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heavy ion

Matthias Mörgelin
Negative staining is an essential and versatile staining technique in transmission electron microscopy that can be employed for visualizing bacterial cell morphology, size, and surface architecture at high resolution. Bacteria are usually transferred by passive electrostatic adsorption from suspensions in physiological saline onto suitable hydrophilic support films on electron microscopic grids. There they are contrasted, or "stained," by heavy metal ions in solution such as tungsten, uranyl, molybdate, or vanadate compounds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael J Mashock, Tyler Zanon, Anthony D Kappell, Lisa N Petrella, Erik C Andersen, Krassimira R Hristova
Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C...
2016: PloS One
M Trassinelli, L Bernard Carlsson, S Cervera, M Eddrief, V H Etgens, E V Gafton, E Lacaze, E Lamour, A Lévy, S Macé, C Prigent, J-P Rozet, S Steydli, M Marangolo, D Vernhet
Investigations of the complex behavior of the magnetization of manganese arsenide thin films due to defects induced by irradiation of slow heavy ions are presented. In addition to the thermal hysteresis suppression already highlighted in Trassinelli et al (2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 081906), we report here on new local magnetic features recorded by a magnetic force microscope at different temperatures close to the characteristic sample phase transition. Complementary measurements of the global magnetization in different conditions (applied magnetic field and temperatures) enable the film characterization to be completed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jovana Vunduk, Anita Klaus, Maja Kozarski, Radovan Dordevic, Zoran Miladinovic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Miomir Niksic, Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Kaolinite and the modified natural zeolite minazel plus (M+) were used as supplements in substrate used for the production of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa. Growth stimulation, expressed as yield and biological efficiency, was observed when M+ (1%) was added. The production cycle was shortened by half as a result of the zeolites' ion-exchange ability, stimulation of enzyme activity, and water retain capacity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry of fruiting bodies showed the absence of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead), whereas the concentration of calcium increased greatly and the concentrations of iron, magnesium, and zinc increased moderately under the influence of M+...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
P J Fimognari, T P Crowley, D R Demers
In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A Shimizu, T Ido, M Nishiura, S Kato, K Ogawa, H Takahashi, H Igami, Y Yoshimura, S Kubo, T Shimozuma
Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
M A Mokhter, S Lakard, C Magnenet, M Euvrard, B Lakard
Polyethersulfone membranes were modified by polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayers, made of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) with poly(styrene sulfonate), to remove Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ heavy metal cations from aqueous solutions in a wide range of metal concentration (50-1200 ppm). After characterization of the modified membranes, the efficiency of the process was estimated for single heavy metal ions solution leading to high rejection rates (> 90% for 50 ppm) and good adsorption capacities (7.0-8.5 whatever the metal ion tested...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Technology
Huacai Ge, Jincui Wang
Poly (acrylic acid) modified activated carbon nanocomposite (PAA-AC) was synthesized. The structure and morphology of this nanocomposite were characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD and Zeta potential. The adsorption of some heavy metal ions on PAA-AC was studied. The characterization results indicated that PAA-AC was a novel and ear-like nanosheet material with the thickness of about 40 nm and the diameter of about 300 nm. The adsorption results exhibited that the introduction of carboxyl groups into activated carbon evidently increased the uptake for heavy metal ions and the nanocomposite had maximum uptake for Cd(II)...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Yue-Cheng Lin, Hong-Peng Wang, Faryal Gohar, Muhammad Haseeb Ullah, Xiang Zhang, Dong-Fang Xie, Hui Fang, Jun Huang, Jun-Xing Yang
Chitosan was prepared by alkaline N-deacetylation of β-chitin from squid pens. Thiosemicarbazide group was introduced to chitosan via formaldehyde-derived linkages, and thiosemicarbazide chitosan (TSFCS) with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesized. The DS values of TSFCS calculated by elemental analysis were 0.19, 0.36 and 0.63. The structure of the TSFCS was confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) ions by TSFCS showed good correlation with the DS and pH (pH range 2...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sheri M Krams, Steven Schaffert, Audrey H Lau, Olivia M Martinez
Single-cell flow cytometric techniques have been indispensable to improving our understanding of the phenotype and function of immune cell subsets that are important in both rejection and tolerance post-transplant. Mass cytometry, or Cytometry by Time-of-Flight (CyTOF), is a single cell-based platform that utilizes antibodies conjugated to rare heavy metal ions for analysis of cellular proteins by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This new technology allows for the evaluation of over 40 simultaneous cellular parameters in a single sample because the limitation of spectral overlap, seen in conventional flow cytometry, is eliminated...
November 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
John B Mangrum, Akul Y Mehta, Alhumaidi B Alabbas, Umesh R Desai, Adam M Hawkridge
Structural characterization of the microheterogeneity of heparin, heparan sulfate, and other glycosaminoglycans is a major analytical challenge. We present the use of a stable isotope-labeled hydrazide tag (INLIGHT™) with high-resolution/accurate mass (HRAM) reverse-phase LC-MS/MS, which was recently introduced for detailed study of N-glycan heterogeneity, to characterize heparinase-digested heparin (digHep) products without the use of semi-volatile ion pairing reagents. Using both full scan LC-MS and data-dependent LC-MS/MS, we identified 116 unique digHep species, a feat possible because of INLIGHT™ labeling...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Naoki Sato, Toshioh Fujibuchi, Takatoshi Toyoda, Takato Ishida, Hiroki Ohura, Ryuichi Miyajima, Shinichi Orita, Tomonari Sueyoshi
To decrease radiation exposure to medical staff performing angiography, the dose distribution in the angiography was calculated in room using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS), which is based on Monte Carlo code, and the source of scattered radiation was confirmed using a tungsten sheet by considering the difference shielding performance among different sheet placements. Scattered radiation generated from a flat panel detector, X-ray tube and bed was calculated using the PHITS. In this experiment, the source of scattered radiation was identified as the phantom or acrylic window attached to the X-ray tube thus, a protection curtain was placed on the bed to shield against scattered radiation at low positions...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M R Saidur, A R Abdul Aziz, W J Basirun
The presence of heavy metal in food chains due to the rapid industrialization poses a serious threat on the environment. Therefore, detection and monitoring of heavy metals contamination are gaining more attention nowadays. However, the current analytical methods (based on spectroscopy) for the detection of heavy metal contamination are often very expensive, tedious and can only be handled by trained personnel. DNA biosensors, which are based on electrochemical transduction, is a sensitive but inexpensive method of detection...
November 16, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Seunguk Heo, Seunghoon Yoo, Yongkeun Song, Eunho Kim, Jaeik Shin, Soorim Han, Wongyun Jung, Sanghee Nam, Rena Lee, Kitae Lee, Sungho Cho
A new treatment facility for heavy ion therapy since 2010 was constructed. In the broad beam, a range shifter, ridge filter and multi leaf collimator (MLC) for the generation of the spread-out Bragg peak is used. In this case, secondary neutrons produced by the interactions of the ion field with beam-modifying devices (e.g. double-scattering system, beam shaping collimators and range compensators) are very important for patient safety. Therefore, these components must be carefully examined in the context of secondary neutron yield and associated secondary cancer risk...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kajari Dhar, Alexandra M Moulton, Eric Rome, Fang Qiu, Jeff Kittrell, Eugenia Raichlin, Ronald Zolty, John Y Um, Michael J Moulton, Hesham Basma, Daniel R Anderson, James D Eudy, Brian D Lowes
BACKGROUND: Myocardial recovery with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is highly variable and difficult to predict. Next generation ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing is an innovative, rapid, and quantitative approach to gene expression profiling in small amounts of tissue. Our primary goal was to identify baseline transcriptional profiles in non-ischemic cardiomyopathies that predict myocardial recovery in response to LVAD therapy. We also sought to verify transcriptional differences between failing and non-failing human hearts...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Panwad Sillapawattana, Martin C H Gruhlke, Andreas Schäffer
BACKGROUND: Because of their antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used and have come into contact with the environment. In the present work, an effect of AgNPs on a standard soil organism, Folsomia candida, was studied (in comparison to silver nitrate) focusing on molecular and cellular alterations as ecotoxicological endpoints. RESULTS: At the molecular level, an up-regulation of metallothionein-containing protein (MTC) mRNA in AgNP-treated groups indicated toxic heavy metal stress effects caused by the release of silver ions from AgNPs, which is similar to animal groups treated with silver nitrate...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Abdallah Slablab, Tero J Isotalo, Jouni Mäkitalo, Léo Turquet, Pierre-Eugène Coulon, Tapio Niemi, Christian Ulysse, Mathieu Kociak, Dominique Mailly, Giancarlo Rizza, Martti Kauranen
Ion beam shaping is a novel and powerful tool to engineer nanocomposites with effective three-dimensional (3D) architectures. In particular, this technique offers the possibility to precisely control the size, shape and 3D orientation of metallic nanoparticles at the nanometer scale while keeping the particle volume constant. Here, we use swift heavy ions of xenon for irradiation in order to successfully fabricate nanocomposites consisting of anisotropic gold nanoparticle that are oriented in 3D and embedded in silica matrix...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cuize Yao, Shiting Yu, Xiuqing Li, Ze Wu, Jiajie Liang, Qiangqiang Fu, Wei Xiao, Tianjiu Jiang, Yong Tang
Here, we describe the development of a triangular silver nanoprism (AgNPR) etching-based plasmonic ELISA for the colorimetric determination of Cr(III) levels in environmental water samples. This involved the creation of a novel signal generation system (substrate reaction solution) for a competitive ELISA in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used to etch triangular AgNPRs, inducing a change in color. This is achieved by controlling the H2O2 concentration that remains after degradation by catalase, which is conjugated to the secondary antibody of the ELISA...
November 22, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shiv Bharadwaj, Robert J Mitchell, Anjum Qureshi, Javed H Niazi
Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are widely used as an alternative to traditional cigarettes but their safety is not well established. Herein, we demonstrate and validate an analytical method to discriminate the deleterious effects of e-cigarette refills (e-juice) and soluble e-juice aerosol (SEA) by employing stress-specific bioluminescent recombinant bacterial cells (RBCs) as whole-cell biosensors. These RBCs carry luxCDABE-operon tightly controlled by promoters that specifically induced to DNA damage (recA), superoxide radicals (sodA), heavy metals (copA) and membrane damage (oprF)...
November 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ling Ding, Wenying Lv, Kun Yao, Liming Li, Mengmeng Wang, Guoguang Liu
Humin is the component of humic substances that is recalcitrant to extraction by either strong bases or strong acids, which contains a variety of functional groups that may combine with heavy metal ions. The present study employed humin as an adsorbent to investigate the efficacy of a remediation strategy under the effects of humin-enhanced electrokinetics. Because the cations gravitate toward cathode and anions are transferred to anode, humin was placed in close proximity to the cathode in the form of a package...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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