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Psychiatric + construction

Shira Barzilay, Zimri S Yaseen, Mariah Hawes, Bernard Gorman, Rachel Altman, Adriana Foster, Alan Apter, Paul Rosenfield, Igor Galynker
Background: Mental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose of this study was to validate the TRQ-SF in a general outpatient clinic setting...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ruth Ann Marrie, Scott B Patten, Lindsay I Berrigan, Helen Tremlett, Christina Wolfson, Sharon Warren, Stella Leung, Kirsten M Fiest, Kyla A McKay, John D Fisk
Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) have used various ascertainment methods that capture different constructs. The relationships between these methods are incompletely understood. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in MS, but the effects of past diagnoses of depression and anxiety on HRQOL are largely unknown. We compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety in persons with MS using administrative data, self-reported physician diagnoses, and symptom-based measures and compared characteristics of persons classified as depressed or anxious by each method...
March 2018: International Journal of MS Care
Andrew Worthington, Rodger Ll Wood
Apathy is a common problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can have a major impact on cognitive function, psychosocial outcome and engagement in rehabilitation. For scientists and clinicians it remains one of the least understood aspects of brain-behaviour relationships encompassing disturbances of cognition, motivation, emotion and action, and is variously an indication of organic brain disease or psychiatric disorder. Apathy can be both sign and symptom and has been proposed as a diagnosis in its own right as well as a secondary feature of other conditions...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kevin J Manning, David C Steffens
Major depression in older adults, or late-life depression (LLD), is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although the effects of LLD make it important to achieve a diagnosis and start treatment quickly, individuals with LLD are often inadequately or unsuccessfully treated. The latest treatment developments suggest that interventions targeting executive dysfunction and neuroticism, constructs associated with poor response to antidepressants in older adults, are successful in treating LLD...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Monika Himmelbauer, Tamara Seitz, Charles Seidman, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: Standardized patients (SP) have been successfully utilized in medical education to train students' communication skills. At the Medical University of Vienna communication training with SPs in psychiatry is a mandatory part of the curriculum. In the training, the SP plays the role of four different patients suffering from depression/suicidal tendencies, somatoform disorder, anxiety disorder, or borderline disorder while the student attempts to gather the patient's medical history...
April 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Carla A Mazefsky, Lan Yu, Susan W White, Matthew Siegel, Paul A Pilkonis
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with prominent emotion dysregulation that requires treatment but can be difficult to measure. The Emotion Dysregulation Inventory (EDI) was created using methods developed by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS® ) to capture observable indicators of poor emotion regulation. Caregivers of 1,755 youth with ASD completed 66 candidate EDI items, and the final 30 items were selected based on classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Stephen V Faraone, Anthony L Rostain, Joseph Blader, Betsy Busch, Ann C Childress, Daniel F Connor, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Because emotional symptoms are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and associate with much morbidity, some consider it to be a core feature rather than an associated trait. Others argue that emotional symptoms are too nonspecific for use as diagnostic criteria. This debate has been difficult to resolve due, in part, to the many terms used to describe emotional symptoms in ADHD and to concerns about overlap with mood disorders. METHODS: We sought to clarify the nature of emotional symptoms in ADHD by reviewing conceptual and measurement issues and by examining the evidence base regarding specificity of such symptoms for ADHD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Andre Der-Avakian, Diego A Pizzagalli
Loss of pleasure (clinically referred to as anhedonia), impairments in other reward-related processes such as reward learning, motivation, and reward valuation, and blunted affect characterize several mood and other psychiatric disorders. Despite the availability of many therapeutic options for these disorders, reward-related impairments remain challenging to treat and often persist despite alleviation of other symptoms. Lack of animal models of reward-related impairments and affect that have high construct and predictive validity is a key obstacle to developing novel treatments...
February 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Patrick W Corrigan, Nicolas Rüsch, Katrina Scior
A 2016 report from the National Academy of Sciences describes strategies that reduce the stigma of mental illness. Prominent among these are contact between people with and without mental illness and strategic disclosure for lessening both public and self-stigma. The report also recognizes the complexity of stigma in the realm of psychiatric phenomena. As a socially constructed phenomenon, mental illness stigma intersects with race-ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation to affect ways in which it is perceived and experienced...
April 2, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Marc Baertschi, Alessandra Costanza, Alessandra Canuto, Kerstin Weber
The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been increasingly studied over the last years, responding to the demand for a valid framework addressing suicidality. Yet, only a few studies have explored the function of personality in the IPTS and none with clinical patients. We aimed to contribute to fill this gap in investigating the relationship between personality as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model, the IPTS constructs, and a dimensional measure of current suicidal ideation. We conducted correlation, multiple linear regression, and path analyses based on a trait-interpersonal framework in a sample of 201 individuals visiting the psychiatric emergency room of a general hospital with current suicidal ideation...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ravi Sudesh, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Sujit John, Rangaswamy Thara, Bryan Mowry, Arasamabattu Kannan Munirajan
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder involving multiple genes each contributing a small risk. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of risk loci for schizophrenia including miR-137, a miRNA shown to be involved in neuronal development. Several genes regulated by miR-137 were also reported as top risk genes associated with schizophrenia and has been hypothesised that the dysregulation of miR-137 and its target could be involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Here, we replicated the four European GWAS hits, miR-137-rs1625579 and three of its validated target gene loci SNPs (ZNF804a-rs1344706, CACNA1C-rs4765905 and TCF4-rs9960767) by genotyping in 2074 samples (schizophrenia cases-1005; controls-1069) from South Indian Population...
March 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hyejin Kim, Sunman Kim, Kwisoon Choe, Ji-Su Kim
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of Mandala art therapy on subjective well-being, resilience, and hope among psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Recruited 36 people who had been treated as inpatients in a psychiatric ward at a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea, and divided them evenly into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was required to attend a total of 8 sessions of Mandala art therapy, twice per week, between August 11 and October 30, 2015; measures of the three main variables were administered at pre-test and post-test in both groups...
April 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Mahmud Mahamid, Daniela Amital, Bishara Bisharat, Naim Mahroum, Kassem Sharif, Adi Guy, Amin Adawi, Hussein Mahagna, Arsalan Abu Much, Samaa Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad
Israel represents a complex and pluralistic society comprising two major ethno-national groups, Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, which differ in terms of religious and cultural values as well as social constructs. According to the so-called "diversification hypothesis", within the framework of e-health and in the era of new information and communication technologies, seeking online health information could be a channel to increase health literacy, especially among disadvantaged groups. However, little is known concerning digital seeking behavior and, in particular, digital mental health literacy...
2018: PeerJ
A Abdellaoui, M G Nivard, J-J Hottenga, I Fedko, K J H Verweij, B M L Baselmans, E A Ehli, G E Davies, M Bartels, D I Boomsma, J T Cacioppo
Loneliness is a heritable trait that accompanies multiple disorders. The association between loneliness and mental health indices may partly be due to inherited biological factors. We constructed polygenic scores for 27 traits related to behavior, cognition and mental health and tested their prediction for self-reported loneliness in a population-based sample of 8798 Dutch individuals. Polygenic scores for major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were significantly associated with loneliness...
March 23, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Benjamin Brodey, Susan E Purcell, Karen Rhea, Philip Maier, Michael First, Lisa Zweede, Manuela Sinisterra, M Brad Nunn, Marie-Paule Austin, Inger S Brodey
BACKGROUND: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Graham M L Eglit, Barton W Palmer, A'verria S Martin, Xin Tu, Dilip V Jeste
Loneliness is a highly prevalent experience in schizophrenia. Theoretical models developed in the general population propose that loneliness is tantamount to a feeling of being unsafe, is accompanied by enhanced environmental threat perception, and leads to poor physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning. Previous research has reported that loneliness is associated with poorer physical and emotional health in schizophrenia; however, few studies have directly compared loneliness and its correlates in persons with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric comparison subjects...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth J Levey, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, Jiong Li, Michelle A Williams, Bizu Gelaye
Psychiatric illness can pose serious risks to pregnant and postpartum women and their infants. There is a need for screening tools that can identify women at risk for postpartum psychosis, the most dangerous perinatal psychiatric illness. This study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch item response theory (IRT) models to evaluate the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Spanish language version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) as a screening tool for psychosis in a population of pregnant Peruvian women...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Yu-Chuan Chiu, Shen-Ing Liu, Chen-Ju Lin, Yu-Shin Huang, Chun-Kai Fang, Fang-Ju Sun, Kai-Liang Kao, Yo-Ping Huang, Shu-I Wu
This study examines the reliability, factor structure, convergent, and construct validities of the Mandarin Chinese version of the Reasons For Living Inventory (RFL) among Taiwanese psychiatric patients. Demographical characteristics of patients who hold these adaptive cognitions and differences on the level of endorsement between suicidal and non-suicidal individuals were also investigated. All adult patients that had visited the psychiatric ambulatory clinic or had been admitted to the psychiatric ward in a general hospital in Taiwan over a 3-month period were consecutively invited to complete an inventory that included background information, the Mandarin Chinese versions of the RFL, the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire- Revised (SBQ-R), and the Beck Hopeless Scale (BHS)...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Katherine E Porter, Murray B Stein, Brian Martis, Kimberly M Avallone, Lauren B McSweeney, Erin R Smith, Naomi M Simon, Sean Gargan, Israel Liberzon, Charles W Hoge, Sheila A M Rauch
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly reported in recent combat Veterans. While the majority resolve, some Veterans develop postconcussive symptoms (PCS). Previous research suggests these symptoms are not specific to head injury and are often associated with psychiatric symptoms. The current study examines the relative contributions of posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and TBI on postconcussive symptoms, and explores whether the relationship remains after controlling for symptom overlap. Two hundred eighteen combat Veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) provided the data for this study as part of a baseline evaluation for inclusion into larger treatment study for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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