine Walsh, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. The goal of current research is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of prodrome, the initial period before the disease manifests as schizophrenia. Unfortunately, there is little information to comprehensively understand the indicators that later lead to schizophrenia. This has resulted in a lack of scientific knowledge to aid in early identification and intervention by psychiatric nurses or school nurses. Such information could inform nursing assessment and care plan development...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886578/kynurenic-acid-and-psychotic-symptoms-and-personality-traits-in-twins-with-psychiatric-morbidity
#4
Magdalena E Kegel, Viktoria Johansson, Lennart Wetterberg, Maria Bhat, Lilly Schwieler, Tyrone D Cannon, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Göran Engberg, Mikael Landén, Christina M Hultman, Sophie Erhardt
Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins...
November 16, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878427/development-of-the-forensic-inpatient-quality-of-life-questionnaire-short-version-fql-sv
#5
S H H Schel, Y H A Bouman, E C W Vorstenbosch, B H Bulten
PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to develop a brief version of the Forensic inpatient Quality of Life questionnaire (FQL). METHODS: Data from a longitudinal study of quality of life (QoL) among long-term forensic psychiatric care (LFPC) patients (N = 130) were used. Per domain, the FQL item that correlated most highly with the mean domain score and Overall QoL was selected. Internal consistency was investigated by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was examined by investigating the relationship with the WHOQOL-Bref and EssenCES...
November 22, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876165/application-of-research-domain-criteria-to-childhood-and-adolescent-impulsive-and-addictive-disorders-implications-for-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Sarah W Yip, Marc N Potenza
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a large-scale, dimensional framework for the integration of research findings across traditional diagnoses, with the long-term aim of improving existing psychiatric treatments. A neurodevelopmental perspective is essential to this endeavor. However, few papers synthesizing research findings across childhood and adolescent disorders exist. Here, we discuss how the RDoC framework may be applied to the study of childhood and adolescent impulsive and addictive disorders in order to improve neurodevelopmental understanding and to enhance treatment development...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876105/psychological-interventions-to-reduce-suicidality-in-high-risk-patients-with-major-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
C M Celano, E E Beale, C A Mastromauro, J G Stewart, R A Millstein, R P Auerbach, C A Bedoya, J C Huffman
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological constructs have been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, and interventions to cultivate positive feelings have the potential to reduce suicide risk. This study compares the efficacy of a 6-week, telephone-based positive psychology (PP) intervention against a cognition-focused (CF) control intervention among patients recently hospitalized for depression and suicidal ideation or behavior. METHOD: A total of 65 adults with a current major depressive episode reporting suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt were enrolled from participating in-patient psychiatric units...
November 23, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859934/classifying-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-disorder-by-problem-checklists-and-standardized-interviews
#8
Michael H Boyle, Laura Duncan, Kathy Georgiades, Kathryn Bennett, Andrea Gonzalez, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Peter Szatmari, Harriet L MacMillan, Anna Kata, Mark A Ferro, Ellen L Lipman, Magdalena Janus
This paper discusses the need for research on the psychometric adequacy of self-completed problem checklists to classify child and adolescent psychiatric disorder based on proxy assessments by parents and self-assessments by adolescents. We put forward six theoretical arguments for expecting checklists to achieve comparable levels of reliability and validity with standardized diagnostic interviews for identifying child psychiatric disorder in epidemiological studies and clinical research. Empirically, the modest levels of test-retest reliability exhibited by standardized diagnostic interviews - 0...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859868/preferences-of-psychiatric-practitioners-for-core-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-hidden-conjoint-analysis
#9
Matthias W Riepe, Peter Gritzmann, Andreas Brieden
According to ICD-10 and DSM-V, symptoms of depressive disorder are considered to be equally important for severity judgment. It was the goal to investigate the weight of selected symptom complexes for severity judgment. In workaday life severity judgment results from an overall impression rather than from calculating severity in different symptom complexes, separately. In fact, the drivers for overall judgment may not be known explicitly to the psychiatrist himself. A method of choice to resolve this is conjoint analysis...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853532/alexithymia-a-general-deficit-of-interoception
#10
Rebecca Brewer, Richard Cook, Geoffrey Bird
Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterized by difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one's own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non-affective interoceptive signals, such as one's heart rate...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836200/ptsd-in-court-i-introducing-ptsd-for-court
#11
Gerald Young
The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836118/empirically-supported-psychological-treatments-and-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc
#12
REVIEW
Dean McKay, David F Tolin
BACKGROUND: The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) has been developed as an alternative approach to studying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC constructs and units of analysis, from genes up through paradigms, are intended to describe a hierarchy of priority measurements. Several of these have been investigated in the context of empirically-supported treatments, as either moderators or mediators of outcome. METHOD: This review considers the available research on the moderating and mediating role of genes, molecules, circuits and physiology in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) outcome studies for negative valence system conditions...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827808/utility-of-the-personality-inventory-for-dsm-5-brief-form-pid-5-bf-in-the-measurement-of-maladaptive-personality-and-psychopathology
#13
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom, Randall T Salekin
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5) Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup developed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for the assessment of the alternative trait model for DSM-5 Along with this measure, the American Psychiatric Association published an abbreviated version, the PID-5-Brief form (PID-5-BF). Although this measure is available on the DSM-5 website for use, only two studies have evaluated its psychometric properties and validity and no studies have examined the U...
November 7, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819464/toward-validation-of-a-structural-approach-to-conceptualizing-psychopathology-a-special-section-of-the-journal-of-abnormal-psychology
#14
Robert F Krueger, Jennifer L Tackett, Angus MacDonald
Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806414/-a-short-summary-of-the-psychopathological-construct-by%C3%A2-karl%C3%A2-leonhard
#15
J Thome
The so-called psychopathology according to Karl Leonhard is increasingly forgotten - similar to many other historical attempts to conceptualise psychiatric disorder. Therefore, this overview summarises briefly the principles of its construction. This may serve as the basis of future critical analyses in which then also the reasons for the fundamental failure of this approach may be discussed.
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799179/development-psychometric-evaluation-and-validation-of-a-brief-measure-of-emotional-preoperative-stress-b-meps-to-predict-moderate-to-intense-postoperative-acute-pain
#16
W Caumo, M Nazare Furtado da Cunha, S Camey, S Maris de Jezus Castro, I L S Torres, L Cadore Stefani
BACKGROUND: Preoperative stress might influence postoperative pain, thereby, it is desirable to assess it more precisely. Thus, we developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of a brief measure of emotional preoperative stress (B-MEPS) index using Item Response Category Characteristic Curves. We validated and assessed whether the B-MEPS can predict moderate to intense acute postoperative pain (MIAPP). METHODS: We included 863 adult patients who underwent elective surgeries (ASA I-III physical status)...
November 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795456/marketing-masked-depression-physicians-pharmaceutical-firms-and-the-redefinition-of-mood-disorders-in-the-1960s-and-1970s
#17
Lucie Gerber, Jean-Paul Gaudillière
This article investigates the redefinition of depression that took place in the early 1970s. Well before the introduction of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, this rather rare and severe psychiatric disorder hitherto treated in asylums was transformed into a widespread mild mood disorder to be handled by general practitioners. Basing itself on the archives of the Swiss firm Ciba-Geigy, the article investigates the role of the pharmaceutical industry in organizing this shift, with particular attention paid to research and scientific marketing...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788462/theory-of-mind-as-a-mediator-variable-between-neurocognition-and-functioning-in-young-individuals-in-treatment-with-secondary-services-for-non-psychotic-disorders
#18
Marta Francesconi, Amedeo Minichino, Ricardo E Carrión, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Arturo Bevilacqua, Maurizio Parisi, Santo Rullo, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Massimo Biondi, Kristin Cadenhead
A large body of studies provides evidence for a link between neurocognition, theory of mind (ToM) and functioning in psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs), with ToM mediating the effect that neurocognition has on functioning. These three constructs and the related mediation effect may characterize different psychiatric syndromes other than PSDs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to baseline data from a longitudinal study of 138 young individuals with a recent-onset psychiatric disorder. Using SEM, we tested the hypothesis that ToM mediates the effect of neurocognition on functioning independent of the level of psychosis risk and the diagnostic category...
October 6, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784281/hoarding-symptoms-among-psychiatric-outpatients-confirmatory-factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-saving-inventory-revised-si-r
#19
Siau Pheng Lee, Clarissa Ong, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Rebecca Ong, Edimansyah Abdin, Susan Lim, Janhavi Vaingankar, Louisa Picco, Swapna Verma, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: The growing interest in problematic hoarding as an independent clinical condition has led to the development of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) to assess hoarding phenomenology. The SI-R is one of the most widely used instruments to measure hoarding symptoms; however, it lacks validation in non-Western samples. METHODS: The current study examined the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the SI-R among 500 outpatients at a psychiatric hospital in Singapore...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759947/grit-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#20
Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
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