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heavy ion

Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Mahfuza Mubarak, Hyokyung Jeon, Md Shahinul Islam, Cheolho Yoon, Jong-Seong Bae, Seong-Ju Hwang, Won San Choi, Ha-Jin Lee
Herein, Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (MF-LDH) hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared by a one-step thermal method. After the thermal treatment of MF-LDH nanospheres at 400 °C, the MF-LDH was converted into the corresponding oxide, Mg/Fe layered double oxide (MF-LDO), which maintained the hollow nanosphere structure. The MF-LDO hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency for both As(V) and Cr(VI), showing 99% removal within 5 min and providing maximum removal capacities of 178...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Chen Zou, Xiaojuan Zhao, Yan Xu
We report a novel, one-dimensional zirconium-doped layered trititanate with a porous core and a textured surface of ultrafine nanofibers (∼5 nm) by the hydrothermal alkaline treatment of electrospun fibers. It demonstrates superior efficiency for rapid, capacitive and simultaneous removal of multiple heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The adsorption is exceptionally rapid, showing 100% removal of Cu2+ in 10 min, and 100% removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in 20 min in water with a wide range of concentrations from 0...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Pouyan Ebrahimi, Javier Vilcáez
This research aimed to elucidate the effect of brine salinity and guar gum on the sorption and transport of Ba in dolomite rocks collected from the Arbuckle formation in Oklahoma, USA. Guar gum represents the most important organic additive used in viscosified fracturing fluids, and Ba constitutes the most common and abundant heavy metal found in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) wastewater. Batch experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 μm particle size) revealed that at brine salinities of UOG wastewater, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and pH changes that results from dolomite dissolution are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Wen-Yi Zhou, Shan-Shan Li, Jieyao Song, Min Jiang, Tian-Jia Jiang, Jinyun Liu, Jinhuai Liu, Xing-Jiu Huang
Mutual interference is a severe issue that occurs during the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. This limitation presents a notable drawback for its high sensitivity to specific targets. Here, we present a high electrochemical sensitivity of ~237.1 μA cm-2 μM-1 toward copper(II) [Cu(II)] based on oxygen-deficient titanium dioxide (TiO2-x) nanosheets. We fully demonstrated an atomic-level relationship between electrochemical behaviors and the key factors, including the high-energy (001) facet percentage, oxygen vacancy concentration, surface -OH content, and charge carrier density, is fully demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yan Hao, Dawei Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Ping Zhou, Yunxia Cao, Zhaolian Wei, Xiaofeng Xu, Beili Chen, Weiwei Zou, Mingrong Lv, Dongmei Ji, Xiaojin He
Hearing loss may place a heavy burden on the patient and patient's family. Given the high incidence of hearing loss among newborns and the huge cost of treatment and care (including cochlear implantation), prenatal diagnosis is strongly recommended. Termination of the fetus may be considered as an extreme outcome to the discovery of a potential deaf fetus, and therefore preimplantation genetic diagnosis has become an important option for avoiding the birth of affected children without facing the risk of abortion following prenatal diagnosis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Lorenzo Manganaro, Germano Russo, Faiza Bourhaleb, Federico Fausti, Simona Giordanengo, Vincenzo Monaco, Roberto Sacchi, Anna Vignati, Roberto Cirio, Andrea Attili
One major rationale for the application of heavy ion beams in tumour therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The complex dependencies of the RBE on dose, biological endpoint, position in the field etc. require the use of biophysical models in treatment planning and clinical analysis. This study aims at introducing a new software, named "Survival", to facilitate the radiobiological computations needed in ion therapy. The simulation toolkit was written in C++ and it was developed with a modular architecture in order to easily incorporate different radiobiological models...
March 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Vishnu Manirethan, Keyur Raval, Reju Rajan, Harsha Thaira, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan
The difficulty in removal of heavy metals at concentrations below 10 mg/L has led to the exploration of efficient adsorbents for removal of heavy metals. The adsorption capacity of biosynthesized melanin for Mercury (Hg(II)), Chromium (Cr(VI)), Lead (Pb(II)) and Copper (Cu(II)) was investigated at different operating conditions like pH, time, initial concentration and temperature. The heavy metals adsorption process was well illustrated by the Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted excellently to Langmuir isotherm...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sobia Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Khadeeja Rehman, Muhammad Naveed, Zahir Ahmad Zahir
Liquid effluent produced from tanning industries is loaded with organic and inorganic contaminants, particularly heavy metals, which may cause severe damage to the ecosystem. Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising product of the research in the field of ecological engineering which helps to overcome aquatic pollution. This investigation aims to develop a plant-endophyte synergism in CW for the efficient remediation of tannery effluent. In a vertical flow CW, Brachiaria mutica was vegetated and augmented with three endophytic bacterial strains...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zhenxing Chi, Songwen Tan, Xu Tan, Lin Zhong, Weiguo Li
The pollution of heavy metals is a severer problem for the ecosystems in waters. The toxicity of Cd2+ on phycocyanin (PC) is studied in molecular level in this work. The fluorescence quenching of PC is observed by the adding Cd2+ from 0 to 500 × 10-7  mol L-1 . From the theoretical calculation and the time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles, the fluorescence quenching of PC by Cd2+ is found to be static. The synchronous fluorescence spectra are used to study the change in amino acid residues of PC molecules, indicating that the effect of Cd2+ on the Trp of PC is more significant than the Tyr...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pei Zhang, Xuguang Hu, Bin Liu, Zhe Liu, Cong Liu, Jianming Cai, Fu Gao, Jianguo Cui, Bailong Li, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be more effective in cancer radiotherapy than photon irradiation. Influence of carbon ion radiation on cancer microenvironment is very important for the outcomes of radiotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in cancer antigen processing and antitumor immunity. However, there is scant literature covering the effects of carbon ion radiation on DCs. In this study, we aimed to uncover the impact of carbon ion irradiation on bone marrow derived DCs...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Seyyed Javad Mousavi, Mehdi Parvini, Mohsen Ghorbani
In the present study, new generation of silica-based mesoporous adsorbents were introduced for the removal of heavy metals with the aim of developing new adsorption technologies in water treatment. The magnetic nanoadsorbent, prepared by modification of SBA-15 with [3-(2-Aminoethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS)-functionalized chitosan, was applied for the removal of Zn2+ from aqueous solution. The synthesized Fe2 O3 @SBA-15-CS-AEAPTMS nanoadsorbent was thoroughly characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR and BET analysis...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Sonia Ramin
In the present work, a novel magnetic chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite (MCGON) was synthesized for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was composed of graphene oxide (GO) modified by ethylenediamine (ED), Fe3 O4 nanoparticles and chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) copolymer. The composition and structure of adsorbents were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, VSM and BET analysis. The magnetic MCGON with a high specific surface area of (132...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jinling Xu, Luuk Koopal, Linchuan Fang, Juan Xiong, WenFeng Tan
Proton and copper (Cu) binding to soil and lignite-based humic acid (HA) was investigated by combining X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and non-ideal-competitive-adsorption (NICA) modeling. NICA model calculations and XAFS results showed that bidentate and monodentate inner-sphere complexation occurred for Cu binding to HA. The site-type specific thermodynamic parameters obtained by combining ITC measurements and NICA calculations revealed that copper binding to deprotonated carboxylic-type sites was entropically driven and that to deprotonated phenolic-type sites was driven by entropy and enthalpy...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
G Capillo, S Silvestro, M Sanfilippo, E Fiorino, G Giangrosso, V Ferrantelli, I Vazzana, C Faggio
Faro Lake is a coastal meromictic lagoon with singular characteristics in the Mediterranean (Messina, Sicily - Italy). It is part of the Natural Oriented Reserve of Capo Peloro (38°15'57" N; 15° 37'50" E). In this area, traditional mollusc farming activity persists, producing "autochthonous" mussels. This study reports of the Mytilus galloprovincialis haemolymph chemical profile and water variables determination of one year-lasted survey (April 2016-March 2017). The determinations of electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, P inorganic) and heavy metals in both Faro lake water and haemolymph have been carried out...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Weiwei He, Long Luo, Qingyun Liu, Zhengbo Chen
In the present work, we report a novel colorimetric sensor array for rapid identification of heavy metal ions. Three kinds of thiols were used as sensing elements. Due to the different binding ability between thiols and metal ions affected by sulfhy-dryl group, as well as carboxyl group and amino group, the activity of urease changed from inactivation by urease-metal ion pairs to the recovery to different degrees, which led to diversified colorimetric response patterns when interacting with eleven metal ions...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Gordon W Irvine, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of small cysteine-rich proteins essential for Zn and Cu homeostasis, heavy metal detoxification, and cellular redox chemistry. Herein, we describe the separation and characterization of MTs differentially modified with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The full-length recombinant MT isoform 1a as well as is isolated domain fragments were first alkylated, then separated on column with subsequent detection by MS. Different behavior was observed for the three peptides with the full-length protein and the isolated α-domain exhibiting similar separation characteristics...
March 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qiaozhen Chen, Wenxuan Xu, Qingchun Ge
Suitable draw solutes are crucial to maximize the potential of forward osmosis (FO) in water treatment. In this study, a novel three-dimensional, multi-charge draw solute of oxalic acid (OA) chromium complex in tetramethylammonium salt of [N(CH3)4]3[Cr(C2O4)3] (NMe4-Cr-OA) was developed for electroplating wastewater treatment using FO processes. The newly designed NMe4-Cr-OA has a Cr-centred octahedral structure and can ionize a multi-charge anionic [Cr(C2O4)3]3- and three cationic [N(CH3)4]- in its aqueous solution...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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