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Diabetes regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#1
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808393/evaluation-of-the-antidiabetic-properties-of-s-1708-mulberry-variety
#2
Brijesh Ranjan, Randhir Kumar, Neeraj Verma, Swati Mittal, Pranab Lal Pakrasi, R Venkatesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals. AIM: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of mulberry leaf extract in diabetic mice...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#3
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#4
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803863/epidermal-e-cadherin-dependent-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-is-phytochemical-inducible-and-accelerates-anagen-hair-cycling
#5
Noha S Ahmed, Subhadip Ghatak, Mohamed S El Masry, Surya C Gnyawali, Sashwati Roy, Mohamed Amer, Helen Everts, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793255/%C3%AE-e-catenin-is-a-positive-regulator-of-pancreatic-islet-cell-lineage-differentiation
#6
Antonio J Jimenez-Caliani, Rudolf Pillich, Wendy Yang, Giuseppe R Diaferia, Paolo Meda, Laura Crisa, Vincenzo Cirulli
The development and function of epithelia depend on the establishment and maintenance of cell-cell adhesion and intercellular junctions, which operate as mechanosensor hubs for the transduction of biochemical signals regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration. Here, we show that αE-catenin, a key component of adherens junctions, functions as a positive regulator of pancreatic islet cell lineage differentiation by repressing the sonic hedgehog pathway (SHH). Thus, deletion of αE-catenin in multipotent pancreatic progenitors resulted in (1) loss of adherens junctions, (2) constitutive activation of SHH, (3) decrease in islet cell lineage differentiation, and (4) accumulation of immature Sox9(+) progenitors...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772877/protein-based-drug-delivery-materials
#7
REVIEW
Dave Jao, Ye Xue, Jethro Medina, Xiao Hu
There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability...
May 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772271/remission-phase-in-paediatric-type-1-diabetes-new-understanding-and-emerging-biomarkers
#8
Mireia Fonolleda, Marta Murillo, Federico Vázquez, Joan Bel, Marta Vives-Pi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease of unknown aetiology that results from the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells. Clinical onset with classic hyperglycaemic symptoms occurs much more frequently in children and young adults, when less than 30% of β-cells remain. Exogenous insulin administration is the only treatment for patients. However, due to glucose dysregulation, severe complications develop gradually. Recently, an increase in T1D incidence has been reported worldwide, especially in children...
August 3, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771574/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-exercise-on-mrna-expression-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-two-mouse-models-of-peripheral-artery-disease
#9
Hiroki Nagase, Shuhei Yao, Shota Ikeda
Endurance exercise improves walking performance in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is characterized by skeletal muscle dysfunction caused by lower extremity ischemia. Although transcriptional analyses of exercise-induced changes in normal animals and healthy volunteers have been reported, no detailed study has explored exercise-induced alterations in gene expression in PAD animal models. Here, we determined the acute and chronic effects of exercise on mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of two mouse models of PAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765836/muscle-stem-cell-and-physical-activity-what-point-is-the-debate-at
#11
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Laura Benedetti, Maria Luisa Arcari, Cecilia Carubbi, Daniela Galli
In the last 15 years, it emerged that the practice of regular physical activity reduces the risks of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.) and it is fundamental in weight control and energy consuming to contrast obesity. Different groups proposed many molecular mechanisms as responsible for the positive effects of physical activity in healthy life. However, many points remain to be clarified. In this mini-review we reported the latest observations on the effects of physical exercise on healthy skeletal and cardiac muscle focusing on muscle stem cells...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763258/cyclin-d2-is-sufficient-to-drive-beta-cell-self-renewal-and-regeneration
#12
Shuen-Ing Tschen, Chun Zeng, Loren Field, Sangeeta Dhawan, Anil Bhushan, Senta Georgia
Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (Type I diabetes) or beta cell failure in response to insulin resistance (Type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster beta cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal beta cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal...
August 1, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762248/engineering-brown-fat-into-skeletal-muscle-using-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-gene-delivery-in-obese-zucker-rats-proof-of-concept-design
#13
Raul A Bastarrachea, Jiaxi Chen, Jack W Kent, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Marcel M Daadi, Barbara Jorge, Hugo Laviada-Molina, Anthony G Comuzzie, Shuyuan Chen, Paul A Grayburn
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice...
July 31, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753672/an-increase-in-immature-%C3%AE-cells-lacking-glut2-precedes-the-expansion-of-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-the-pregnant-mouse
#14
Christine A Beamish, Linhao Zhang, Sandra K Szlapinski, Brenda J Strutt, David J Hill
A compensatory increase in β-cell mass occurs during pregnancy to counter the associated insulin resistance, and a failure in adaptation is thought to contribute to gestational diabetes. Insulin-expressing but glucose-transporter-2-low (Ins+Glut2LO) progenitor cells are present in mouse and human pancreas, being predominantly located in extra-islet β-cell clusters, and contribute to the regeneration of the endocrine pancreas following induced ablation. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of Ins+Glut2LO cells to β-cell mass expansion during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744119/spatiotemporal-delivery-of-nanoformulated-liraglutide-for-cardiac-regeneration-after-myocardial-infarction
#15
Quan Qi, Lei Lu, Haiqing Li, Zhize Yuan, Gaoxian Chen, Miao Lin, Zhengwen Ruan, Xiaofeng Ye, Zeyu Xiao, Qiang Zhao
The local, intramyocardial injection of proteins into the infarcted heart is an attractive option to initiate cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). Liraglutide, which was developed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, has been implicated as one of the most promising protein candidates in cardiac regeneration. A significant challenge to the therapeutic use of this protein is its short half-life in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects and long-term retention of liraglutide loaded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NP-liraglutide) on experimental MI...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720074/regeneration-of-long-distance-peripheral-nerve-defects-after-delayed-reconstruction-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats-is-supported-by-immunomodulatory-chitosan-nerve-guides
#16
Lena Stenberg, Maria Stößel, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano Geuna, Yaobin Yin, Susanne Mommert, Lisa Mårtensson, Jennifer Metzen, Claudia Grothe, Lars B Dahlin, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
BACKGROUND: Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes...
July 18, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719032/the-effect-of-experimental-diabetes-and-glycaemic-control-on-guided-bone-regeneration-histology-and-gene-expression-analyses
#17
M Retzepi, E Calciolari, I Wall, M P Lewis, N Donos
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of experimental diabetes and metabolic control on intramembranous bone healing following guided bone regeneration (GBR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-three Wistar rats were allocated to three experimental groups, healthy (H), uncontrolled diabetes (D) and controlled diabetes (CD). Twenty one days following diabetes induction, a standardised 5-mm defect was created at the mid-portion of each parietal bone. In 75 animals (25H, 25D, 25CD), one defect was treated with an intracranial and extracranial membrane according to the GBR principle, and one defect was left empty (control); five animals per group were then randomly sacrificed at 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and processed for decalcified histology...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713016/a-conducive-bioceramic-polymer-composite-biomaterial-for-diabetic-wound-healing
#18
Fang Lv, Jie Wang, Peng Xu, Yiming Han, Hongshi Ma, He Xu, Shijie Chen, Jiang Chang, Qinfei Ke, Mingyao Liu, Zhengfang Yi, Chengtie Wu
Diabetic wound is a common complication of diabetes. Biomaterials offer great promise in inducing tissue regeneration for chronic wound healing. Herein, we reported a conducive Poly (caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin nanofibrous composite scaffold containing silicate-based bioceramic particles (Nagelschmidtite, NAGEL, Ca7P2Si2O16) for diabetic wound healing. NAGEL bioceramic particles were well distributed in the inner of PCL/gelatin nanofibers via co-electrospinning process and the Si ions maintained a sustained release from the composite scaffolds during the degradation process...
July 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710530/proteomic-characterisation-reveals-active-wnt-signalling-by-human-multipotent-stromal-cells-as-a-key-regulator-of-beta-cell-survival-and-proliferation
#19
Miljan Kuljanin, Gillian I Bell, Stephen E Sherman, Gilles A Lajoie, David A Hess
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of beta cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the secretome of human bone marrow (BM)-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) with documented islet regenerative paracrine function. We hypothesised that regenerative MSCs will secrete a unique combination of protein factors that augment islet regeneration. METHODS: Human BM-derived MSCs were examined for glucose-lowering capacity after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and segregated into samples with regenerative (MSC(R)) vs nonregenerative (MSC(NR)) capacity...
July 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702122/gaba-signaling-stimulates-%C3%AE-cell-mediated-%C3%AE-like-cell-neogenesis
#20
Tiziana Napolitano, Fabio Avolio, Andhira Vieira, Nouha Ben-Othman, Monica Courtney, Elisabet Gjernes, Biljana Hadzic, Noémie Druelle, Sergi Navarro Sanz, Serena Silvano, Ahmed Mansouri, Patrick Collombat
Diabetes is a chronic and progressing disease, the number of patients increasing exponentially, especially in industrialized countries. Regenerating lost insulin-producing cells would represent a promising therapeutic alternative for most diabetic patients. To this end, using the mouse as a model, we reported that GABA, a food supplement, could induce insulin-producing beta-like cell neogenesis offering an attractive and innovative approach for diabetes therapeutics.
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
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