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Diabetes regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223801/phytobioactive-compound-based-nanodelivery-systems-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-current-status
#1
REVIEW
Palanivel Ganesan, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Dong-Kug Choi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217409/muscle-derived-stem-cells-stimulate-muscle-myofiber-repair-and-counteract-fat-infiltration-in-a-diabetic-mouse-model-of-critical-limb-ischemia
#2
J Tsao, I Kovanecz, N Awadalla, R Gelfand, I Sinha-Hikim, R A White, N F Gonzalez-Cadavid
BACKGROUND: Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) affects patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and obesity, with high risk of amputation and post-surgical mortality, and no effective medical treatment. Stem cell therapy, mainly with bone marrow mesenchymal, adipose derived, endothelial, hematopoietic, and umbilical cord stem cells, is promising in CLI mouse and rat models and is in clinical trials. Their general focus is on angiogenic repair, with no reports on the alleviation of necrosis, lipofibrosis, and myofiber regeneration in the ischemic muscle, or the use of Muscle Derived Stem Cells (MDSC) alone or in combination with pharmacological adjuvants, in the context of CLI in T2D...
December 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216578/tumor-microenvironment-a-paradigm-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Vinicio Carloni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive-regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215845/converting-adult-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-cells-into-%C3%AE-cells-by-targeting-both-dnmt1-and-arx
#4
Harini Chakravarthy, Xueying Gu, Martin Enge, Xiaoqing Dai, Yong Wang, Nicolas Damond, Carolina Downie, Kathy Liu, Jing Wang, Yuan Xing, Simona Chera, Fabrizio Thorel, Stephen Quake, Jose Oberholzer, Patrick E MacDonald, Pedro L Herrera, Seung K Kim
Insulin-producing pancreatic β cells in mice can slowly regenerate from glucagon-producing α cells in settings like β cell loss, but the basis of this conversion is unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear if this intra-islet cell conversion is relevant to diseases like type 1 diabetes (T1D). We show that the α cell regulators Aristaless-related homeobox (Arx) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) maintain α cell identity in mice. Within 3 months of Dnmt1 and Arx loss, lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing revealed extensive α cell conversion into progeny resembling native β cells...
February 12, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213664/type-2-diabetes-remission-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-evidence-for-increased-expression-of-jejunal-genes-encoding-regenerating-pancreatic-islet-derived-proteins-as-a-potential-mechanism
#5
Priscila Sala, Raquel Susana Torrinhas, Danielle Cristina Fonseca, Steven Heymsfield, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg
BACKGROUND: Intestinal expression of regenerating pancreatic islet-derived protein-encoding genes (REG) would be enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and would affect postoperative type 2 diabetes remission (T2Dr). METHODS: Intestinal biopsy samples were collected from 20 adult obese women with T2D before and 3 months after RYGB. Levels of REG expression and the gene encoding its putative receptor (EXTL3) were assessed by microarray and validated by quantitative RT-PCR...
February 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211362/marrow-isolated-adult-multilineage-inducible-cells-embedded-within-a-biologically-inspired-construct-promote-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-peripheral-vascular-disease
#6
Cristina Grau-Monge, Gaëtan J-R Delcroix, Andrea Bonnin-Marquez, Mike Valdes, Ead Lewis Mazen Awadallah, Daniel F Quevedo, Maxime R Armour, Ramon B Montero, Paul C Schiller, Fotios M Andreopoulos, Gianluca D'Ippolito
Peripheral vascular disease is one of the major vascular complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and in the elderly that is associated with significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy is being tested as an attractive alternative to traditional surgery to prevent and treat this disorder. The goal of this study was to enhance the protective and reparative potential of marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells by incorporating them within a bio-inspired construct (BIC) made of two layers of gelatin B electrospun nanofibers...
February 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#7
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194536/the-role-of-vasculature-in-bone-development-regeneration-and-proper-systemic-functioning
#8
REVIEW
Joanna Filipowska, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Łukasz Niedźwiedzki, Jerzy A Walocha, Tadeusz Niedźwiedzki
Bone is a richly vascularized connective tissue. As the main source of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors delivered to the bone cells, vasculature is indispensable for appropriate bone development, regeneration and remodeling. Bone vasculature also orchestrates the process of hematopoiesis. Blood supply to the skeletal system is provided by the networks of arteries and arterioles, having distinct molecular characteristics and localizations within the bone structures. Blood vessels of the bone develop through the process of angiogenesis, taking place through different, bone-specific mechanisms...
February 13, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190920/acute-alloxan-renal-toxicity-in-the-rat-initially-causes-degeneration-of-thick-ascending-limbs-of-henle
#9
Yui Terayama, Yasushi Kodama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Alloxan (AL) is a material well-known to induce diabetes. Prior to inducing a prolonged diabetic state, AL causes acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, the precise primary target site and mechanism of its nephrotoxicity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics relevant to acute renal toxicity following AL administration. Rats were intravenously treated with AL. Eight hours after AL treatment, aquaporin 1-negative and Na/K pump-positive thick ascending limbs of Henle (TAL) were degenerated in the outer medulla...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178616/hypoglycemic-effects-of-prunus-cerasus-l-pulp-and-seed-extracts-on-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-with-histopathological-evaluation
#10
Fatima A Saleh, Nada El-Darra, Karim Raafat
AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken to investigate the acute and subchronic hypoglycemic effects of an ethyl acetate (EtAc) extract of red sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) pulps and seeds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Prunus cerasus pulp (PPc) and seed (SPc) EtAc extract s were IP-administered to the mice in doses of 100, 150 and 200mg/kgbody weight (b.w.) for acute study (6h) and subchronic study (8days). The in vivo effects of (PPc) and (SPc) EtAc extracts were assessed through blood glucose levels (BGL), changes in body weight as well as antioxidant enzyme activity...
February 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176937/an-integrated-perspective-on-diabetic-alcoholic-and-drug-induced-neuropathy-etiology-and-treatment-in-the-us
#11
REVIEW
Lily Zeng, Doungkamol Alongkronrusmee, Richard M van Rijn
Neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a syndrome that results from damaged nerves and/or aberrant regeneration. Common etiologies of neuropathy include chronic illnesses and medication use. Chronic disorders, such as diabetes and alcoholism, can cause neuronal injury and consequently NeuP. Certain medications with antineoplastic effects also carry an exquisitely high risk for neuropathy. These culprits are a few of many that are fueling the NeuP epidemic, which currently affects 7%-10% of the population. It has been estimated that approximately 10% and 7% of US adults carry a diagnosis of diabetes and alcohol disorder, respectively...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152182/reprogramming-of-pancreatic-acinar-cells-to-functional-beta-cells-by-in-vivo-transduction-of-a-polycistronic-construct-containing-pdx1-ngn3-mafa-in-mice
#12
C Cavelti-Weder, A Zumsteg, W Li, Q Zhou
To generate new beta cells after birth is a key focus of regenerative medicine, which could greatly aid the major health burden of diabetes. Beta-cell regeneration has been described using four different approaches: (1) the development of beta cells from putative precursor cells of the adult pancreas, which is termed neogenesis, (2) replication of existing beta cells, (3) differentiation from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, and (4) reprogramming of non-beta cells to beta cells. Studies from the authors' laboratory have shown that beta-cell reprogramming can be achieved by transduction of adult pancreatic tissues with viral constructs containing the three developmentally important transcription factors Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA...
February 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137665/diabetic-microangiopathy-pathogenetic-insights-and-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Rosalinda Madonna, Carmela Rita Balistreri, Yong-Jian Geng, Raffaele De Caterina
Diabetic microangiopathy, including retinopathy, is characterized by abnormal growth and leakage of small blood vessels, resulting in local edema and functional impairment of the depending tissues. Mechanisms leading to the impairment of microcirculation in diabetes are multiple and still largely unclear. However, a dysregulated vascular regeneration appears to play a key role. In addition, oxidative and hyperosmolar stress, as well as the activation of inflammatory pathways triggered by advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors, have been recognized as key underlying events...
January 28, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135283/the-spleen-is-an-ideal-site-for-inducing-transplanted-islet-graft-expansion-in-mice
#14
Takeshi Itoh, Hitomi Nishinakamura, Kenjiro Kumano, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Shohta Kodama
Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1)+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV), beneath the kidney capsule (KC), or into the spleen (SP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122008/compromised-neurotrophic-and-angiogenic-regenerative-capability-during-tendon-healing-in-a-rat-model-of-type-ii-diabetes
#15
Aisha S Ahmed, Jian Li, Alim M D Abdul, Mahmood Ahmed, Claes-Göran Östenson, Paul T Salo, Carolyn Hewitt, David A Hart, Paul W Ackermann
Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type-II (DM-II) may increase the risk of suffering painful connective tissue disorders and tendon ruptures. The pathomechanisms, however, by which diabetes adversely affects connective tissue matrix metabolism and regeneration, still need better definition. Our aim was to study the effect of DM-II on expressional changes of neuro- and angiotrophic mediators and receptors in intact and healing Achilles tendon. The right Achilles tendon was transected in 5 male DM-II Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and 4 age-matched Wistar control rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#16
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091556/vegf-b-promotes-recovery-of-corneal-innervations-and-trophic-functions-in-diabetic-mice
#17
Guohu Di, Xiaowen Zhao, Xia Qi, Songmei Zhang, Lu Feng, Weiyun Shi, Qingjun Zhou
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B possesses the capacity of promoting injured peripheral nerve regeneration and restore their sensory and trophic functions. However, the contribution and mechanism of VEGF-B in diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and role of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal neuropathy by using type 1 diabetic mice and cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Hyperglycemia attenuated the endogenous expression of VEGF-B in regenerated diabetic corneal epithelium, but not that of VEGF receptors in diabetic TG neurons and axons...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069556/regeneration-of-bone-using-nanoplex-delivery-of-fgf-2-and-bmp-2-genes-in-diaphyseal-long-bone-radial-defects-in-a-diabetic-rabbit-model
#20
Behnoush Khorsand, Nate Nicholson, Anh-Vu Do, John E Femino, James A Martin, Emily Petersen, Brian Guetschow, Douglas C Fredericks, Aliasger K Salem
Bone fracture healing impairment related to systemic diseases such as diabetes can be addressed by growth factor augmentation. We previously reported that growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) work synergistically to encourage osteogenesis in vitro. In this report, we investigated if BMP-2 and FGF-2 together can synergistically promote bone repair in a leporine model of diabetes mellitus, a condition that is known to be detrimental to union. We utilized two kinds of plasmid DNA encoding either BMP-2 or FGF-2 formulated into polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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